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The present study aimed to determine the effect of whole meat GSM powder on gut microbiota abundance, body composition and iron status markers in healthy overweight or obese postmenopausal women. This was a 3-months trial involving forty-nine healthy postmenopausal women with body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 35 kg/m2 who were randomly assigned to receive 3 g/d of either GSM powder (n 25) or placebo (n 24). The gut microbe abundance, serum iron status markers and body composition were measured at the baseline and the end of the study. The between-group comparison at the baseline showed a lower abundance of Bacteroides and Clostridium XIVa in the GSM group compared with the placebo (P = 0⋅04). At the baseline, the body fat (BF)% and gynoid fat% were higher in the GSM group compared with the placebo (P < 0⋅05). No significant changes were found in any of the outcome measures, except for ferritin levels that showed a significant reduction over time (time effect P = 0⋅01). Some trend was observed in bacteria including Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium which tended to increase in the GSM group while their abundance decreased or remained at their baseline level in the control group. Supplementation with GSM powder did not result in any significant changes in gut microbe abundance, body composition and iron markers compared with placebo. However, some commensal bacteria such as Bacteroides and Bifidobacteria tended to increase following supplementation with GSM powder. Overall, these findings can expand the knowledge surrounding the effects of whole GSM powder on these outcome measures in healthy postmenopausal women.
This study assessed bioavailability and utilisation of vitamin D3 in two feeding trials using young, growing Sprague–Dawley male rats. Trial one fed animals standard AIN-93G diet (casein protein) containing no vitamin D3 and goat or cow skimmed milk supplemented with vitamin D3. Trial two fed animals modified dairy-free AIN-93G diet (egg albumin) containing no vitamin D3 and goat or cow skimmed or full-fat milk supplemented with vitamin D3. Control groups received AIN-93G diets with or without vitamin D, and water. At 8 weeks of age, blood samples were collected for vitamin and mineral analysis, and femurs and spines were collected for assessment of bone mineralisation and strength. In both trials, analyses showed differences in bioavailability of vitamin D3, with ratios of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to vitamin D3 intake more than 2-fold higher in groups drinking supplemented milk compared with groups fed supplemented solid food. Bone mineralisation was higher in groups drinking supplemented milk compared with groups fed supplemented solid food, for both trials (P<0·05). There was no difference in the parameters tested between skimmed milk and full-fat milk or between cow milk and goat milk. Comparison of the two trials suggested that dietary protein source promoted bone mineralisation in a growing rat model: modified AIN-93G with egg albumin produced lower bone mineralisation compared with standard AIN-93G with casein. Overall, this study showed that effects of vitamin D3 deficiency in solid diets were reversed by offering milk supplemented with vitamin D3, and suggests that using milk as a vehicle to deliver vitamin D is advantageous.
Acute doses of Ca rapidly increase serum Ca and reduce bone resorption concomitant with a reduction in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. The physiological response to a dose of Ca in milk and to a Ca salt may be different. The present study investigated Ca absorption patterns with increasing levels of fortification in milk, and the response to one dose of a Ca salt. A group of twenty-eight Asian women aged 20–45 years volunteered to attend the laboratory over several weeks. The fasted volunteers were randomised to one of three experimental drinks: 200 ml skimmed milk containing 250, 500 or 1000 mg Ca. A subgroup of seven volunteers also received a calcium gluconate/carbonate salt containing 1000 mg Ca in 200 ml water. Serial blood samples and urine were collected for 5 h from baseline. Different doses of Ca in milk resulted in a graded response in serum corrected Ca, PTH and C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx) but not ionised Ca. Serum Ca increased in response to all milk drinks and from 2 to 5 h the blood Ca levels were significantly different for the 250 and 1000 mg doses, as was the integrated response between the loads. The PTH response to the two higher doses was significantly more than following the 250 mg dose. The integrated response for CTx and urinary Ca between all three doses of Ca in milk was significantly different. A dose of Ca salt elicited a more immediate response reaching a plateau faster, and declining faster to baseline. Fortified milk is a safe matrix for delivering larger doses of Ca.
In the elderly, immunosenescence and malnourishment can contribute to increased risk and severity of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis ‘Hort16A’) contains nutrients important for immune function and mitigation of symptoms of infection, including vitamins C and E, folate, polyphenols and carotenoids. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether regular consumption of gold kiwifruit reduces symptoms of URTI in older people, and determine the effect it has on plasma antioxidants, and markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and immune function. A total of thirty-two community-dwelling people ( ≥ 65 years) participated in a randomised crossover study, consuming the equivalent of four kiwifruit or two bananas daily for 4 weeks, with treatments separated by a 4-week washout period. Participants completed the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 daily, and blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of each treatment and washout period. Gold kiwifruit did not significantly reduce the overall incidence of URTI compared with banana, but significantly reduced the severity and duration of head congestion, and the duration of sore throat. Gold kiwifruit significantly increased plasma vitamin C, α-tocopherol and lutein/zeaxanthin concentrations, and erythrocyte folate concentrations, and significantly reduced plasma lipid peroxidation. No changes to innate immune function (natural killer cell activity, phagocytosis) or inflammation markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine) were detected. Consumption of gold kiwifruit enhanced the concentrations of several dietary plasma analytes, which may contribute to reduced duration and severity of selected URTI symptoms, offering a novel tool for reducing the burden of URTI in older individuals.
Salmon provides long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA and Se, which are well recognised for their health benefits. The n-3 and Se status of the New Zealand population is marginal. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of consuming salmon v. supplementation with salmon oil on LC n-3 and Se status. Healthy volunteers (n 44) were randomly assigned to one of four groups consuming 2 × 120 g servings of salmon/week or 2, 4 or 6 salmon oil capsules/d for 8 weeks. Linear regression analysis predictive models were fitted to the capsule data to predict changes in erythrocyte LC n-3 levels with intakes of LC n-3 from capsules in amounts equivalent to that consumed from salmon. Changes in Se status (plasma Se and whole-blood glutathione peroxidase) were compared between the groups consuming salmon and capsules (three groups combined). Salmon, 2, 4 and 6 capsules provided 0·82, 0·24, 0·47 and 0·69 g/d of LC n-3 fatty acids. Salmon provided 7 μg/d and capsules < 0·02 μg/d of Se. The predictive model (r2 0·31, P = 0·001) showed that increases in erythrocyte LC n-3 levels were similar when intakes of 0·82 g/d LC n-3 from salmon or capsules (1·92 (95 % CI 1·35, 2·49) v. 2·32 (95 % 1·76, 2·88) %) were consumed. Plasma Se increased significantly more with salmon than with capsules (12·2 (95 % CI 6·18, 18·12) v. 1·57 (95 % CI − 2·32, 5·45) μg/l, P = 0·01). LC n-3 status was similarly improved with consumption of salmon and capsules, while consuming salmon had the added benefit of increasing Se status. This is of particular relevance to the New Zealand population that has marginal LC n-3 and Se status.
Bovine milk has been shown to contain bioactive components with bone-protective properties. Earlier studies on bovine milk whey protein showed that it suppressed bone resorption in the female ovariectomised rat. A new osteotropic component was subsequently identified in the whey basic protein fraction, but bone bioactivity may also be associated with other whey fractions. In the present study, we investigated whether acidic protein fractions isolated from bovine milk whey could prevent bone loss in mature ovariectomised female rats. Six-month-old female rats were ovariectomised (OVX) or left intact (sham). The OVX rats were randomised into four groups. One group remained the control (OVX), whereas three groups were fed various whey acidic protein fractions from milk whey as 3g/kg diet for 4 months. Outcomes were bone mineral density, bone biomechanics and markers of bone turnover. Bone mineral density of the femurs indicated that one of the whey AF over time caused a recovery of bone lost from OVX. Plasma C-telopeptide of type I collagen decreased significantly in all groups except OVX control over time, indicating an anti-resorptive effect of whey acidic protein. Biomechanical data showed that the AF may affect bone architecture as elasticity was increased by one of the whey AF. The femurs of AF-supplemented rats all showed an increase in organic matter. This is the first report of an acidic whey protein fraction isolated from milk whey that may support the recovery of bone loss in vivo.
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