Contrast enhancement on computerized tomography (CT) scans has been used in directing therapy for presumed intracranial gliomas. However, for moderately anaplastic astrocytomas (MOAAS) and highly anaplastic astrocytomas (HAAS), it provides no information about proliferative potential. The bromodeoxyuridine (BUDR) labeling index (LI), however, indicates proliferative potential, correlating with histologic malignancy and survival. An LI < 1% is a favorable indicator; LI > 5% suggests more aggressiveness. To determine the correlation, if any, between BUDR LI and contrast enhancement, CT scans of 71 patients with cerebral hemisphere tumors labeled with BUDR were retrospectively reviewed. Among 36 MOAAS, the BUDR LI was < 1% in 77% of enhanced tumors and 61% of unenhanced tumors. Among 35 HAAS, it was < 5% in 56% of enhanced tumors and 90% of unenhanced tumors. Therefore, contrast enhancement on CT scans does not always correctly predict proliferative potential in these tumors, and biopsy and labeling studies are recommended before therapy.