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Despite consensus that personality influences mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) recovery, it has been underexamined. We evaluated the extent to which diverse personality and psychiatric symptom dimensions predict mTBI recovery.
This prospective cohort study involved psychological assessments of hospital patients with mTBI (n = 75; median = 2 days post-injury, range = 0–12 days) and orthopedic trauma controls (OTC; n = 79) who were used for comparison in mediation modeling. Chronic symptoms were evaluated at 3 months after mTBI (n = 50) using the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) symptom checklist. Linear regression analyses were used to identify the predominant predictors of chronic symptoms in mTBI. Modern mediation analyses tested the hypothesis that personality traits predict chronic symptoms through acute psychological response to injury.
In mTBI, trait psychoticism directly predicted chronic mTBI symptoms and was the strongest personality predictor overall. Furthermore, an internalizing personality dimension emphasizing negative affect/emotionality and detachment predicted chronic mTBI symptoms indirectly through enhancement of acute somatic complaints. In OTC, internalizing personality acted through the same mediator as in mTBI, whereas the effect of psychoticism was also mediated through acute somatic complaints. There was varying support for a moderated direct effect of personality traits at low levels of positive emotionality across models.
These causal models provide novel insights about the role of personality in mTBI symptom recovery, highlighting the complexity of how psychological processes may interact to affect recovery and revealing that some of these processes may be non-specific to brain injury.
The direct carbonate procedure for accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14C) dating of submilligram samples of biogenic carbonate without graphitization is becoming widely used in a variety of studies. We compare the results of 153 paired direct carbonate and standard graphite 14C determinations on single specimens of an assortment of biogenic carbonates. A reduced major axis regression shows a strong relationship between direct carbonate and graphite percent Modern Carbon (pMC) values (m = 0.996; 95% CI [0.991–1.001]). An analysis of differences and a 95% confidence interval on pMC values reveals that there is no significant difference between direct carbonate and graphite pMC values for 76% of analyzed specimens, although variation in direct carbonate pMC is underestimated. The difference between the two methods is typically within 2 pMC, with 61% of direct carbonate pMC measurements being higher than their paired graphite counterpart. Of the 36 specimens that did yield significant differences, all but three missed the 95% significance threshold by 1.2 pMC or less. These results show that direct carbonate 14C dating of biogenic carbonates is a cost-effective and efficient complement to standard graphite 14C dating.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
Sleep quantity and quality are associated with executive function (EF) in experimental studies, and in individuals with sleep disorders. With advancing age, sleep quantity and quality decline, as does the ability to perform EF tasks, suggesting that sleep disruption may contribute to age-related EF declines. This cross-sectional cohort study tested the hypothesis that poorer sleep quality (i.e., the frequency and duration of awakenings) and/or quantity may partly account for age-related EF deficits.
Community-dwelling older adults (N = 184) completed actigraphic sleep monitoring then a range of EF tasks. Two EF factors were extracted using exploratory structural equation modeling. Sleep variables did not mediate the relationship between age and EF factors. Post hoc moderated mediation analyses were conducted to test whether cognitive reserve compensates for sleep-related EF deficits, using years of education as a proxy measure of cognitive reserve.
We found a significant interaction between cognitive reserve and the number and frequency of awakenings, explaining a small (approximately 3%), but significant amount of variance in EF. Specifically, in individuals with fewer than 11 years of education, greater sleep disturbance was associated with poorer EF, but sleep did not impact EF in those with more education. There was no association between age and sleep quantity.
This study highlights the role of cognitive reserve in the sleep–EF relationship, suggesting individuals with greater cognitive reserve may be able to counter the impact of disturbed sleep on EF. Therefore, improving sleep may confer some protection against EF deficits in vulnerable older adults.
Children with CHD who undergo cardiopulmonary bypass are at an increased risk of acute kidney injury. This study evaluated the association of end-organ specific injury plasma biomarkers for brain: glial fibrillary acidic protein and heart: Galectin 3, soluble suppression of tumorgenicity 2, and N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide with acute kidney injury in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.
Materials and Methods:
We enrolled consecutive children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Blood samples were collected pre-bypass in the operating room and in the immediate post-operative period. Acute kidney injury was defined as a rise of serum creatinine ≥50% from pre-operative baseline within 7 days after surgery.
Overall, 162 children (mean age 4.05 years, sd 5.28 years) were enrolled. Post-operative acute kidney injury developed in 55 (34%) children. Post-operative plasma glial fibrillary acidic protein levels were significantly higher in patients with acute kidney injury (median 0.154 (inter-quartile range 0.059–0.31) ng/ml) compared to those without acute kidney injury (median 0.056 (inter-quartile range 0.001–0.125) ng/ml) (p = 0.043). After adjustment for age, weight, and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery category, each natural log increase in post-operative glial fibrillary acidic protein was significantly associated with a higher risk for subsequent acute kidney injury (adjusted odds ratio glial fibrillary acidic protein 1.25; 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.59). Pre/post-operative levels of galectin 3, soluble suppression of tumorgenicity 2, and N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide did not significantly differ between patients with and without acute kidney injury.
Higher plasma glial fibrillary acidic protein levels measured in the immediate post-operative period were independently associated with subsequent acute kidney injury in children after cardiopulmonary bypass. Elevated glial fibrillary acidic protein likely reflects intraoperative brain injury which may occur in the context of acute kidney injury-associated end-organ dysfunction.
Along with data about actual, desired, and anticipated job characteristics, this paper uses a novel data element, the subjective conditional probability of working at age 70, to estimate the causal effects of job characteristics on retirement in the United States. Having flexible work hours is the most consistent predictor of retirement preferences and expectations: if all current workers had flexible hours, the fraction working at age 70 would be 0.322, but it would be just 0.172 if none had this option. Job stress, physical, and cognitive job demands, the option to telecommute, and commuting times were additional predictors of retirement expectations.
Pregnant women who are overweight/obese are particularly vulnerable to vitamin D insufficiency owing to higher physiological requirements and lower status (25(OH)D concentrations) associated with obesity. Achieving adequate maternal vitamin D status with current recommendations (10μg/d) remains controversial.
This study examined supplementation effects (10μg-vs-20μg vitamin D3/d) throughout pregnancy (12 weeks gestation until delivery) on vitamin D status of normal weight, overweight and obese pregnant women and on cord blood, using a double-blind randomised vitamin D intervention study (MO-VITD). 240 pregnant women were recruited throughout the year at antenatal clinics in Northern Ireland (equal numbers of normal weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2), and obese (> 30kg/m2)). Non-fasting maternal blood samples were collected at 12, 28 and 34–36 weeks gestation and from the umbilical cord after delivery and analysed for total serum 25(OH)D using LCMS.
A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (25–50nmol/L) was found in the 1st trimester in both treatment groups (41.5% and 48.8%; 10μg vs. 20μg respectively). Maternal 25(OH)D concentrations increased from the 1st to 3rd trimester in both the 10μg/d and 20μg/d groups, with a higher increase in the 20μg group (17.1 ± 24.7 and 28.8 ± 33.3nmol/L, P = 0.002). There was no difference in cord blood 25(OH)D concentrations between treatment groups.
Women who started pregnancy with insufficient 25(OH)D concentrations remained insufficient throughout pregnancy in the 10μg/d group (49.9 ± 28.2nmol/L at trimester 3). In the 20μg/d group, women starting pregnancy as insufficient achieved levels of sufficiency in the 2nd (58.9 ± 30.6nmol/L) and 3rd (64.0 ± 35.9nmol/L) trimesters. Women who started pregnancy with sufficient vitamin D status (25(OH)D > 50nmol/L), maintained levels of sufficiency throughout pregnancy irrespective of treatment group (83.1 ± 24.4 and 96.7 ± 30.7 at trimester 3 in 10μg/d and 20 μg/d groups respectively); findings were similar across all BMI categories.
Obese women who started pregnancy with an insufficient status were found to have deficient cord blood (25(OH)D < 25 nmol/L) in both the 10μg/d and 20μg/d groups (19.4 ± 20.2 vs. 19.5 ± 9.4nmol/L respectively), whilst obese women who started pregnancy with sufficient status (> 50nmol/L) had cord blood concentrations considered insufficient (40.2 ± 18.4 vs. 44.2 ± 15.6nmol/L; 10μg vs. 20μg groups respectively).
Based on our findings of the high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in early pregnancy, maternal vitamin D supplementation of 20μg/d is advisable to maintain maternal vitamin D status in pregnant women in Northern Ireland.
Maternal BMI has been shown to be inversely correlated with vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations) during pregnancy. Pregnant women with obesity and with vitamin D deficiency are at risk of many adverse health outcomes in pregnancy.
The aim of this study was to examine differences in maternal vitamin D status across normal weight, overweight and obese pregnant women in early pregnancy.
Data collected at baseline from a double-blind randomised vitamin D intervention study (MO-VITD) were used. Pregnant women without pregnancy complications, aged > 18 years and having a singleton pregnancy were recruited between January 2016 and August 2017 at antenatal clinics in the Western Health and Social Care Trust, Northern Ireland. Non-fasting blood samples were collected at 12 weeks gestation and analysed for total serum 25(OH)D, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Data from 239 pregnant women (80 normal weight, 79 overweight, 80 obese) were included in the current analysis.
The mean ± SD 25(OH)D concentration of all pregnant women at 12 weeks gestation was 52.0 ± 21.6 nmol/L. Women classed as obese or overweight had significantly lower 25(OH)D concentrations compared to women of normal weight (48.8 ± 20.3 vs 49.8 ± 20.4 vs. 57.5 ± 23.1 nmol/L, P = 0.019; obese, overweight, normal weight respectively). A total of 45% of all pregnant women were found to be either vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D < 25nmol/L; 13%) or insufficient (25–50 nmol/L; 32%) in early pregnancy. BMI was significantly negatively correlated with 25(OH)D concentrations (r = -0.168; P = 0.009). Regression analyses showed that BMI (β = -0.165; P = 0.006), season (β = 0.220; P = < 0.0001), supplement use (β = -0.268; P < 0.0001) and a sun holiday within the previous 6 months (β = -0.180; P = 0.010) were significant predictors of 25(OH)D concentrations. In early pregnancy, 62% of pregnant women reported using a supplement containing vitamin D and 38% reported no supplement use. Supplement users had a significantly higher vitamin D status than non-supplement users in all BMI categories but overall, 37% of supplement users were still classified as vitamin D insufficient. Vitamin D status was significantly lower in winter months compared to summer months. In early pregnancy, especially during winter months, pregnant women with obesity, particularly non-supplement users, are at higher risk of low vitamin D status. Based on the lower vitamin D status observed in early pregnancy in obese women, the effect of BMI on vitamin D supplementation throughout pregnancy needs to be examined.
Hand hygiene compliance rates were estimated using direct observations. An AHHMS, installed on 4 nursing units in a sequential manner, determined hand hygiene performance rates, expressed as the number of hand hygiene events performed upon entering and exiting patient rooms divided by the number of room entries and exits. Additional strategies implemented to improve hand hygiene included goal setting, hospital leadership support, feeding AHHMS data back to healthcare personnel, and use of Toyota Kata performance improvement methods. HAIs were defined using National Healthcare Safety Network criteria.
Hand hygiene compliance rates generated by direct observation were substantially higher than performance rates generated by the AHHMS. Installation of the AHHMS without supplementary activities did not yield sustained improvement in hand hygiene performance rates. Implementing several supplementary strategies resulted in a statistically significant 85% increase in hand hygiene performance rates (P < .0001). The incidence density of non–Clostridioies difficile HAIs decreased by 56% (P = .0841), while C. difficile infections increased by 60% (P = .0533) driven by 2 of the 4 study units.
Implementation of an AHHMS, when combined with several supplementary strategies as part of a multimodal program, resulted in significantly improved hand hygiene performance rates. Reductions in non–C. difficile HAIs occurred but were not statistically significant.
We observed pediatric S. aureus hospitalizations decreased 36% from 26.3 to 16.8 infections per 1,000 admissions from 2009 to 2016, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) decreasing by 52% and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus decreasing by 17%, among 39 pediatric hospitals. Similar decreases were observed for days of therapy of anti-MRSA antibiotics.
The origins of agriculture in South-west Asia is a topic of continued archaeological debate. Of particular interest is how agricultural populations and practices spread inter-regionally. Was the Arabian Neolithic, for example, spread through the movement of pastoral groups, or did ideas perhaps develop independently? Here, the authors report on recent excavations at Alshabah, one of the first Neolithic sites discovered in Northern Arabia. The site’s material culture, environmental context and chronology provide evidence suggesting that well-adapted, seasonally mobile, pastoralist groups played a key role in the Neolithisation of the Arabian Peninsula.
Children with CHD and acquired heart disease have unique, high-risk physiology. They may have a higher risk of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events, as compared with children with non-cardiac disease.
Materials and methods
We sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in children with cardiac disease compared to children with non-cardiac disease. A retrospective analysis of tracheal intubations from 38 international paediatric ICUs was performed using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) quality improvement registry. The primary outcome was the occurrence of any tracheal-intubation-associated event. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events, multiple intubation attempts, and oxygen desaturation.
A total of 8851 intubations were reported between July, 2012 and March, 2016. Cardiac patients were younger, more likely to have haemodynamic instability, and less likely to have respiratory failure as an indication. The overall frequency of tracheal-intubation-associated events was not different (cardiac: 17% versus non-cardiac: 16%, p=0.13), nor was the rate of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events (cardiac: 7% versus non-cardiac: 6%, p=0.11). Tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest occurred more often in cardiac patients (2.80 versus 1.28%; p<0.001), even after adjusting for patient and provider differences (adjusted odds ratio 1.79; p=0.03). Multiple intubation attempts occurred less often in cardiac patients (p=0.04), and oxygen desaturations occurred more often, even after excluding patients with cyanotic heart disease.
The overall incidence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in cardiac patients was not different from that in non-cardiac patients. However, the presence of a cardiac diagnosis was associated with a higher occurrence of both tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest and oxygen desaturation.
Stonehenge is a site that continues to yield surprises. Excavation in 2009 added a new and unexpected feature: a smaller, dismantled stone circle on the banks of the River Avon, connected to Stonehenge itself by the Avenue. This new structure has been labelled ‘Bluestonehenge’ from the evidence that it once held a circle of bluestones that were later removed to Stonehenge. Investigation of the Avenue closer to Stonehenge revealed deep periglacial fissures within it. Their alignment on Stonehenge's solstitial axis (midwinter sunset–midsummer sunrise) raises questions about the early origins of this ritual landscape.
Clover inclusion may increase the sustainability of certain low-maintenance turfgrasses. However, selective weed control within mixed turfgrass–clover swards proves problematic because of clover susceptibility to herbicides. Research was conducted to identify common turf herbicides that are tolerated by three Trifolium species, including white clover, ball clover, and small hop clover, within low-maintenance turfgrass. Leaf and flower density, as well as plant height, were measured 4 wk after treatment as indicators of clover response to 14 herbicides. The three Trifolium spp. were moderately tolerant of bentazon (< 35% decrease in leaf density, height, or flowering). Simazine was well tolerated by white clover (< 5% decrease in all response variables), yet moderate injury to ball clover and small hop clover was observed (> 32% decrease in leaf density and > 27% decrease in flower density). Pronamide was well tolerated by white and ball clovers, with no effect on measured response variables; however, pronamide decreased small hop clover height and flower density (38 and 42%, respectively). Imazethapyr and imazamox were moderately well tolerated by white clover and small hop clover (< 39% decrease by all response variables), yet ball clover may be more susceptible to these herbicides than was anticipated based on previously reported tolerance. The herbicides 2,4-DB, halosulfuron, and metribuzin were well tolerated by white clover, with no effect on measured response variables; however, results suggest ball and small hop clovers were less tolerant. Clopyralid, 2,4-D, glyphosate, imazaquin, metsulfuron-methyl, and nicosulfuron resulted in varying degrees of injury across clover species and response variables, but, in general, these herbicides may not be viable options when attempting to maintain any of the three clover species tested. Further research is needed to quantify long-term effects of herbicide application on sward composition and clover succession.
We aimed to study the fate of fat during digestion. For this purpose, we validated and investigated the non-invasive quantification of gastric and duodenal fat emptying and emulsion processing (creaming and phase separation) using the MRI method iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares estimation (IDEAL). In total, twelve healthy subjects were studied on two separate visits in a single-blind, randomised, cross-over design study. IDEAL was utilised to repeatedly acquire quantitative fat fraction maps of the gastrointestinal tract after infusion of one of two fat emulsions: E1 (acid stable, droplet size 0·33 mm) and E4 (acid unstable, 0·38 mm). In vitro and in vivo validation was carried out using diluted emulsion and gastric content samples, respectively, and resulted in Lin’s concordance correlation coefficients of 1·00 (95 % CI 0·98, 1·00) and 0·91 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·94), respectively. Fat fraction maps and intragastric emulsion profiles enabled the identification of features of intraluminal phase separation and creaming that were not visible in conventional MRI. Gastric fat emptying was faster for E4 compared with E1 with a difference of 2·5 (95 % CI 1·9, 3·1) ml/h. Duodenal content volumes were larger for E1 than for E4 with a difference of 4·9 (95 % CI 3·9, 8·5) ml. This study demonstrated that with IDEAL it was possible (1) to visualise the intragastric and duodenal fat distribution and (2) to quantify the differences in emptying, phase separation and creaming of an acid-stable and an acid-unstable emulsion. This method has potential to bridge the gap between current in vitro digestive models and in vivo behaviour and to be applied in the development of effective functional foods.
Aminocyclopyrachlor (AMCP) is a synthetic auxin herbicide used for broadleaf
weed control in pasture and rangeland. The tolerance and fate of AMCP within
pertinent grass species is not well understood. Research was conducted to
establish the tolerance of four grass species to AMCP application and
observe their absorption, translocation, and metabolism. Results indicate
that tall fescue is the most tolerant of AMCP at rates required for weed
control. Bahiagrass and bermudagrass are marginally tolerant, and cogongrass
is the most sensitive. Tall fescue and bahiagrass absorbed more AMCP than
bermudagrass and cogongrass, but cogongrass absorption is the most rapid and
complete within 2 days after treatment (DAT). Cogongrass and bermudagrass
translocated the least amount out of the target area, whereas bahiagrass and
tall fescue translocated the most. Radioisotope imaging revealed that tall
fescue may sequester absorbed AMCP in leaf tips. This sequestering may be
the basis of the greater tolerance to AMCP by tall fescue relative to the
other species evaluated. No metabolism of AMCP was detected in any grass
species out to 42 DAT.
Antimicrobial stewardship programs are increasingly recognized as critical in optimizing the use of antimicrobials. Consequently, more physicians, pharmacists, and other healthcare providers are developing and implementing such programs in a variety of healthcare settings. The purpose of this guidance document is to outline the knowledge and skills that are needed to lead an antimicrobial stewardship program. It was developed by antimicrobial stewardship experts from organizations that are engaged in advancing the field of antimicrobial stewardship.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(12):1444–1451
Successful outcome from surgery does not come about because of a surgeon’s encyclopaedic knowledge of surgical conditions, nor from his or her masterly ability as a technical operator, although both of these components surely contribute. Good outcome is the result of multiple factors within a team framework, all contributing to the end result of surgery. Implicit within these constituents is the close relationship between the surgeon and the anaesthetist and the understanding each has of the complexities and difficulties with which the other might have to contend throughout the period of an operation, which includes the pre- and post-operative phases.
This book serves to inform surgeons of the intricacies and minutiae of anaesthesia in all aspects, ranging from day care local anaesthesia to cardiac bypass techniques. It is comprehensive and yet eminently readable and informative. The early chapters on basic physiology, combined with later chapters on fluids and commonly used drugs and dosages are fundamental to any trainee or practising surgeon and are beautifully composed. To miss these gems would be akin to ignoring the basic science lectures that are so important in the understanding of all medicine and surgery.
Subsequent chapters relate to specialty specific surgical fields and are particularly interesting and suitably detailed. In addition, there are chapters on associated subjects such as enhanced recovery, post-operative cognitive dysfunction and medico-legal aspects of consent. The editors have gone to considerable trouble to find authors with the specific knowledge and interests to produce a concise and yet wide-ranging book, which leaves the surgical reader admirably informed about his or her colleague’s armamentarium of anaesthetic approaches, potential pitfalls and rescue strategies.