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To evaluate age-related differences in the independent/combined association of added sugar intake from soda and body adiposity with hyperuricaemia in gender-stratified US adults.
Consumption of added sugar from soda was calculated from 24-h dietary interviews and categorised into none, regular and excessive consumption. Hyperuricaemia was defined as serum uric acid levels >417 mmol/l in men and >357 mmol/l in women. Multiple regression models with interaction terms and logistic models adjusted for covariates were conducted under survey-data modules.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2007–2016.
15 338 adults without gout, failing kidneys, an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30 or diabetes were selected.
The age-stratified prevalence rate of hyperuricaemia was 18·8–20·4 % in males and 6·8–17·3 % in females. Hyperuricaemia prevalence of approximately 50 % was observed in young and middle age males who consumed excessive added sugar from soda. Excessive added sugar intake was observed to be associated with 1·5- to 2·0-fold and 2·0- to 2·3-fold increased risk of the probability of hyperuricaemia in young and middle age males and middle age females, respectively. Study participants, regardless of age or gender, who were obese and consumed excessive added sugar from soda had the highest risk of having hyperuricaemia.
Our study revealed that the association between hyperuricaemia and consumption of excessive added sugar from soda may vary by age and gender. Obese adults who consumed excessive added sugar from soda had the highest risk of hyperuricaemia, a finding that was found across all age-specific groups for both genders.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
A new approach is proposed to analyze Bremsstrahlung X-rays that are emitted from laser-produced plasmas (LPP) and are measured by a stack type spectrometer. This new method is based on a spectral tomographic reconstruction concept with the variational principle for optimization, without referring to the electron energy distribution of a plasma. This approach is applied to the analysis of some experimental data obtained at a few major laser facilities to demonstrate the applicability of the method. Slope temperatures of X-rays from LPP are determined with a two-temperature model, showing different spectral characteristics of X-rays depending on laser properties used in the experiments.
We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.
Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality among men in the USA. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the development and progression of prostate cancer. In this study, the association between antioxidants from diet and supplements and biomarkers of oxidative stress in blood (n 278), urine (n 298) and prostate tissue (n 55) were determined among men from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project. The association between antioxidant intake and oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and urine was determined using linear regression, adjusting for age, race, prostate cancer aggressiveness and smoking status. Greater antioxidant intake was found to be associated with lower urinary 8-isoprostane concentrations, with a 10 % increase in antioxidant intake corresponding to an unadjusted 1·1 % decrease in urinary 8-isoprostane levels (95 % CI −1·7, −0·3 %; P value<0·01) and an adjusted 0·6 % decrease (95 % CI −1·4, 0·2 %; P value=0·16). In benign prostate tissue, thioredoxin 1 was inversely associated with antioxidant intake (P=0·02). No significant associations were found for other blood or urinary biomarkers or for malignant prostate tissue. These results indicate that antioxidant intake may be associated with less oxidative stress among men diagnosed with prostate cancer.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
M105 in the Leo I Group is a textbook example of a standard elliptical galaxy. It is only one of the few elliptical galaxies for which we can study their stellar halos using the resolved stars. It is an ideal target to study the structure and composition of stellar halos in elliptical galaxies. We present photometry and metallicity of the resolved stars in the inner and outer regions of M105. These provide strong evidence that there are two distinct stellar halos in this galaxy, a metal-poor (blue) halo and a metal-rich (red) halo. Then we compare them with those in other early-type galaxies and use the dual halo mode formation scenario to describe how massive galaxies formed.
For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
By surveying extensive epidemiological behavioural and sexual risk factors in a Korean twin cohort, risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection were investigated in South Korea. A total of 912 vaginal specimens were collected from the Healthy Twin Study, consisting of twins and their families. A range of epidemiological, behavioural, and sexual activity characteristics were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analyses of family and twin relationships, adjusted to elucidate the risk factors for HPV infection. Of the various epidemiological characteristics, the possibility of extramarital affairs [odds ratio (OR) 2·48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·02–6·02] significantly increased the prevalence of HPV infection. Our multivariate regression analysis indicated that oral contraceptive use (OR 40·64, 95% CI 0·99–1670·7) and history of sexually transmitted disease (OR 2·56, 95% CI 0·93–7·10) were strongly associated with an increase in HPV infection. On the other hand, more frequent vaginal douching (OR 0·32, 95% CI 0·13–0·77) significantly decreased the prevalence of HPV infection. Our results suggested that HPV infection is associated with both biological and behavioural factors.
The Clostridium-related poultry disease, necrotic enteritis (NE), causes substantial economic losses on a global scale. In the present study, a mixture of two plant-derived phytonutrients, Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin (XT), was evaluated for its effects on local and systemic immune responses using a co-infection model of experimental NE in commercial broilers. Chickens were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with XT, or with a non-supplemented control diet, and either uninfected or orally challenged with virulent Eimeria maxima oocysts at 14 d and Clostridium perfringens at 18 d of age. Parameters of protective immunity were as follows: (1) body weight; (2) gut lesions; (3) serum levels of C. perfringens α-toxin and NE B-like (NetB) toxin; (4) serum levels of antibodies to α-toxin and NetB toxin; (5) levels of gene transcripts encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the intestine and spleen. Infected chickens fed the XT-supplemented diet had increased body weight and reduced gut lesion scores compared with infected birds given the non-supplemented diet. The XT-fed group also displayed decreased serum α-toxin levels and reduced intestinal IL-8, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF), IL-17A and IL-17F mRNA levels, while cytokine/chemokine levels in splenocytes increased in the XT-fed group, compared with the animals fed the control diet. In conclusion, the present study documents the molecular and cellular immune changes following dietary supplementation with extracts of Capsicum and turmeric that may be relevant to protective immunity against avian NE.
We report the effects of electron irradiation on graphene Field Effect Transistor (FET) devices. We irradiated the graphene devices with 30keV electrons and measured the electrical transport properties in high vacuum in-situ. Upon electron irradiation, a Raman ‘D’ band appears. In addition, we observed that the doping behavior of the graphene devices changed from P to N type as a result of the irradiation. We also observed a shift of the Dirac point while the graphene FET device stays in vacuum and after it interacted with environmental molecules under ambient conditions.
In this paper, we present technique to fabricate nanopatterns on Cu thin films via an electrochemical nanomachining (ECN) using an atomic force microscope (AFM). A conductive AFM cantilever tip (Pt/Ir5 coated) was used to form an electric field between tip and Cu substrate with applying a voltage pulse, resulting in the generation of an etched nanopattern. In order to precisely construct the nanopatterns, an ultra-short pulse was applied onto the Cu film through the AFM cantilever tip. The line width of the nanopatterns (the lateral dimension) increased with increased pulse amplitude, on-time, and frequency. The tip velocity effect on the nanopattern line width was also investigated that the line width is decreased with increasing tip velocity. Experimental results were compared with an equivalent electrochemical circuit model representing an ECN technique. The study described here provides important insight for fabricating nanopatterns precisely using electrochemical methods with an AFM cantilever tip.
We present ultraviolet (UV) properties of dwarf galaxies in the Fornax and Ursa Major clusters in comparison with the Virgo cluster. Most of the dwarf galaxies in the Fornax cluster show red UV colors which is consistent with that the Fornax is dynamically evolved cluster with large fraction of early-type galaxies. Meanwhile, majority of dwarf galaxies of Ursa Major cluster are late-type with blue UV colors, indicating prevalence of strong star formation activities in the low density environment.
We present a mass-metallicity (M–Z) relation of 412 blue compact dwarf galaxies at z = 0.2 ~ 0.5 using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 spectroscopic data. We found a variation of mass-metallicity relations depending on the redshift in which metallicity evolution of low mass galaxies appear to be stronger than that of high mass galaxies. The specific star formation rate (SSFR) shows tight correlation with galaxy mass in the sense that low mass galaxies have substantially high SSFR. We also discuss environmental effect in the SSFR vs galaxy mass relation. At a given mass, merging system shows systematically higher SSFR than isolated one.
Large-area vertically aligned silicon nanowire (Si NW) arrays were synthesized with a controlled length (0.3 ˜ 9 μm) by the chemical etching of n-type silicon substrates. Upon their excitation using a fs Ti-sapphire laser pulse (800 nm), their THz emission intensity exhibits strong dependence on their length; the intensity increases sharply up to a length of 3 μm and then decreases slightly, due to the complete absorption of the optical pump power. The Raman scattering spectrum exhibits the same behavior as that of the THz emission. We suggest that the field enhancement by localized surface plasmons induces more efficient THz emission or Raman scattering for the longer Si NWs. The photocurrent measured in a photoelectrochemical cell showed consistently the length dependence with a maximum value at the length of 5 μm.
Single-crystalline rock-salt PbS nanowires (NWs) were synthesized using three different routes; the solvothermal, chemical vapor transport, and gas-phase substitution reaction of pre-grown CdS NWs. They were uniformly grown with the  or ,  direction in a controlled manner. In the solvothermal growth, the oriented attachment of the octylamine (OA) ligands enables the NWs to be produced with a controlled morphology and growth direction. As the concentration of OA increases, the growth direction evolves from the  to the higher surface-energy  and  directions. In the synthesis involving chemical vapor transport and the substitution reaction, the use of a lower growth temperature causes the higher surface-energy growth direction to change from  to . We fabricated field effect transistors using single PbS NW, which showed intrinsic p-type semiconductor characteristics for all three routes. For the PbS NW with a thinner oxide layer, the carrier mobility was measured to be as high as 10 cm2V−1s−1.
A case-control study was conducted in Linxian, Henan Province in China to explore potential risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection unassociated with injection drug use. One hundred and ninety-two persons (41·7% male, 95·8% aged >60 years) were recruited from an earlier cohort. Of these, 48 were HCV positive and 144 HCV negative. Residence in a plain region and 3–10 injections in a health setting per year were significantly associated with HCV in both univariate and multivariate analysis (P<0·01). In rural China, the geographic distribution of HCV infection was heterogeneous and associated with injections in a health setting, a pattern which differed from the epidemics in injection drug users in urban cities.
Semiconductors or metal nanoparticles (NPs) using their monolayer bindings with self-assembly chemicals are an attractive topic for device researchers. Electrical performance of such structures can be investigated for a particular application, such as memory device. Currently, Au NPs has been reported to show a substantial potential in the memory applications. In this study, Au NP and gluing layer were fabricated through a new method of monolayer formation of a chemical bonding or gluing.
In this study, a new NPs memory system was fabricated by using organic semiconductor, i.e., pentacene as the active layer, evaporated Au as electrode, SiO2 as the gate insulator layer on silicon wafer. In addition, Au NPs coated with binding chemicals were used as charge storage elements on an APTES (3-amino-propyltriethoxysilane) as a gluing layer. In order to investigate chemical binding of Au NP to the gate insulator layer, GPTMS (3-glycidoxy-propyltrimethoxysilane) were coated on the Au NPs. As a result of that, a layer of gold nanoparticles has been incorporated into a metal-pentacene-insulator-semiconductor (MPIS) structure. The MPIS device with the Au NP exhibited a hysteresis in its capacitance versus voltage analysis. Charge storage in the layer of nanoparticles is thought to be responsible for this effect.