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Malnutrition and acute kidney injury (AKI) are common complications in hospitalised patients, and both increase mortality; however, the relationship between them is unknown. This is a retrospective propensity score matching study enrolling 46 549 inpatients, aimed to investigate the association between Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) and AKI and to assess the ability of NRS-2002 and AKI in predicting prognosis. In total, 37 190 (80 %) and 9359 (20 %) patients had NRS-2002 scores <3 and ≥3, respectively. Patients with NRS-2002 scores ≥3 had longer lengths of stay (12·6 (sd 7·8) v. 10·4 (sd 6·2) d, P < 0·05), higher mortality rates (9·6 v. 2·5 %, P < 0·05) and higher incidence of AKI (28 v. 16 %, P < 0·05) than patients with normal nutritional status. The NRS-2002 showed a strong association with AKI, that is, the risk of AKI changed in parallel with the score of the NRS-2002. In short- and long-term survival, patients with a lower NRS-2002 score or who did not have AKI achieved a significantly lower risk of mortality than those with a high NRS-2002 score or AKI. Univariate Cox regression analyses indicated that both the NRS-2002 and AKI were strongly related to long-term survival (AUC 0·79 and 0·71) and that the combination of the two showed better accuracy (AUC 0·80) than the individual variables. In conclusion, malnutrition can increase the risk of AKI and both AKI and malnutrition can worsen the prognosis that the undernourished patients who develop AKI yield far worse prognosis than patients with normal nutritional status.
Herbicide-resistant weeds pose a considerable threat to agriculture, but their resistance mechanisms are poorly understood. Differential gene expression analysis of a weed subjected to herbicide treatment is a key step toward more mechanistic studies. Such an analysis, often involving quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), requires suitable reference genes as internal controls. In this study, we identified optimal reference genes in the noxious weed, Japanese foxtail. This weed has evolved resistance to acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors. We analyzed the stability of eight commonly used candidate reference genes (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH]; ubiquitin [UBQ]; capsine phosphatase [CAP]; beta-tubulin [TUB]; eukaryotic initiation factor 4a [EIF4A]; elongation factor-1 alpha [EF1]; 18S ribosomal RNA [18S]; 25S ribosomal RNA [25S]) from root, stem, and leaf tissue of plants that were either resistant or sensitive to ACCase inhibitors, with or without herbicide stress, using qPCR. The results were further ranked and analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper software. These analyses identified EF1 and UBQ in roots, EF1, TUB, CAP, and 18S in stems, and EF1, GAPDH, and 18S in leaves as suitable references for qPCR normalization. We have identified a set of reference genes that can be used to study herbicide resistance mechanisms in Japanese foxtail.
Japanese foxtail is a grass weed in eastern China. This weed is controlled by fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, one of the most common acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides. Some Japanese foxtail populations have developed resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, owing to target-site mutations (amino acid substitutions) located within the carboxyl transferase domain of ACCase. In the present study, three mutations were detected in three fenoxaprop-P-ethyl–resistant Japanese foxtail populations: Ile-1781-Leu in JCJT-2, Ile-2041-Asn in JZJR-1, and Asp-2078-Gly in JCWJ-3. Two copies of ACCase (Acc1-1 and Acc1-2) were identified, but mutations were detected only in Acc1-1. The derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (dCAPS) method detected these mutations successfully in Japanese foxtail. The mutation frequencies in JCJT-2, JZJR-1, and JCWJ-3 were approximately 98%, 92%, and 87%, respectively. Different cross-resistance patterns to ACCase inhibitors were found in the three resistant populations. JCJT-2 (Ile-1781-Leu) and JZJR-1 (Ile-2041-Asn) showed cross-resistance to haloxyfop-R-methyl, clodinafop-propargyl, and pinoxaden, but were susceptible to clethodim. JCWJ-3 (Asp-2078-Gly) showed cross-resistance to all tested ACCase-inhibiting herbicides.
Herbicide-resistant (R biotype) and -sensitive (S biotype) individuals were identified from the same population, and seed was increased for each biotype for three generations. We conducted laboratory experiments to determine the effects of temperature, light, salt stress, osmotic stress, pH, and burial depth on the germination and emergence of resistant and sensitive biotypes of Japanese foxtail. The results revealed that there was no difference in the final germination rate between the two biotypes under different temperature conditions, but time to obtain 50% germination or emergence (tE50) and mean germination time of the R biotype were higher than that of the S biotype at 10 C and 15/10 C 12-h day/night regime. In dark conditions, the final germination rate of the S biotype was higher and lower than that of the R biotype at 10 and 25 C, respectively. The overall germination rate of the R biotype was lower than that in the S biotype, and extended germination time was required in extreme conditions, such as 250 mM NaCl and −0.4 MPa osmotic potential. The change in environmental pH had no effect on the germination of the two biotypes. Emergence of the R biotype was lower than the S biotype when seed was buried at least 8 cm deep in an organic matter substrate. This study demonstrated the pleiotropic effects of a resistance allele on seed germination and emergence under different environmental conditions. Deep tillage could be used to reduce the growth and spread of resistant Japanese foxtail individuals.
The study reported in this Regional Research Communication aimed to analyse the genetic polymorphisms of β-casein in Chinese Holstein cows. β-casein has received considerable research interest in the dairy industry and animal breeding in recent years as a source not only of high quality protein, but also of bioactive peptides that may be linked to health effects. Morever, the polymorphic nature of β-casein and its association with milk production traits, composition, and quality also attracted several efforts in evaluating the allelic distribution of β-casein locus as a potential dairy trait marker. However, few data on beta-casein variants are available for the Chinese Holstein cow. In the present paper, one hundred and thirty three Holstein cows were included in the analysis. Results revealed the presence of 5 variants (A1, A2, A3, B and I), preponderance of the genotype A1A2 (0·353) and superiorities of A1/A2 alleles (0·432 and 0·459, respectively) in the population. Sequence analysis of β-casein gene in the cows showed four nucleotide changes in exon 7. Our study can provide reference and guidance for selection for superior milk for industrial applications and crossbreeding and genetic improvement programmes.
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