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Seabirds are highly threatened, including by fisheries bycatch. Accurate understanding of offshore distribution of seabirds is crucial to address this threat. Tracking technologies revolutionised insights into seabird distributions but tracking data may contain a variety of biases. We tracked two threatened seabirds (Salvin’s Albatross Thalassarche salvini n = 60 and Black Petrel Procellaria parkinsoni n = 46) from their breeding colonies in Aotearoa (New Zealand) to their non-breeding grounds in South America, including Peru, while simultaneously completing seven surveys in Peruvian waters. We then used species distribution models to predict occurrence and distribution using either data source alone, and both data sources combined. Results showed seasonal differences between estimates of occurrence and distribution when using data sources independently. Combining data resulted in more balanced insights into occurrence and distributions, and reduced uncertainty. Most notably, both species were predicted to occur in Peruvian waters during all four annual quarters: the northern Humboldt upwelling system for Salvin’s Albatross and northern continental shelf waters for Black Petrels. Our results highlighted that relying on a single data source may introduce biases into distribution estimates. Our tracking data might have contained ontological and/or colony-related biases (e.g. only breeding adults from one colony were tracked), while our survey data might have contained spatiotemporal biases (e.g. surveys were limited to waters <200 nm from the coast). We recommend combining data sources wherever possible to refine predictions of species distributions, which ultimately will improve fisheries bycatch management through better spatiotemporal understanding of risks.
A combination of olanzapine and the opioid receptor antagonist samidorphan (OLZ/SAM) has been approved in the United States for the treatment of adults with schizophrenia or adults with bipolar I disorder. In a phase 3 study in adults with schizophrenia (ENLIGHTEN-2), OLZ/SAM treatment was associated with significantly less weight gain compared with olanzapine. Prespecified subgroup analyses explored the consistency of the weight mitigation effect of OLZ/SAM vs olanzapine across demographic subgroups in ENLIGHTEN-2.
The multicenter, randomized, double-blind ENLIGHTEN-2 study (NCT02694328) included outpatients aged 18–55 years with a diagnosis of schizophrenia based on DSM-5 criteria, a body mass index (BMI) of 18 to 30 kg/m2, and stable body weight (self-reported change ≤5% for ≥3 months before study entry). Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive OLZ/SAM or olanzapine for 24 weeks. Co-primary endpoints (previously reported) were percent change in body weight and proportion of patients with at least 10% weight gain from baseline at week 24. Prespecified exploratory subgroup analyses by sex, age, self-reported race, and baseline BMI were conducted.
At week 24, treatment with OLZ/SAM resulted in numerically less percent weight gain than with olanzapine across all subgroups evaluated. The proportion of patients with at least 10% weight gain was smaller in each subgroup treated with OLZ/SAM vs olanzapine.
In these exploratory subgroup analyses from the ENLIGHTEN-2 study, weight-mitigating effects of OLZ/SAM vs olanzapine were observed consistently across patient subgroups and were in line with results from the overall study population.
Variation exists in the timing of surgery for balanced complete atrioventricular septal defect repair. We sought to explore associations between timing of repair and resource utilisation and clinical outcomes in the first year of life.
In this retrospective single-centre cohort study, we included patients who underwent complete atrioventricular septal defect repair between 2005 and 2019. Patients with left or right ventricular outflow tract obstruction and major non-cardiac comorbidities (except trisomy 21) were excluded. The primary outcome was days alive and out of the hospital in the first year of life.
Included were 79 infants, divided into tertiles based on age at surgery (1st = 46 to 137 days, 2nd = 140 – 176 days, 3rd = 178 – 316 days). There were no significant differences among age tertiles for days alive and out of the hospital in the first year of life by univariable analysis (tertile 1, median 351 days; tertile 2, 348 days; tertile 3, 354 days; p = 0.22). No patients died. Fewer post-operative ICU days were used in the oldest tertile relative to the youngest, but days of mechanical ventilation and hospitalisation were similar. Clinical outcomes after repair and resource utilisation in the first year of life were similar for unplanned cardiac reinterventions, outpatient cardiology clinic visits, and weight-for-age z-score at 1 year.
Age at complete atrioventricular septal defect repair is not associated with important differences in clinical outcomes or resource utilisation in the first year of life.
Several children in a typical classroom experience persistent learning difficulties that are likely to reflect weak cognitive skills (Holmes et al., 2020). In some cases, these are related to poor working memory. In this chapter, we discuss how limited working memory resources constrain classroom learning, focusing on the impact of poor working memory on children’s abilities to follow both classroom management and learning-activity relevant instructions (e.g., Jaroslawska et al., 2016; 2017). Different ways to help children with poor working memory are discussed. These include an overview of current ideas about memory enhancement by training and brain stimulation (e.g., Byrne et al., 2020), as well as more practical ways for teachers to use action to improve children’s instruction-following.
Loneliness and isolation worsen health and wellbeing have been exacerbated by COVID-19, and represent a significant concern for supporting older adults. Music listening has effects that could be particularly supportive during periods of isolation. The aim of this study is to examine older adults’ music listening behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic and explore music's social and emotional impact in this context. Semi-structured interviews enhanced with music-elicitation were carried out remotely between May and June 2021. Participants were self-selected, community-dwelling older adults residing in Northern Ireland (N = 14; 6 males; 60–83 years). Most were living with their spouse or family, all were of White ethnicity and had varying levels of education. Data were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. Two main themes were identified: (1) Music as an emotional resource and (2) Music as a social surrogate. Older adults had a preference for using music to induce positive feelings, and used music for negative affect regulation and consolation. Music acted as a social surrogate providing company, and reminders of social relationships and experiences. Music listening was a valued behaviour during COVID-19. Findings have implications for how music listening might be used as an accessible, low-resource tool for supporting isolated older adults.
Cognitive therapy for social anxiety disorder (CT-SAD) is recommended by NICE (2013) as a first-line intervention. Take up in routine services is limited by the need for up to 14 ninety-min face-to-face sessions, some of which are out of the office. An internet-based version of the treatment (iCT-SAD) with remote therapist support may achieve similar outcomes with less therapist time.
102 patients with social anxiety disorder were randomised to iCT-SAD, CT-SAD, or waitlist (WAIT) control, each for 14 weeks. WAIT patients were randomised to the treatments after wait. Assessments were at pre-treatment/wait, midtreatment/wait, posttreatment/wait, and follow-ups 3 & 12 months after treatment. The pre-registered (ISRCTN 95 458 747) primary outcome was the social anxiety disorder composite, which combines 6 independent assessor and patient self-report scales of social anxiety. Secondary outcomes included disability, general anxiety, depression and a behaviour test.
CT-SAD and iCT-SAD were both superior to WAIT on all measures. iCT-SAD did not differ from CT-SAD on the primary outcome at post-treatment or follow-up. Total therapist time in iCT-SAD was 6.45 h. CT-SAD required 15.8 h for the same reduction in social anxiety. Mediation analysis indicated that change in process variables specified in cognitive models accounted for 60% of the improvements associated with either treatment. Unlike the primary outcome, there was a significant but small difference in favour of CT-SAD on the behaviour test.
When compared to conventional face-to-face therapy, iCT-SAD can more than double the amount of symptom change associated with each therapist hour.
To determine base rates of invalid performance on the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) undertaking rehabilitation who were referred for clinical assessment, and the factors contributing to TOMM failure.
Retrospective file review of consecutive TBI referrals for neuropsychological assessment over seven years. TOMM failure was conventionally defined as performance <45/50 on Trial 2 or Retention Trial. Demographic, injury, financial compensation, occupational, and medical variables were collected.
Four hundred and ninety one TBI cases (Median age = 40 years [IQR = 26–52], 79% male, 82% severe TBI) were identified. Overall, 48 cases (9.78%) failed the TOMM. Logistic regression analyses revealed that use of an interpreter during the assessment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.25, 95%CI = 3.96–17.18), outpatient setting (aOR = 4.80, 95%CI = 1.87–12.31) and post-injury psychological distress (aOR = 2.77, 95%CI = 1.35–5.70) were significant multivariate predictors of TOMM failure. The TOMM failure rate for interpreter cases was 49% (21/43) in the outpatient setting vs. 7% (2/30) in the inpatient setting. By comparison, 9% (21/230) of non-interpreter outpatient cases failed the TOMM vs. 2% (4/188) of inpatient cases.
TOMM failure very rarely occurs in clinical assessment of TBI patients in the inpatient rehabilitation setting. It is more common in the outpatient setting, particularly in non-English-speaking people requiring an interpreter. The findings reinforce the importance of routinely administering stand-alone performance validity tests in assessments of clinical TBI populations, particularly in outpatient settings, to ensure that neuropsychological test results can be interpreted with a high degree of confidence.
To evaluate the effectiveness of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) disinfection as an adjunct to standard chlorine-based disinfectant terminal room cleaning in reducing transmission of hospital-acquired multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) from a prior room occupant.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted to compare rates of MDRO transmission by UV-C status from January 1, 2016, through December 31, 2018.
Acute-care, single-patient hospital rooms at 6 hospitals within an academic healthcare system in Pennsylvania.
Transmission of hospital-acquired MDRO infection was assessed in patients subsequently assigned to a single-patient room of a source occupant with carriage of 1 or more MDROs on or during admission. Acquisition of 5 pathogens was compared between exposed patients in rooms with standard-of-care chlorine-based disinfectant terminal cleaning with or without adjunct UV-C disinfection. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted risk of pathogen transfer with adjunctive use of UV-C disinfection.
In total, 33,771 exposed patient admissions were evaluated; the source occupants carried 46,688 unique pathogens. Prior to the 33,771 patient admissions, 5,802 rooms (17.2%) were treated with adjunct UV-C disinfection. After adjustment for covariates, exposed patients in rooms treated with adjunct UV-C were at comparable risk of transfer of any pathogen (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.84–1.32; P = .64).
Our analysis does not support the use of UV-C in addition to post-discharge cleaning with chlorine-based disinfectant to lower the risk of prior room occupant pathogen transfer.
To evaluate infectious pathogen transmission data visualizations in outbreak publications.
Medline was searched for outbreak investigations of infectious diseases within healthcare facilities that included ≥1 data visualization of transmission using data observable by an infection preventionist showing temporal and/or spatial relationships. Abstracted data included the nature of the cluster(s) (pathogen, scope of transmission, and individuals involved) and data visualization characteristics including visualization type, transmission elements, and software.
From 1,957 articles retrieved, we analyzed 30 articles including 37 data visualizations. The median cluster size was 20.5 individuals (range, 7–1,963) and lasted a median of 214 days (range, 12–5,204). Among the data visualization types, 10 (27%) were floor-plan transmission maps, 6 (16%) were timelines, 11 (30%) were transmission networks, 3 (8%) were Gantt charts, 4 (11%) were cluster map, and 4 (11%) were other types. In addition, 26 data visualizations (70%) contained spatial elements, 26 (70%) included person type, and 19 (51%) contained time elements. None of the data visualizations contained contagious periods and only 2 (5%) contained symptom-onset date.
The data visualizations of healthcare-associated infectious disease outbreaks in the systematic review were diverse in type and visualization elements, though no data visualization contained all elements important to deriving hypotheses about transmission pathways. These findings aid in understanding the visualizing transmission pathways by describing essential elements of the data visualization and will inform the creation of a standardized mapping tool to aid in earlier initiation of interventions to prevent transmission.
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has traditionally been used in infection prevention to confirm or refute the presence of an outbreak after it has occurred. Due to decreasing costs of WGS, an increasing number of institutions have been utilizing WGS-based surveillance. Additionally, machine learning or statistical modeling to supplement infection prevention practice have also been used. We systematically reviewed the use of WGS surveillance and machine learning to detect and investigate outbreaks in healthcare settings.
We performed a PubMed search using separate terms for WGS surveillance and/or machine-learning technologies for infection prevention through March 15, 2021.
Of 767 studies returned using the WGS search terms, 42 articles were included for review. Only 2 studies (4.8%) were performed in real time, and 39 (92.9%) studied only 1 pathogen. Nearly all studies (n = 41, 97.6%) found genetic relatedness between some isolates collected. Across all studies, 525 outbreaks were detected among 2,837 related isolates (average, 5.4 isolates per outbreak). Also, 35 studies (83.3%) only utilized geotemporal clustering to identify outbreak transmission routes. Of 21 studies identified using the machine-learning search terms, 4 were included for review. In each study, machine learning aided outbreak investigations by complementing methods to gather epidemiologic data and automating identification of transmission pathways.
WGS surveillance is an emerging method that can enhance outbreak detection. Machine learning has the potential to identify novel routes of pathogen transmission. Broader incorporation of WGS surveillance into infection prevention practice has the potential to transform the detection and control of healthcare outbreaks.
Background: While mechanical thrombectomy (MT) has become broadly used, many nuances around its performance are still contentious. In particular, the optimal sedation strategy for MT is not clear in the literature. Methods: This study was a single-center retrospective cohort study of a prospectively collected database. Age, gender, pre-treatment NIH stroke score (NIHSS), Alberta stroke program early score CT (ASPECTS), quality of collateralization, whether the patient underwent thrombectomy, tandem carotid occlusion, and thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) score were recorded in the database. Results: We identified 228 patients having anterior circulation mechanical thrombectomy (MT). 91 were right-sided, 108 were left-sided. Collaterals were graded as good in 135 (71.4), moderate in 44 (23.2%), and poor in 10 (5.3%). The average pre-MT ASPECTS was 8.1 (range). We found significant differences between all patients, patients with good outcome (mRS 0-2) and death in age, baseline NIHSS, collateralization, and TICI revascularization score. Multivariate analysis was performed with showed significant associations of sidedness, collateralization, TICI score and hemorrhage with neurological outcome. Right-sided stroke, better collaterals, higher TICI score and absence of hemorrhage were associated with better outcomes. Conclusions: We found comparable outcomes to those reported in the literature with use of general anesthetic. We identify several factors that influence outcomes.
Background: Visual impairment can impact 70% of individuals who have experienced a stroke. Identification and remediation of visual impairments can improve overall function and perceived quality of life. Our project aimed to improve visual assessment and timely intervention for patients with post-stroke visual impairment (PSVI). Methods: We conducted a quality improvement initiative to create a standardized screening and referral process for patients with PSVI to access an orthoptist. Post-stroke visual impairment was identified using the Visual Screen Assessment (VISA) tool. Patients filled out a VFQ-25 questionnaire before and after orthoptic assessment, and differences between scores were evaluated. Results: Eighteen patients completed the VFQ-25 both before and after orthoptic assessment. Of the vision related constructs, there was a significant improvement in reported outcomes for general vision (M=56.9, SD=30.7; M=48.6, SD=16.0), p=0.002, peripheral vision (M=88.3, SD=16; M=75, SD=23.1), p= 0.027, ocular pain (M=97.2, SD=6.9; M=87.5, SD=21.4), p=0.022, near activities (M=82.4, SD=24.1; M=67.8, SD=25.6), p<0.001, social functioning (M=90.2, SD=19; M=78.5, SD=29.3), p=0.019, mental health (M=84.0, SD=25.9; M=70.5, SD=31.2), p=0.017, and role difficulties (M=84.7, SD=26.3; M=67.4, SD=37.9), p=0.005. Conclusions: Orthoptic assessments for those with PSVI significantly improved perceived quality of life in a numerous vision related constructs, suggesting it is a valuable part of a patient’s post-stroke recovery.
This study investigated mobile health enabled surveillance in ototoxicity.
This was a longitudinal study of 32 participants receiving chemotherapy. Baseline and exit audiograms that included conventional and extended high frequency audiometry were recorded within the patient's treatment venue using a validated mobile health audiometer.
Average hearing thresholds at baseline were within the normal range (81.2 per cent left; 93.8 per cent right), reducing at exit testing (71.9 per cent left; 78.1 per cent right). Half of participants presented with a threshold shift according to ototoxicity monitoring criteria. The frequencies affected the most were between 4000 and 16 000 Hz, with left ears significantly more affected than right ears. Noise levels exceeded the maximum permissible ambient noise levels in up to 43.8 per cent of low frequencies (250–1000 Hz).
Mobile health supported audiometry proved to be an efficacious tool for ototoxicity monitoring at the treatment venue. Changes in hearing ability over time could be tracked, improving surveillance in patients with full treatment schedules.
Children of women with pre-eclampsia have increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic disease in adult life. Furthermore, the risk of pregnancy complications is higher in daughters born to women affected by pre-eclampsia than in daughters born after uncomplicated pregnancies. While aberrant inflammation contributes to the pathophysiology of pregnancy complications, including pre-eclampsia, the contribution of maternal inflammation to subsequent risk of CV and metabolic disease as well as pregnancy complications in the offspring remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that 24-week-old female rats (F1) born to dams (F0) exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during pregnancy (to induce inflammation) exhibited mild systolic dysfunction, increased cardiac growth-related gene expression, altered glucose tolerance, and coagulopathy; whereas male F1 offspring exhibited altered glucose tolerance and increased visceral fat accumulation compared with F1 sex-matched offspring born to saline-treated dams. Both male and female F1 offspring born to LPS-treated dams had evidence of anemia. Fetuses (F2) from F1 females born to LPS-treated dams were growth restricted, and this reduction in fetal growth was associated with increased CD68 positivity (indicative of macrophage presence) and decreased expression of glucose transporter-1 in their utero-placental units. These results indicate that abnormal maternal inflammation can contribute to increased risk of CV and metabolic disease in the offspring, and that the effects of inflammation may cross generations. Our findings provide evidence in support of early screening for CV and metabolic disease, as well as pregnancy complications in offspring affected by pre-eclampsia or other pregnancy complications associated with aberrant inflammation.
This paper presents the collections history and typological characteristics of a small collection of Laconian lead figurines from the sanctuary of Artemis Orthia currently held in the Art Gallery of Greater Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. The collection, which first belonged to Ramsay Traquair, serves as a case study for the applicability of the traditional lead figurine typology to decontextualised artefacts, demonstrating its limitations for assigning precise and accurate dates based on style without the benefit of stratigraphic and contextual evidence. The paper further attests to the value of comprehensively analysing small museum and gallery collections in order to gain more individualised understandings of the figurines within the large Laconian corpus than could be afforded upon excavation. Thus, this study helps to elucidate some of the limitations to the means by which we interpret Laconian material culture as well as to nuance our understanding of Laconian lead figurines by demonstrating the varied capability of the typology and published comparanda in dating and stylistic description.
The Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC) is a patient-reported outcome measure which assesses experiences of discrimination among persons with a mental illness globally.
This study evaluated whether the psychometric properties of a short-form version, DISC-Ultra Short (DISCUS) (11-item), could be replicated in a sample of people with a wide range of mental disorders from 21 sites in 15 countries/territories, across six global regions. The frequency of experienced discrimination was reported. Scaling assumptions (confirmatory factor analysis, inter-item and item-total correlations), reliability (internal consistency) and validity (convergent validity, known groups method) were investigated in each region, and by diagnosis group.
1195 people participated. The most frequently reported experiences of discrimination were being shunned or avoided at work (48.7%) and discrimination in making or keeping friends (47.2%). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a unidimensional model across all six regions and five diagnosis groups. Convergent validity was confirmed in the total sample and within all regions [ Internalised Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI-10): 0.28–0.67, stopping self: 0.54–0.72, stigma consciousness: −0.32–0.57], as was internal consistency reliability (α = 0.74–0.84). Known groups validity was established in the global sample with levels of experienced discrimination significantly higher for those experiencing higher depression [Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-2: p < 0.001], lower mental wellbeing [Warwick-Edinburgh Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): p < 0.001], higher suicidal ideation [Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS)-4: p < 0.001] and higher risk of suicidal behaviour [Suicidal Ideation Attributes Scale (SIDAS): p < 0.001].
The DISCUS is a reliable and valid unidimensional measure of experienced discrimination for use in global settings with similar properties to the longer DISC. It offers a brief assessment of experienced discrimination for use in clinical and research settings.
Childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) can have lasting effects on well-being. Children also display resilience following IPV exposure. Yet, little research has prospectively followed changes in both maladaptive and adaptive outcomes in children who experience IPV in early life. The goal of the current study was to investigate how child factors (irritability), trauma history (severity of IPV exposure), maternal factors (mental health, parenting), and early intervention relate to trajectories of behavior problems (internalizing and externalizing problems) and resilience (prosocial behavior, emotion regulation), over 8 years. One hundred twenty mother-child dyads participated in a community-based randomized controlled trial of an intervention for IPV-exposed children and their mothers. Families completed follow-up assessments 6–8 months (N = 71) and 6–8 years (N = 68) later. Although intention-to-treat analyses did not reveal significant intervention effects, per-protocol analyses suggested that participants receiving an effective dose (eight sessions) of the treatment had fewer internalizing problems over time. Child irritability and maternal parenting were associated with both behavior problems and resilience. Maternal mental health was uniquely associated with child behavior problems, whereas maternal positive parenting was uniquely associated with child resilience. Results support the need for a dyadic perspective on child adjustment following IPV exposure.