The model proposed by Harris et al. [J. Mater. Res. 5, 1763–1773 (1990)], describing planar inversion domain boundaries in aluminum nitride, consists of a basal plane of aluminum atoms octahedrally coordinated with respect to oxygen, and with a translation of R = 1/3〈1011〉. This thin sandwich is inserted onto the basal plane of the wurtzite structure of aluminum nitride. This model does not take into consideration any interfacial relaxation phenomena, and is arguably electrically unstable. Therefore, this paper presents a refinement of the model of Harris et al., by incorporating the structural relaxations arising from modifications in local chemistry. The interfacial structure was investigated through the use of conventional transmission electron microscopy, convergent electron diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, analytical electron microscopy, and atomistic computer simulations. The refined planar inversion domain boundary model is closely based on the original model of Harris et al.; however, the local chemistry is changed, with every fourth oxygen being replaced by a nitrogen. Atomistic computer simulation of these defects, using a classical Born model of ionic solids, verified the stability of these defects as arising from the adjustment in the local chemistry. The resulting structural relaxations take the form of a 0.3 mrad twist parallel to the interface, a contraction of the basal planes adjacent to the planar inversion domain boundary, and an expansion of the c-axis component of the displacement vector; the new displacement vector across the interface is R = 1.3〈1010〉 + ∊〈0001〉, where ∊meas = 0.387 and ∊calc = 0.394.