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Antidepressants have been proposed to act via their influence on emotional processing. We investigated the effect of discontinuing maintenance antidepressant treatment on positive and negative self-referential recall and the association between self-referential recall and risk of relapse.
The ANTLER trial was a large (N = 478) pragmatic double-blind trial investigating the clinical effectiveness of long-term antidepressant treatment for preventing relapse in primary care patients. Participants were randomised to continue their maintenance antidepressants or discontinue via a taper to placebo. We analysed memory for positive and negative personality descriptors, assessed at baseline, 12- and 52-week follow-up.
The recall task was completed by 437 participants. There was no evidence of an effect of discontinuation on self-referential recall at 12 [positive recall ratio 1.00, 95% CI (0.90–1.11), p = 0.93; negative recall ratio 1.00 (0.87–1.14), p = 0.87] or 52 weeks [positive recall ratio 1.03 (0.91–1.17), p = 0.62; negative recall ratio 1.00 (0.86–1.15), p = 0.96; ratios larger than one indicate higher recall in the discontinuation group], and no evidence of an association between recall at baseline or 12 weeks and later relapse [baseline, positive hazard ratio (HR) 1.02 (0.93–1.12), p = 0.74; negative HR 1.01 (0.90–1.13), p = 0.87; 12 weeks, positive HR 0.99 (0.89–1.09), p = 0.81; negative HR 0.98 (0.84–1.14), p = 0.78; ratios larger than one indicate a higher frequency of relapse in those with higher recall].
We found no evidence that discontinuing long-term antidepressants altered self-referential recall or that self-referential recall was associated with risk of relapse. These findings suggest that self-referential recall is not a neuropsychological marker of antidepressant action.
The Trade Union movement enters the 1990s at the height of its political strength. The Accord relationship has proved to be flexible enough to accommodate the political and economic needs of both Accord partners. The trade union movement’s strategy for the 1990s has been formulated within the protective umbrella of the Accord.
The trade union movement has both a vision of the future and an ambitious set of strategies aimed at securing its position within Australian society. The key challenge facing the movement is the reversal of the decline in trade union participation rates. Trade union amalgamation leading to the creation of 20 large efficient union federations will generate scale economies which will free up resources for recruitment campaigns and additional services.
The strategy of the trade union movement requires critical examination in the light of structural changes to the economy, the diversity of the labour market and new management approaches to human resource management. These factors require that unions adopt a number of diverse strategies to secure the future of the union movement. New and more decentralised union structures may be required to unionise workers in non-traditional areas. The union movement needs to constantly review its strategies to ensure they remain relevant to changing realities.
Discover a fresh take on classical screw theory and understand the geometry embedded within robots and mechanisms with this essential text. The book begins with a geometrical study of points, lines, and planes and slowly takes the reader toward a mastery of screw theory with some cutting-edge results, all while using only basic linear algebra and ordinary vectors. It features a discussion of the geometry of parallel and serial robot manipulators, in addition to the reciprocity of screws and a singularity study. All 41 essential screw systems are unveiled, establishing the possible freedom twists and constraint wrenches for a kinematic joint. Familiarizing the reader with screw geometry in order to study the statics and kinematics of robots and mechanisms, this is a perfect resource for engineers and graduate students.
Cognitive tasks are used to probe neuronal activity during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to detect signs of aberrant cognitive functioning in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ). However, nonlinear (inverted-U-shaped) associations between neuronal activity and task difficulty can lead to misinterpretation of group differences between patients and healthy comparison subjects (HCs). In this paper, we evaluated a novel method for correcting these misinterpretations based on conditional performance analysis.
Participants included 25 HCs and 27 SZs who performed a working memory (WM) task (N-back) with 5 load conditions while undergoing fMRI. Neuronal activity was regressed onto: 1) task load (i.e., parametric task levels), 2) marginal task performance (i.e., performance averaged over all load conditions), or 3) conditional task performance (i.e., performance within each load condition).
In most regions of interest, conditional performance analysis uniquely revealed inverted-U-shaped neuronal activity in both SZs and HCs. After accounting for conditional performance differences between groups, we observed few difference in both the pattern and level of neuronal activity between SZs and HCs within regions that are classically associated with WM functioning (e.g., posterior dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal association cortices). However, SZs did show aberrant activity within the anterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
Interpretations of differences in neuronal activity between groups, and of associations between neuronal activity and performance, should be considered within the context of task performance. Whether conditional performance-based differences reflect compensation, dedifferentiation, or other processes is not a question that is easily resolved by examining activation and performance data alone.
Argulus canadensis is a crustacean ectoparasite observed increasingly on wild migrating adult Atlantic salmon. We investigated temperature and salinity tolerance regarding development, survival and hatch of A. canadensis eggs to help understand spatiotemporal features of transmission. Argulus canadensis eggs differentiate to pharate embryos by 35 days buttheir hatch is protracted to ~7 months. Cold treatment ⩾75 days mimics overwintering and terminates egg diapause, with 84.6% (72.1–100%) metanauplius hatch induced ⩾13 °C and synchronized to 3–4 weeks. Inter- and intra-clutch variability and protracted hatch in the absence of cold-temperature termination of diapause is compatible with bet hedging. Whereas diapause likely promotes phenological synchrony for host colocalization, bet hedging could afford temporal plasticity to promote host encounter during environmental change. Our egg storage and hatch induction/synchronization methodologies can be exploited for empirical investigations. Salinity tolerance reveals both significantly higher embryonic development (94.4 ± 3.5% vs 61.7 ± 24.6%) and metanauplius hatch (53.3 ± 7.5% vs 10.1 ± 8.2%) for eggs in freshwater than at 17 ppt. Unhatched embryos were alive in freshwater by the end of the trial (213 days) but were dead/dying at 17 ppt. Eggs did not develop at 34 ppt. Salinity tolerance of A. canadensis eggs supports riverine transmission to adult Atlantic salmon during return to freshwater for mating each year.