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Based on extensive new material, 2088 valves resulting from search sampling of ~500 kg of sediment, the Pliocene chiton biodiversity of the Mondego Basin (Portugal) is reassessed. Twelve species were identified, assigned to seven genera. Eight species are new for the Pliocene of Portugal, as well as two of the genera: Hanleya, Acanthochitona. Two taxa are described as new: Ischnochiton loureiroi n. sp. and Lepidochitona rochae n. sp. Until now, the polyplacophoran European Neogene record was too poorly known to be of help in generating a clear picture of the Miocene to present-day biogeography of the group. This new wealth of data from western Iberia, in conjunction with recent data from the Loire Basin Upper Miocene assemblages (France), allows clarification the Late Miocene to Recent eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean biogeography of the Polyplacophora. The northern range of warm-water northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Polyplacophora experienced a sharp contraction since, at least, Late Miocene to Early Pliocene times. Warm-water chiton species represented in the Upper Miocene of the Loire Basin of NE France (European-West African Province) and the Pliocene of the Mondego Basin of central-west Portugal (Pliocene French-Iberian Province) are today confined to the southern Mediterranean-Moroccan Molluscan Province.
A series of experiments on stratified Taylor–Couette flow in short aspect ratio wide-gap annuli found an intriguing and not-well-understood dynamics: nonlinear coherent structures appearing and disappearing periodically, along with density layering reminiscent of staircase profiles. A detailed numerical study is presented of the nonlinear dynamics near onset of instability in this setting, which explains most of the characteristics found in the experiments. The simulations show that centrifugal instability of the boundary layer on the inner rotating cylinder produces jets of angular momentum forming Taylor cells that are compressed axially due to the strong stratification. These cells are not axisymmetric from the onset, but are in fact two sets of Taylor cells displaced axially that meet in localized azimuthal defect regions where the cells are patched together; the whole structure is a rotating wave with azimuthal wavenumber $m=1$. The presence of endwalls in this short aspect ratio annulus is critical for the understanding of the dynamics. Their impact cannot be accounted for in idealized axially periodic models. Another key ingredient is the role played by the symmetries of the system. Although the axial reflection symmetry is weakly broken by centrifugal buoyancy effects, following instability there are various branches of solutions corresponding to the different ways the system's symmetries may be broken.
The cancellarid genus Sveltia Jousseaume, 1887, is widespread in western European and North African Neogene marine fossil assemblages. In Pliocene deposits it is commonly represented by Sveltia varicosa (Brocchi, 1814), which until recently was considered a widely distributed taxon in the Mediterranean Sea and adjacent Atlantic faunas. A recent review of the species from the Pliocene of Italy and Spain (Guadalquivir Basin), leading to the erection of S. confusa, prompted the reassessment of the Sveltia material from the Atlantic Pliocene of the Portuguese Mondego Basin and the subsequent description of Sveltia sofiae n. sp. Consequently, a mosaic of species has emerged from what was previously viewed as the broad Atlanto-Mediterranean range of the widespread and quite variable S. varicosa. From a biogeographic standpoint, it is now clear that S. varicosa was a Mediterranean species, occurring east of the Alboran Sea. Sveltia confusa had a mainly Atlantic distribution, from the French Pliocene Ligerian Gulf to the Gulf of Cadiz, at least, and straddling the Strait of Gibraltar into the Alboran Sea. Sveltia sofiae n. sp. was endemic to western Iberia, represented today only in the western Portuguese Mondego Basin. Sveltia is a thermophilic genus. Since early Pliocene times, because of northeastern Atlantic sea surface temperature decline, it underwent a southward range contraction, occurring today—in the eastern Atlantic—from Cape Blanc, Mauritania, south. This range reduction was coupled with the post mid-Piacenzian southward contraction of the Pliocene Mediterranean-West African tropical molluscan province and the consequent rise of the present-day Mediterranean-Moroccan subtropical province.
Burnout occurs in every stage of a medical graduation and career. In the first years of graduation, is affects 35-45% of medical and dentistry students. This has severe consequences, such as: higher levels of suicidal ideation, substance abuse, medical errors and medical neglect; lower levels of empathy and self-compassion - essential to the quality of healthcare. Students with certain personality traits (e.g., neuroticism and, particularly, perfectionism) are more vulnerable to emotional dysregulation when facing stressors of daily life. Our recent studies proved that mindfulness and self-compassion can attenuate the effect of perfectionism on psychological distress.
To present the rational, materials, methodology and preliminary results of our project COMBURNOUT, aimed to develop, implement and assess the efficacy of a mindfulness and self-compassion-based intervention to prevent burnout in medical and dentistry students.
Students with high levels of burnout, psychological distress and perfectionism will be randomly assigned to intervention (8 weekly sessions) or control groups. The sessions will be composed by psychoeducation about burnout, mindfulness and self-compassion practices, within and between sessions. The follow up will include three assessment moments until a year after the intervention.
We expect that the experimental group will present significantly lower levels of burnout, psychological distress and perfectionism, and higher levels of emotional regulation skills.
The facilitators training and the manualization are guaranties of standardization and sustainability. If the positive impact of COMBURNOUT is verified, we intend to provide the program to medical/dentistry students from all over the country.
Although there are several empirical studies exploring the relationship between problematic Internet use and personality traits, few had considered perfectionism.
To explore the association between generalized problematic Internet use and perfectionism.
A sample of 433 Portuguese university students (Mage = 20.15 years, SD = 1.77, range = 18-25 years) completed the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2/GPIU and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Composite Scale – short version.
GPIU total score (rs=.16**), Mood Regulation (rs=.22**), and Deficient Self-Regulation (rs=.13**) were correlated with Positive Striving factor. GPIU total score (rs=.38**), Preference for Online Social Interaction (rs=.16**), Mood Regulation (rs=.28**), Deficient Self-Regulation (rs = .33**), and Negative Consequences (rs=.41**) were significantly correlated with Evaluative Concerns factor. A one-way between groups analysis of variance was conducted to explore the relation between GPIU and perfectionism. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their GPIU risk levels (Group1:low-risk; Group2:medium-risk; Group3:high-risk). There was a statistically difference at p >.05 level in Positive Striving scores for the three risk level groups: F (2,430)=4.39, p=.013, and in Evaluative Concerns scores, F (2,430)=28.83, p=<.001. Post-hoc comparisons using the Tukey USD test, for Positive Striving, indicated that the mean score for Group1 (M=39.21, SD=8.56) was significantly different from Group3 (M=43.69, SD=9.74). Considering Evaluative Concerns, the mean score for Group1 (M=39.86, SD=11.31) was significantly different from Group2 (M=46.91, SD=11.42) and from Group3 (M=51.75, SD=8.54).
GPIU is consistently related to maladaptive perfectionism. Future longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the bidirectional association between GPIU and perfectionism traits.
Personality traits play are related to many forms of psychological distress, such as body dissatisfaction.
To explore the associations between appearance schemas and personality traits.
494 university students (80.2% females; 99.2% single), with a mean age of 20.17 years old (SD=1.77; range:18-20), filled in the Appearance Schemas Inventory-Revised, the NEO-Personality Inventory, and the Composite Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale.
A significant difference was found in Self-evaluation Salience scores by sex [females (M=37.99,SD=7.82); males (M=35.36,SD=6.60);t(489)=-3.052,p=.002]. Having conducted correlations separately, by sex, Self-Evaluation Salience was correlated with Concern Over Mistakes (r=.27), Doubts about Actions (r=.35), and Socially-Prescribed Perfectionism (r=.23). For females, Self-evaluation Salience was correlated with Concern Over Mistakes (r=.34), Personal Standards (r=.25), Doubts about Actions (r=.33), Parental Expectations (r=.24), Parental Criticism (r=.24), Organization (r=.11), Socially-Prescribed Perfectionism (r=.31), Self-Oriented Perfectionism (r=.32), and Neuroticism (r=.33). Concerning Motivational Salience, in the total sample (not separately, by sex), this scale/dimension significantly correlated with Conscientiousness (r=. 18), Personal Standards (r=.23), Socially-Prescribed Perfectionism (r=. 10), and Self-Oriented Perfectionism (r=.29).
Females seem to value more their self-appearance and, in females, the salience of appearance in life seems to be associated with maladaptive-perfectionism, as well as with adaptive-perfectionism. In males, the salience of appearance was only related with adaptive perfectionism. Males seem more concerned with their own standards, while for females other´s standards are also relevant. In females the level of salience of appearance in life seems to relate to the experience of feelings, such as anxiety/depression (neuroticism). The motivation to improve appearance seemed to be particularly related, in both sex, to adaptive perfectionism.
Screening programs for perinatal depression are systematicly implemented in developed countries. To circumvent the most commonly pointed limitation by the primary healthcare professionals (the questionnaires length), we have developed shorter forms of the Beck and Gable Postpartum Depression Screening Scale-35. The shortest version consists of seven items, each one representing a dimension evaluated by the PDSS. This PDSS-7 demonstrated equal levels of reliability and validity as the 35-item PDSS with the advantage of being completed in as little as 1-2 minutes(Pereira et al. 2013).
To analyze the construct validity of the PDSS-7 using Confirmatory Factor Analysis, to use both in Portugal and in Brazil.
The Portuguese sample was composed of 616 women (Mean age: 32.29±4.466; Mean gestation weeks=17.13±4.929). These participants were not the same who participated in the psychometric study that led to the selection of the seven items. The Brazilian sample was composed of 350 women (Mean age: 30.01±5.452; Mean gestation weeks=25.17±6.55). They all had uncomplicated pregnancies and completed the European/Brazilian Portuguese versions of PDSS-24 (Pereira et al. 2013/ Barros et al. 2021), which was composed of the same items and included the seven items that compose the PDSS-7.
The unidimensional model of PDSS-7 presented a good fit in both samples (Portuguese/Brazilian: χ2/d.f.=3.439/2.653; RMSEA=.066/.069, CFI=.974/.981, TLI=.947/.957, GFI=.939/.957; p<.001). The PDSS-7 Cronbach’s alphas were .82/.83 and all the items contribute to the internal consistency.
The PDSS-7 is a valid and precise, economic, fast and easy screening instrument for perinatal depression, a major public health problem, both in Portugal and in Brazil.
COVID-19 is a respiratory disease and its main symptoms are fever, dry cough and difficulty breathing. It spread to several countries, which led the World Health Organization to decree, on March 11, 2020, a pandemic state that deeply affected Brazil. Due to the impossibility of leaving the house, the routine of children with autism was changed. Children in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have a qualitative deficit in social interaction. Clinical and daily observations reinforce several scientific studies that defend the importance of maintaining a routine as stable as possible for people with ASD, without this stability they may become emotionally disorganized, feel discomfort or even irritability.
Investigate the impact caused by social distancing on the development of children and adolescents with autism.
An online questionnaire based on the DIR/Floortime basic map of emotional functional capacity development was distributed in Brazil from April to May, 2020. The results were analyzed using SPSS software.
Results obtained from 122 questionnaires showed that after 30 days of quarantine 20% of children no longer had the characteristic of being able to remain calm and organized for at least 2 minutes; 11% no longer initiates interactions with their parents; 27% demonstrated more protests and anger than before the social distancing; 18% demonstrated more emotions such as anger, fear and intimacy, 28% began to understand their limits and 12% of the children are using greater facial expression during the social distancing.
This study brings results that can help to understand the processes in a child with autism.
Neurosciences evolved very rapidly in last few years and helped the establishment of Liaison Psychiatry as a fundamental part of the general hospitals functioning. However, the use of this department by the other specialties still needs to be refined, as it is common to find wrong assessments in the referral of the patients.
We aim to study the concordance between the referral motives and the assessment by the psychiatry team.
Data was collected through the informatic registry. Contains patient data observed by a liaison psychiatrist in the period between 1st of July and 30th of September of 2020. In this period there were 80 requests, of which, 6 were refused for various reasons. We decided to study the concordance when one of these symptoms were in the request: anxious symptoms, depressive symptoms, psychotic symptoms and psychomotor agitation. 46 requests met this criteria.
The mean age was 63,3yo and 46% were older than 65yo. Most were women (54%) and 68% had history of psychiatry disorder. About 50% were requests from the Medicine wards. The concordance between the medical request and the psychiatry assessment was higher for psychomotor agitation (n=11; 64%) and depressive symptoms (n=23; 57%), but it was lower in anxious symptoms (n=3; 33%) and in psychotic symptoms (n=9; 33%). Most common diagnosis was delirium.
Non-psychiatrist doctors appear to have more difficulty when assessing anxious and psychotic symptoms. Those concordance percentages are in line with recent research. Actions should be taken to improve this, like academic training and standardization of referral.
The relation between insecure general attachment and social anxiety has long been established.
To explore the associations between social interaction and performance anxiety and avoidance, attachment styles, and parental marital status.
146 Portuguese adolescents, with a mean age of 18.99 years old (SD = .848; range: 18-20), filled in the Social Interaction and Performance Anxiety and Avoidance Scale and the Experiences in Close Relationships-Relationship Structures Questionnaire.
Distress/Anxiety was correlated with avoidance attachment to mother and father (rs = .17*, p = .04; rs = .18*, p = .03), to anxious attachment to romantic partner (rs = .21*, p = .01), and to anxious and avoidance attachment to best friend (rs = .25**, p = .00; (rs = .17*, p = .035). Avoidance was significantly correlated with avoidance to father and to romantic partner (rs = .18*, p = .03), and to anxious and avoidance attachment to best friend (rs = .21**, p = .009; rs = .18*, p = .03). A significant difference was found in avoidance attachment to father X2 = 10.246 (4, n = 146), p = .036, by parental marital status, with the adolescents with single/divorced parents presenting a higher mean score (Md = 111.10; Md = 82.93) than the other groups.
Distress/anxiety seems to be associated with more close relationships, and a single/divorced status with Avoidance. Longitudinal studies are needed to explore if insecure attachment to parents predicts insecure extra-familiar attachment, and to explore the long-term effects of parental marital status.
COVID-19, although a respiratory illness, has been clinically associated with non-respiratory symptoms. We conducted a negative case–control study to identify the symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2-positive results in Portugal. Twelve symptoms and signs included in the clinical notification of COVID-19 were selected as predictors, and the dependent variable was the RT-PCR test result. The χ2 tests were used to compare notified cases on sex, age group, health region and presence of comorbidities. The best-fit prediction model was selected using a backward stepwise method with an unconditional logistic regression. General and gastrointestinal symptoms were strongly associated with a positive test (P < 0.001). In this sense, the inclusion of general symptoms such as myalgia, headache and fatigue, as well as diarrhoea, together with actual clinical criteria for suspected cases, already updated and included in COVID-19 case definition, can lead to increased identification of cases and represent an effective strength for transmission control.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) for children aged 1–2 years and to analyse the quality of nutrition of preterm infants. This was a cross-sectional study with 106 premature infants attended in two specialised outpatient clinics of university hospitals. The quality of the diet was analysed through an adapted HEI to meet the dietary recommendations of Brazilian children aged 1–2 years. Food consumption was measured by 24-h recalls. The reliability of the instrument was evaluated by internal consistency analysis and inter-observer reliability using Cronbach’s α coefficient and κ with quadratic ponderation. The construct validity was evaluated by principal component analysis and by Spearman’s correlation coefficient with total energy and consumption of some groups’ food. The diet quality was considered adequate when the total HEI score was over 80 points. Cronbach’s α was 0·54. Regarding inter-observer reliability, ten items showed strong agreement (κ > 0·8). The item scores had low correlations with energy consumed (r ≤ 0·30), and positive and moderate correlation of fruit (r 0·67), meat (r 0·60) and variety of diet (r 0·57) with total scores. When analysing the overall quality of the diet, most patients need improvement (median 78·7 points), which can be attributed to low total vegetable intake and the presence of ultraprocessed foods in the diet. The instrument showed auspicious psychometric properties, being promising to evaluate the quality of the diet in children aged 1–2 years.
Spontaneous abortion is considered a public health problem having several causes, including infections. Among the infectious agents, bacteria of the vaginal microbiota and Ureaplasma parvum have been associated with abortion, but their participation needs to be further elucidated. This study aims to evaluate the influence of Mollicutes on the development of spontaneous abortion. Women who underwent spontaneous abortion and those with normal birth (control) were studied. Samples of cervical mucus (CM) and placental tissue were collected to identify Mollicutes using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methodology. Eighty-nine women who had a miscarriage and 20 women with normal pregnancies were studied. The presence of Mollicutes in placental tissue increased the chance of developing miscarriage sevenfold. The prevalence of U. parvum in women who experienced spontaneous abortion was 66.3% in placental tissue. A positive association was observed between the detection of U. parvum in samples of placental tissue and abortion. There was a significant increase in microbial load in placental tissue for M. hominis, U. urealyticum and U. parvum compared to the control group. Detection of U. parvum in CM in pregnant women can ascend to the region of the placental tissue and trigger a spontaneous abortion.
Recent evidence has questioned modern psychiatric clinical practice, specifically the prescribing of “atypical” antipsychotics. Our Pan-European Research Group wished to ascertain clinical practice amongst European trainees, which treatments trainees would desire for themselves, and factors influencing this.
A semi-structured survey was constructed from prior literature, piloted, and a homogenous sample size of at least 50 was agreed upon from each country, with 50% minimum response rate. It was distributed via web-link, with questions on preference of antipsychotic for patients in given scenarios, and factors influencing choice. Physicians were asked for their preference should they develop psychosis.
i) Treatment choice of antipsychotic for patients
93% (n=600) of respondents chose to prescribe “atypical” antipsychotics (excluding Clozapine), 6% (n=42) choosing “typical” antipsychotics, 1% (n=6) choosing Clozapine as first-line therapy.
ii) Treatment choice if trainees developed psychosis
89% (n=530) of responders chose to prescribe “atypical” antipsychotics (excluding Clozapine), 7% (n=40) choosing “typical” antipsychotics, 4% (n=23) choosing Clozapine as first-line therapy.
iii) Factors influencing choice
These mapped onto three domains: cost, efficacy and side-effect profile (less than 5% other reasons). 79% (n=458) of those who responded felt efficacy most important, 46% (n=270) felt side-effect profile most important and 3% (n=16) considered cost of paramount importance.
38% (n=272) of those who responded to the survey stated that the CATIE trial had influenced their decision-making.
Psychiatry trainees’ choice of antipsychotic medication for both patients and themselves is based on perceived benefits, as opposed to evidence base and recent literature.
Guidelines produced for management of Bipolar Disorder illustrate change in evidence-base for treatment of acute and maintenance phases of illness. Our Pan-European Research Group assessed clinical practice and desired treatments amongst amongst Psychiatry trainees.
A semi-structured survey was piloted, and homogenous sample size (at least 50) agreed upon from each country, with 50% minimum response rate. It was distributed via web-link, questioning preference of mood stabiliser for patients, trainees themselves and factors influencing choice.
Tables 1 summarise choices.
Lithium and Sodium Valproate
2nd Generation Atypical antipsychotics
[Choice of mood stabiliser for patient/themselves]
Factors influencing decision-making mapped onto cost, efficacy and side-effect profile (less than 4% other reasons). 66% (n=538) of respondents felt efficacy most important, 25% (n=202) felt side-effect profile most important and 3% (n=24) considered cost of most importance.
No clear difference exists in choice of mood stabiliser for European trainees and their patients, and decisions based on perceived efficacy are generally in keeping with established guidelines.
The schizophrenia has associated traditionally with major rates of comorbilidad physics. In addition the antipsychotic ones of the second generation are causers of the so called metabolic syndrome (increase of weight, dislipemia and diabetes) that favor directly the cardiovascular disease in our patients.
To develop a therapeutic plan to diminish the sobremortalidad and sobremorbilidad of our schizophrenic patients (according to different studies between 25-50 % of cardiovascular risk). To detect the factors of risk, which influence the metabolic Syndrome: a high level of cholesterol HDL, IMC, smoking and hyperglycemia.
To apply measures of prevention for the diabetes, for the arterial hypertension and the dislipemias.
Retrospective study is realized, checking the clinical histories of the patients beginning medication with aripiprazol for symptomatology psychotic and support the treatment at least 6 months later. We realized preventive specific measures in the patients including education to the patient, careful selection of the antipsychotic with substitution if there appear signs of metabolic syndrome.
39 patients that initiated treatment with aripiprazol, therapeutic doses. Of 39 patients 24 (61,54 %) is smoking, 18 (46,16 %) has an IMC> 25, 11 (28,39 %) hipertriglicerinemia, 5 (12,82 %) index of glycemia basal> 125 and 6 (15,38 %) with hipercolesterolemia.
The antipsychotic atypical alter the metabolic regulation. The treatment with aripiprazol suggests minor risk of metabolic syndrome, in relation to previous similar studies, with antipsychotic others. We think it performs vital importance the prevention of the overweight orientated to patients with the first psychotic episode.
There is growing concern about the influence of the pharmaceutical industry on psychiatric teaching and psychiatric professionalism as a whole. As a consequence, several national and international medical and psychiatric associations have issued guidelines to regulate the interactions between physicians and industry.
The EFPT-PRIRS study aims to provide the lacking data on the extent and nature of these interactions among psychiatric trainees across Europe.
Study objectives were determined by the EFPT research group (EFPT-RG), after discussion with national and international experts. A survey was then devised compiling previously published questionnaires extending them by questions with specific relevance to psychiatric trainees. The resulting questionnaire was piloted amongst members of the EFPT-RG, modified accordingly and subsequently distributed to the national study coordinators. All 24 EFPT member countries were invited to participate in the study and data collection is currently ongoing.
Preliminary analysis reveals the vast differences in industry - trainee relationships across European countries as well as major differences in personal attitudes towards these interactions.
EFPT-PRIRS will potentially have an impact on the regulation of the interactions between the pharmaceutical industry and psychiatric trainees.
To investigate the role of perfectionism in the development of disordered eating behaviours.
382 female university students completed the Hewitt & Flett MPS and the EAT-40 at baseline, one year after (T1) and two years later (T2).
Perfectionism at baseline was significantly associated with long-term abnormal eating attitudes/behaviours. Self-Oriented Perfectionism (SOP) and Socially Prescribed Perfectionism (SPP) were significant predictors of disordered eating behaviours. SOP at baseline was predictive of diet concerns, at T1 and T2. Baseline SPP was correlated with overall eating disturbance at T1 and T2. Regression analysis revealed that only SPP was a significant predictor of bulimic behaviours and social pressure to eat at T1, but not at T2.
Our findings contribute to a more clear understanding of the association between perfectionism and eating disorders. SOP and SPP were prospectively associated with abnormal eating attitudes/behaviours and SOP was found to be predictive of diet concerns.