To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Low-Z nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) grids have been developed to reduce spurious fluorescence and avoid X-ray peak overlaps or interferences between the specimen and conventional metal grids. The low-Z NCD grids are non-toxic and safe to handle, conductive, can be subjected to high-temperature heating experiments, and may be used for analytical work in lieu of metal grids. Both a half-grid geometry, which can be used for any lift-out method, or a full-grid geometry that can be used for ex situ lift-out or thin film analyses, can be fabricated and used for experiments.
The transformation of unstable austenite to ferrite or α′ martensite as a result of exposure to Xe+ or Ga+ ions at room temperature was studied in a 304 stainless steel casting alloy. Controlled Xe+ and Ga+ ion beam exposures of the 304 were carried out at a variety of beam/sample geometries. It was found that both Ga+ and Xe+ ion irradiation resulted in the transformation of the austenite to either ferrite or α′ martensite. In this paper, we will refer to the transformation product as a BCC phase. The crystallographic orientation of the transformed area was controlled by the orientation of the austenite grain and was consistent with either the Nishiyama–Wasserman or the Kurdjumov–Sachs orientation relationships. On the basis of the Xe+ and Ga+ ion beam exposures, the transformation is not controlled by the chemical stabilization of the BCC phase by the ion species, but is a result of the disorder caused by the ion-induced recoil motion and subsequent return of the disordered region to a more energetically favorable phase.
The ex situ lift out (EXLO) adhesion forces are reviewed and new applications of EXLO for focused ion beam (FIB)-prepared specimens are described. EXLO is used to manipulate electron transparent specimens on microelectromechanical systems carrier devices designed for in situ electron microscope analysis. A new patented grid design without a support film is described for EXLO. This new slotted grid design provides a surface for holding the specimen in place and also allows for post lift out processing. Specimens may be easily manipulated into a backside orientation to reduce FIB curtaining artifacts with this slotted grid. Large EXLO specimens can be manipulated from Xe+ plasma FIB prepared specimens. Finally, applications of EXLO and manipulation of FIB specimens using a vacuum probe lift out method are shown. The vacuum probe provides more control for placing specimens on the new slotted grids and also allows for easy manipulation into a backside configuration.