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In recent decades, different data-driven approaches have emerged to identify dietary patterns (DPs) and little is discussed about how these methods are able to capture diet complexity within the same population. This study aimed to apply three statistical methods to identify the DP of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) population and evaluate the similarities and differences between them. Dietary data were assessed at baseline in the ELSA-Brasil study using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). DPs were identified by applying three statistical methods: (1) factor analysis (FA), (2) treelet transform (TT), and (3) reduced rank regression (RRR). The characteristics of individuals classified in the last tertile of each DP were compared. Cross-classification and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were assessed to evaluate the agreement between the DP of the three methods. A similar convenience DP was identified for all three methods. FA and TT also identified a similar prudent DP and a DP highly loaded for the food groups rice and beans. Individuals classified in the third tertile of similar DPs of each method presented similar sociodemographic and nutrient intake characteristics. Regarding the cross-classification, prudent DP from FA and TT presented a higher level of agreement (75%), while convenience DP from TT and RRR presented the lowest agreement (44.8%). The different statistical methods were able to capture the populations’ DPs in a similar way while highlighting the importance of the particularities of each method.
Despite numerous reports on the beneficial effects of olive oil in the cardiovascular context, very little is known about the olive tree’s wild counterpart (Olea europaea, L. var. sylvestris), commonly known as acebuche (ACE) in Spain. The aim of this study was to analyse the possible beneficial effects of an extra virgin ACE oil on vascular function in a rodent model of arterial hypertension induced by L-NAME (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester).
Four experimental groups of male Wistar rats were studied: 1) normotensive rats (Control group); 2) normotensive rats fed a commercial diet supplemented with 15% (w/w) ACE oil (Acebuche group); 3) rats made hypertensive following administration of L-NAME (L-NAME group); and 4) rats treated with L-NAME and simultaneously supplemented with 15% ACE oil (LN+ACE group). All treatments were maintained for 12 weeks.
Besides a significant blood pressure-lowering effect, the ACE oil-enriched diet counteracted the alterations found in aortas from hypertensive rats in terms of morphology and responsiveness to vasoactive mediators. In addition, a decrease in hypertension-related fibrotic and oxidative stress processes was observed in L-NAME-treated rats subjected to ACE oil supplement.
Using a model of arterial hypertension via nitric oxide depletion, here we demonstrate the beneficial effects of a wild olive oil based upon its vasodilator, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antihypertrophic and antifibrotic properties. We postulate that regular inclusion of ACE oil in the diet can alleviate the vascular remodelling and endothelial dysfunction processes typically found in arterial hypertension, thus resulting in a significant reduction of blood pressure.
This paper presents an innovative study of the port system of Rome in Imperial times through the application of an integrated approach to both archaeological analysis and material evidence. Specifically, it seeks to provide a more complete contextualization and understanding of the port system of Rome by focusing on the exploration of the physical geography of the river Tiber and its transformations in connection with the organization of the port system between the late first century BC and early third century AD. Methodologically, this study is based on the compilation, re-evaluation and analysis of published archaeological and geoarchaeological data and on the application of modelling and simulations techniques within a GIS environment. These foundations and means allow us to reconstruct the development of the river Tiber's historical course in antiquity and its impact on specific organizational aspects of Rome's port system. In this sense, this study provides new insights and avenues of research (applicable to other geographical areas and periods of time) to evaluate the system's changing capacity for transport and the potential existence of a signalling system, in contrast to previous hypotheses on the organization of river traffic along the Tiber.
The management of the COVID-19 pandemic is a challenge for Health Technology Assessment (HTA) methodology due to the need to formulate evidence-based recommendations in times of uncertainty in minimal time - for a large number of publications and with changing or even contradictory information. Living systematic reviews (LSRs) are systematic reviews that are continually updated, incorporating relevant new evidence as it becomes available. Since the COVID-19 pandemic fits all criteria to perform LSRs: (i) the Review question is a particular priority for decision-making, (ii) there is an high level of uncertainty about the existing evidence, and (iii) there is likely to be emerging evidence that will impact on the conclusions of the LSR, the aim of which is to analyze the role of LSRs as an innovative approach to HTA in recent years, and its impact on the management of the pandemic.
A systematic search of LSRs (published or protocols) was run on the main biomedical databases (Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library) in November 2020 and it was rerun in June 2021 without time limit. The results will be analyzed and classified by year and category (epidemiology, treatment, prognosis, symptoms, diagnosis and vaccines).
The literature research has returned a total of 187 publications. The LSR concept emerged in 2014, from which some LSRs began to be published, but an exponential increase has been observed in 2020 with 76 references of which 66 percent were focused on the SARS-CoV-2. By category, 81.8 percent were focused on treatment, 41.8 percent on epidemiology, 20.9 percent on rehabilitation, 15.1 percent on diagnosis, 10.2 percent on prognosis and 2.2 percent on symptoms until June 2021. There wasn't any LSR for vaccines and 28 percent was focused on other fields.
LSRs are particularly important during the COVID-19 pandemic, with research evidence emerging rapidly, current evidence being uncertain, and new research changing policy or decisions on health. The majority of LSRs published up to June 2021 were focused on the treatment of COVID-19.
We carry out a mathematical analysis of the quadrilateral fields from Codex Santa María Asunción and compare it with similar previous results from Codex Vergara, as well as analyze fields with more than four sides from both codices. We also provide a computational tool to draw all the possible shapes of the fields. Finally, we use the concept of maximum area to test the feasibility of the areas recorded in the codices and conclude that the Acolhua were very good surveyors.
Few studies have analyzed compulsive buying behavior in relation to a specific product. Smartphones are hugely popular products today, especially among young people. These two aspects have motivated this research into the compulsive buying behavior of Smartphones by university students.
To study this behavior, the main features that differentiate compulsive buyers from those that are not are analyzed, and their risk profiles are obtained through a discrete choice model.
Sociodemographic features that define buyers with the greatest propensity to compulsiveness are younger age, longer time spent daily using social networks, higher spending on the acquisition of Smartphones and having owned a greater number of these devices. These buyers also show shopping addiction and greater feelings of guilt after the purchase as well as more positive and negative affective states when purchasing Smartphones.
This analysis not only determines the characteristics that define young individuals with a tendency toward compulsiveness in Smartphone purchases, but also contributes to quantifying the probability of having this tendency.
The famous greenstone figure known as the Tuxtla Statuette is one of only 12 objects known to bear an epi-Olmec inscription and was the first to become known to scholarship. For more than a century its original find-spot was imprecisely and erroneously identified as lying in the township of San Andrés Tuxtla or, more generally, in the Tuxtla Mountains. Correspondence in the National Anthropology Archives of the Smithsonian Institution documents that the figure was found on the Hacienda de Hueyapan de Mimendi, near the colossal head of Tres Zapotes. Archival research in Mexico's National Museum of Anthropology and the Archivo General del Estado de Veracruz, as well as interviews with descendants of owners of the Hacienda de Hueyapan and the statuette, allow us to confirm several features of the Smithsonian correspondence. The data indicate that the statuette was found within or very near the epi-Olmec regional center of Tres Zapotes and within the township of Santiago Tuxtla.
The use of a gender-neutral annuity divisor introduces an intra-generational redistribution from short-lived towards long-lived individuals; this entails a transfer of wealth from males to females and from low socioeconomic groups to high socioeconomic groups. With some subpopulations consisting of females from low socioeconomic groups (or males from high groups), the net effect of the redistribution is unclear. The study aims to quantify the lifetime income redistribution of a generic NDC system using two types of divisor – the demographic and the economic – to compute the amount of an initial pension. With this in mind, the redistribution (actuarial fairness) among subpopulations is assessed through the ratio between the present value of expected pensions received and contributions paid. We find that all subgroups of women and men with high educational attainment benefit from the use of the unisex demographic divisor. This paper also shows that the value of the economic divisor depends markedly on population composition. When mortality differentials by gender and level of education are considered, economic divisors are mostly driven by the longevity effect corresponding to gender.
Native maize is the main cereal in the diet in rural communities in México, especially in those with a traditional maize-based food-pattern. Although maize has a high nutritional value, its consumption in rural communities has declined in recent decades. Traditional food replacement by modern and processed foods seems to adversely affect the composition of the diet. The aims of this study were: to evaluate the consumption of maize, its influence on nutrient intake in Matlatzincas women, and to analyze the association between the intake of maize food products with specific nutrients within the context of the most current dietary pattern in this indigenous group from central México. In this longitudinal study, we assessed diet over a one-year period, using eight 24-h dietary recalls and a food frequency questionnaire in a rural representative sample of 92 indigenous women aged 19 to 90 years. We derived dietary patterns using principal component analysis based on the intake of ten predefined food groups according to the Mexican equivalents food system. A specific food group based on maize products (maize-food-group) such as tortilla, sopes, pozole, atole, pinole, tacos, etc., was created to identify separately maize consumption in the habitual diet. The percentage of daily energy intake attributed to maize-food-group as well as the intake of macro and micronutrients were estimated. Based on the nutrimental composition of each food group, we analyzed habitual intakes of energy (kcal/d), carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, fiber, vitamins A, D, C and B12 (mg/d), and micronutrients: phosphorus, calcium, iron and zinc (mg/d). Analysis of variance and Pearsońs correlation test were used to evaluate the association between the tertiles of the consumption of maize-food-group and nutrient intake. Additionally, a diet score was calculated to assess diet quality according to maize-food-group consumption. All dietary data were energy-adjusted for the analysis. The consumption of maize-based-foods corresponded to 23.0% of the total caloric intake. Consumption of maize was higher among older women. Consumption of maize-food-group was positively correlated with the ingest of proteins, lipids, dietary fiber, calcium, phosphorus, iron, B12 vitamin, D vitamin and energy (p < 0.05). Better diet quality was associated with a high consumption of maize-food-group. We conclude that the high consumption of maize food products and its positive correlation with the intake of recommended nutrients for healthy diet in adult women, needs interventions in public health to promote a better diet-quality aimed to increase the intake of maize-based food group.
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is a sensory impairment, with a dramatic increase in its incidence, which is caused by genetic and environmental factors such as noise and ototoxic drugs. Recent studies correlated ARHL to elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) by folate deficiency, suggesting that reduction of Hcy levels by folate supplementation could potentially ameliorate ARHL.
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), a status that contributes to ARHL, may also arise from malfunction of Hcy remethylation by betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferases (BHMTs) and methionine synthase in the methionine cycle. The expression and/or activity of these enzymes may be altered by ototoxic drugs, including paracetamol (APAP).
To determine the effect of APAP in cochlear morphology and function of control and Bhmt-/- mice, and to analyze putative preventive effects of folic acid (FA) supplementation.
Materials and Methods
Two-month-old Bhmt-/- mice (n = 47), with greater dependence on folate metabolism for Hcy remethylation, and Bhmt + / + mice (n = 42) were fed control or FA supplemented diets for 30 days. The last day APAP (250 mg/kg) or placebo were injected intraperitoneally.
Hearing was evaluated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABR) at the beginning of the experiment and after treatments. Picrosirius red staining was used for evaluation of the cochlear lateral wall cytoarchitecture. Plasma and hepatic metabolite levels were determined by HPLC or on Spinlab 100® autoanalyzer.
Loss of Bhmt expression induced HHcy, but an impact on hearing acuity was not observed. Acute APAP administration did not induce ABR threshold shifts. However, following ototoxic treatment, changes of 5–17% in the areas of the stria vascularis and spiral ligament were detected between Bhmt-/- mice under different dietary treatments; cochlear structures of Bhmt-/- mice receiving APAP plus FA supplementation resemble those of the control group. APAP increases susceptibility to ototoxic damage in the presence of HHcy.
BHMT plays a central role in cochlear methionine metabolism. FA supplementation modulates Hcy levels, contributing to a proper remethylation status that prevents ARHL.
To evaluate the association of ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption with gains in weight and waist circumference, and incident overweight/obesity, in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort.
We applied FFQ at baseline and categorized energy intake by degree of processing using the NOVA classification. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured at baseline and after a mean 3·8-year follow-up. We assessed associations, through Poisson regression with robust variance, of UPF consumption with large weight gain (1·68 kg/year) and large waist gain (2·42 cm/year), both being defined as ≥90th percentile in the cohort, and with incident overweight/obesity.
Civil servants of Brazilian public academic institutions in six cities (n 11 827), aged 35–74 years at baseline (2008–2010).
UPF provided a mean 24·6 (sd 9·6) % of ingested energy. After adjustment for smoking, physical activity, adiposity and other factors, fourth (>30·8 %) v. first (<17·8 %) quartile of UPF consumption was associated (relative risk (95 % CI)) with 27 and 33 % greater risk of large weight and waist gains (1·27 (1·07, 1·50) and 1·33 (1·12, 1·58)), respectively. Similarly, those in the fourth consumption quartile presented 20 % greater risk (1·20 (1·03, 1·40)) of incident overweight/obesity and 2 % greater risk (1·02; (0·85, 1·21)) of incident obesity. Approximately 15 % of cases of large weight and waist gains and of incident overweight/obesity could be attributed to consumption of >17·8 % of energy as UPF.
Greater UPF consumption predicts large gains in overall and central adiposity and may contribute to the inexorable rise in obesity seen worldwide.
In this work, the synthesis of starch-clay nanocomposites was carried out. For this purpose, natural starch was extracted from rice grains and it was characterized by structural and spectrophotometric techniques. Afterwards, it was used as the polymer matrix for the synthesis of nanocomposites crosslinked with different agents: glycerol, citric acid (CA) and sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). As a reinforcement phase, a natural Mexican clay from the Montmorillonite-type (Mt), was employed, which was modified with a cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br), in order to exchange cations, present in the interlaminar spaces of the raw clay mineral with those of the cationic surfactant; thus, changing its nature from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. Characterization, of both natural and organo-modified clays, was carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), to determine the change in morphology between these two minerals; X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), to obtain the crystalline structure of the organo-modified clay and that of the raw clay mineral (Mt). Also, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to determine materials spectra, and their thermal stability was evaluated by means of the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). On the other hand, the synthesis of these nanocomposites was performed using different crosslinking agents, glycerol, CA or STMP, in order to identify the effect of them into the final properties of these materials.
In the present investigation, biocomposites were synthesized from a polymeric alginate matrix in which the carrot residue and a natural bentonite (ANat / Bio) or an iron-modified clinoptilolite-type zeolite (ZFe / Bio) were supported. Their properties were evaluated adsorbents in contact with aqueous solutions of methylene blue (MB). In the first hour of contact, 46% removal was obtained for the ZFe / Bio biocomposite and 60% for the ANat / Bio biocomposite; reaching 100% removal for the ZFe / Bio biocomposite and 98% for the ANat / Bio biocomposite after 24 hours. The biocomposites were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR).
To identify generational differences in the dietary patterns of Brazilian adults born between 1934 and 1975.
A cross-sectional study from the baseline of the multicentre Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort. Year of birth was categorized into three birth generations: Traditionalists (born between 1934 and 1945); Baby Boomers (born between 1946 and 1964); and Generation X (born between 1965 and 1975). Food consumption was investigated using an FFQ. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify data-driven dietary patterns.
Individuals (n 15 069) aged 35–74 years.
A three-class model was generated from the LCA for each birth generation. Generation X presented higher energy intakes (kJ/kcal) from soft drinks (377·4/90·2) and sweets (1262·3/301·7) and lower energy intakes from fruit (1502·5/359·1) and vegetables (311·3/74·4) than Baby Boomers (283·7/67·8, 1047·7/250·4, 1756·0/419·7 and 365·3/87·3, respectively) and Traditionalists (186·2/44·5, 518·8/124·0, 1947·7/465·5 and 404·6/96·7, respectively). For Baby Boomers and Generation X, we found food patterns with similar structures: mixed pattern (22·7 and 29·7 %, respectively), prudent pattern (43·5 and 34·9 %, respectively) and processed pattern (33·8 and 35·4 %, respectively). Among Traditionalists, we could also identify mixed (30·9 %) and prudent (21·8 %) patterns, and a third pattern, named restricted dietary pattern (47·3 %).
The younger generation presented higher frequencies of consuming a pattern characterized by a low nutritional diet, compared with other generations, indicating that they may age with a greater burden of chronic diseases. It is important to develop public health interventions promoting healthy foods, focusing on the youngest generations.
To verify if the intake of ultra-processed foods is associated with higher BMI and waist circumference (WC) among participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort.
Cross-sectional analysis of the ELSA-Brasil baseline (2008–2010). Dietary information obtained through an FFQ was classified according to characteristics of food processing (NOVA) and used to estimate the percentage energy contribution from ultra-processed foods (i.e. industrial formulations, elaborated from food processing, synthetic constituents and food additives) to individuals’ total energy intake. BMI and WC and their respective cut-off points served as response variables. Associations were estimated through linear and multinomial logistic regression models, after adjusting for confounders and total energy intake.
Six Brazilian capital cities, 2008–2010.
Active and retired civil servants, aged 35–64 years, from universities and research organizations (n 8977).
Ultra-processed foods accounted for 22·7 % of total energy intake. After adjustments, individuals in the fourth quartile of percentage energy contribution from ultra-processed foods presented (β; 95 % CI) a higher BMI (0·80; CI 0·53, 1·07 kg/m2) and WC (1·71; 1·02, 2·40 cm), and higher chances (OR; 95 % CI) of being overweight (1·31; 1·13, 1·51), obese (1·41; 1·18, 1·69) and having significantly increased WC (1·41; 1·20, 1·66), compared with those in the first quartile. All associations suggest a dose–response gradient.
Results indicate the existence of associations between greater energy contribution from ultra-processed foods and higher BMI and WC, which are independent of total energy intake. These findings corroborate public policies designed to reduce the intake of this type of food.
The aim of this paper is to examine the legal consequences of failing to provide an effective public participation in rulemaking and administrative decisionmaking processes on environmental matters in Spain and the Basque Country. This work provides an overview of the Spanish Supreme Court and other regional Court's jurisprudence on public participation. The particular moment in which citizens participate in a decision-making process is of major importance. For instance, it is not the same thing to participate at an early stage of the process (this is, when the administrative file is not complete) than to do it when the compulsory reports are issued or when the last draft of the decision is already made. As it is going to be examined in this paper, the law sets that if ‘important amendments’ are submitted to the regulations or decision during the approval procedure, public authorities are obliged to provide citizens with the opportunity of taking part again. What in reality happens and the legal consequences of it are analysed in this work.
Decision-making process; European Union; Public participation; Rulemaking process; Spanish and Basque Environmental Law
Public participation in environmental rulemaking and decision-making processes has been regulated over the last decades in almost every European country. In some European countries, even when no regulation on the issue had been specifically passed, public participation was already a reality due to their democratic background. However, other European countries needed a clear and specific regulation by Law on the right of citizens to participate in rulemaking and decision-making processes. Countries with an advanced democracy may not need an express recognition of this right but, others, such as Spain, not only need an express recognition of public participation by law, but also the recognition of the right to challenge the authorities’ decision or regulation adopted without participation. This means that in the event of authorities’ non-compliance with the law, citizens should be entitled to challenge the illegal decision. In such countries, Courts play a key role because they may have to oblige authorities to comply with the law and protect citizens’ right to participate. In the latter countries, public participation in rulemaking and decision-making processes was formulated firstly as a legal principle and, afterwards, recognised as a subjective right.
In the present study we investigated gender-specific associations of low birth weight (LBW) and shorter relative leg length with metabolic syndrome (MetS) after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health-related behaviours. We also investigated whether these associations are independent of age at menarche and BMI at 20 years old.
Baseline data from 12 602 participants (35–74 years) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), 2008–2010.
MetS was defined according to the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. LBW (<2·5 kg) and age- and sex-standardized relative leg length (high, medium and low) were the explanatory variables studied. The strength of the associations between the explanatory variables and MetS was estimated by Poisson regression with robust variance.
MetS prevalence was 34·2 %; it was more prevalent in men (36·8 %) than in women (32·2 %). In multivariate analysis, LBW was associated (prevalence ratio; 95 % CI) with MetS only in women (1·28; 1·24, 1·45). Shorter leg length was associated with MetS in both men (1·21; 1·09, 1·35 and 1·46; 1·29, 1·65 for low and medium lengths, respectively) and women (1·12; 1·00, 1·25 and 1·40; 1·22, 1·59 for low and medium lengths, respectively). Additional adjustments for age at menarche and BMI at 20 years old did not change the associations.
Poor nutritional status as estimated by LBW and lower leg length in childhood was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS, although LBW was a significant factor only among women.
To evaluate the performance of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in predicting
cardiometabolic outcomes and compare cut-off points for Brazilian
Cross-sectional study. WHtR areas under the curve (AUC) were compared with
those for BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). The
outcomes of interest were hypertension, diabetes, hypertriacylglycerolaemia
and presence of at least two components of metabolic syndrome (≥2
MetS). Cut-offs for WHtR were compared and validity measures were estimated
for each point.
Teaching and research institutions in six Brazilian state capitals,
Women (n 5026) and men (n 4238) aged
35–54 years who participated in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of
Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) at baseline.
WHtR age-adjusted AUC ranged from 0·68 to 0·72 in men and
0·69 to 0·75 in women, with smaller AUC for
hypertriacylglycerolaemia and the largest for ≥2 MetS. WHtR performed
better than BMI for practically all outcomes; better than WHR for
hypertension in both sexes; and displayed larger AUC than WC in predicting
diabetes mellitus. It also offered better discriminatory power for ≥2
MetS in men; and was better than WC, but not WHR, in women. Optimal cut-off
points of WHtR were 0·55 (women) and 0·54 (men), but they
presented high false-negative rate compared with 0·50.
We recommend using WHtR (which performed similarly to, or better than, other
available indices of adiposity) as an anthropometric index with good
discriminatory power for cardiometabolic outcomes in Brazilian adults,
indicating the already referenced limit of WHtR≥0·50.
Organic compounds such as azo dyes have been detected in wastewater due to their use in industries without regulation. Conventional wastewater treatments are not always effective in the removal of these pollutants. Among the innovative materials that deal with this problem, are the polymer-zeolitic composites used as adsorbents. Modified natural zeolites have been proven to be efficient for the removal of yellow 6; on the other hand, biopolymers such as alginate offer their potential use as a polymer matrix for the synthesis of biocomposites. In this study, the adsorbent properties of a ferric zeolite and an alginate-ferric zeolite composite were determined for the removal of yellow 6 dye from aqueous solutions. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results of both natural and modified zeolites indicated the presence of clinoptilolite. The characteristic bands of these materials were identified through the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) technique. Moreover, the presence of iron in the ferrous zeolite was verified by elemental analysis (EDS). Adsorption tests showed that the composite has a lower removal capacity than the zeolitic material; however, in the case of water treatment systems, the composite would be easier to handle than the zeolite without supporting it in a polymer matrix.
Polysulfone (Pfu) films were modified by grafting poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by the oxidative pre-irradiation technique. To achieve this modification, some parameters were modified such as the radiation dose, the concentration of PVA, the temperature and the reaction time. It was found that the grafted films with 12% presented a greater grafting percentage (0.86%). The modified films were characterized by means of the contact angle, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques.