To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Increased intake of vegetables and fruits has been associated with reduced risk of tuberculosis infection. Vegetables and fruits exert immunoregulatory effects; however, it is not clear whether vegetables and fruits have an adjuvant treatment effect on tuberculosis. Between 2009 and 2013, a hospital-based cohort study was conducted in Linyi, Shandong Province, China. Treatment outcome was ascertained by sputum smear and chest computerised tomography, and dietary intake was assessed by a semi-quantitative FFQ. The dietary questionnaire was conducted at the end of month 2 of treatment initiation. Participants recalled their dietary intake of the previous 2 months. A total of 2309 patients were enrolled in this study. After 6 months of treatment, 2099 patients were successfully treated and 210 were uncured. In multivariate models, higher intake of total vegetables and fruits (OR 0·70; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·99), total vegetables (OR 0·68; 95 % CI 0·48, 0·97), dark-coloured vegetables (OR 0·61; 95 % CI 0·43, 0·86) and light-coloured vegetables (OR 0·67; 95 % CI 0·48, 0·95) were associated with reduced failure rate of tuberculosis treatment. No association was found between total fruit intake and reduced failure rate of tuberculosis treatment (OR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·70, 1·37). High intake of total vegetables and fruits, especially vegetables, is associated with lower risk of failure of tuberculosis treatment in pulmonary tuberculosis patients. The results provide important information for dietary guidelines during tuberculosis treatment.
A series of xLiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4–yLi3V2(PO4)3/C (x:y= 4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3) composite cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries are successfully prepared by the rheological phase reaction method. The structures, morphologies, and electrochemical properties of these composite materials are studied. The results indicate that xLiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4–yLi3V2(PO4)3/C composites are composed of LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 and Li3V2(PO4)3 phases and mutual doping exists. The initial discharge capacities, initial Coulombic efficiencies, and capacity retentions of composites increase but then decline with the increase of Li3V2(PO4)3 content. All the composites show higher capacity retentions than LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4/C and Li3V2(PO4)3/C single phases except LMFP–3LVP/C. The composite material of x:y= 1:1 exhibits remarkably superior electrochemical performance than the single phases and other composites both in discharge capacity and cycle performance, delivering the initial discharge capacity of 148.2 mA h/g (2.0–4.5 V) and 170.1 mA h/g (2.0–4.8 V) at 0.1 C. And the corresponding capacity retentions are 98.0 and 90.4% after 100 cycles, respectively.
The oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata is an important crop pest in eastern Asia. Nocturnal insects, including nocturnal moths, have phototactic behavior to an artificial light source. Phototactic behavior in insects is species-specific in response to different wavelengths of light sources. Our previous study showed that green (520 nm) light emitting diode (LED) light resulted in a significantly higher phototactic behavior in M. separata moths compared to the other wavelength LED lights. The goal of the present study is to investigate the influence of green light illumination on biological characteristics of different developmental stages in M. separata. Our results revealed that when different developmental stages of M. separata were exposed to the green light illumination in a dark period, several biological characteristics in all developmental stages except for egg stage were positively changed, but those of F1 generation M. separata which are next generation of the adults exposed to the green light did not significantly change compared with the control level. These findings suggest that green light illumination at night (or dark period) has a positive effect on the development and longevity of M. separata.
AlMgB14–TiB2 ceramic was successfully brazed to TC4 alloy with inactive AgCu filler alloy. X-ray diffractometer, SEM, and energy-dispersive spectrometer were used to study interfacial microstructure and shear strength of the joints under different brazing temperatures. The results indicated that the typical microstructure of the TC4/AlMgB14–TiB2 joint was TC4/Ti(s.s) + Ti2Cu/Ti2Cu/TiCu/TiCu2Al/Ag(s.s) + Cu(s.s)/TiB whiskers/TiB2 reaction layer/AMBT. By increasing the brazing temperature, the thickness of the TC4 diffusion layer was improved, whereas that of the brazing seam decreased remarkably. When the brazing temperature was increased to 880 °C, the brazing seam was composed of Ti–Cu intermetallic Ag(s.s) with a few Cu(s.s), TiCu2Al distributed. Meanwhile, the formation of a continuous TiB2 reaction layer at the interface of the AMBT and brazing filler facilitated the improvement of joint shear strength. The joint with the maximum shear strength of 46.7 MPa was obtained while brazing at 880 °C for 10 min.
Obesity and insulin resistance play important roles in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mg intake is linked to a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance; people with NAFLD or alcoholic liver disease are at high risk of Mg deficiency. The present study aimed to investigate whether Mg and Ca intakes were associated with risk of fatty liver disease and prediabetes by alcohol drinking status.
We analysed the association between Ca or Mg intake and fatty liver disease, prediabetes or both prediabetes and fatty liver disease in cross-sectional analyses.
Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) follow-up cohort of US adults.
Nationally representative sample of US adults in NHANES (n 13 489).
After adjusting for potential confounders, Mg intake was associated with approximately 30 % reduced odds of fatty liver disease and prediabetes, comparing the highest intake quartile v. the lowest. Mg intake may only be related to reduced odds of fatty liver disease and prediabetes in those whose Ca intake is less than 1200 mg/d. Mg intake may also only be associated with reduced odds of fatty liver disease among alcohol drinkers.
The study suggests that high intake of Mg may be associated with reduced risks of fatty liver disease and prediabetes. Further large studies, particularly prospective cohort studies, are warranted to confirm the findings.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is an important technique for life science research. However, most SCNT embryos fail to develop to term due to undefined reprogramming defects. Here, we show that abnormal Xi occurs in somatic cell NT blastocysts, whereas in female blastocysts derived from cumulus cell nuclear transfer, both X chromosomes were inactive. H3K27me3 removal by Kdm6a mRNA overexpression could significantly improve preimplantation development of NT embryos, and even reached a 70.2% blastocyst rate of cleaved embryos compared with the 38.5% rate of the control. H3K27me3 levels were significantly reduced in blastomeres from cloned blastocysts after overexpression of Kdm6a. qPCR indicated that rDNA transcription increased in both NT embryos and 293T cells after overexpression of Kdm6a. Our findings demonstrate that overexpression of Kdm6a improved the development of cloned mouse embryos by reducing H3K27me3 and increasing rDNA transcription.
This paper systematically compares the numerical implementation and computational cost between the Fourier spectral iterative perturbation method (FSIPM) and the finite element method (FEM) in solving partial differential equilibrium equations with inhomogeneous material coefficients and eigen-fields (e.g., stress-free strain and spontaneous electric polarization) involved in phase-field models. Four benchmark numerical examples, including inhomogeneous elastic, electrostatic, and steady-state heat conduction problems demonstrate that (1) the FSIPM rigorously requires uniform hexahedral (3D) and quadrilateral (2D) mesh and periodic boundary conditions for numerical implementation while the FEM permits arbitrary mesh and boundary conditions; (2) the FSIPM solutions are comparable to their FEM counterparts, and both of them agree with the analytic solutions, (3) the FSIPM is much faster in solving equilibrium equations than the FEM to achieve the accurate solutions, thus exhibiting a greater potential for large-scale 3D computations.
The present study was performed to identify the genotype of a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy family and investigate the clinicopathogenic characteristics and prognostic features of relevant genetic abnormalities. Target sequence capture sequencing was performed to screen for pathogenic alleles in a 32-year-old female patient (proband). Sanger sequencing was carried out to verify the results. Sanger sequencing was also performed on other family members to identify allele carriers. A survival analysis was carried out using published literature and our findings. We found that the proband and her son harboured a Gly716Arg sequence variant of the β-myosin heavy chain. Neither the proband’s father nor the mother were carriers of this sequence variant; thus, the mutation was classified as “de novo”. Further survival analysis revealed that female patients appear to have a longer life expectancy compared with males. Our study may provide an effective approach for the genetic diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Aeolian deposits at four sites in the Gonghe Basin were used to reconstruct the history of aeolian activity over the late Quaternary. These deposits include well-sorted aeolian sand, paleosols and/or loess. Aeolian sand represents dune-field expansion and/or dune buildup, whereas paleosols indicate stabilization of dunes, accompanying ameliorated vegetation cover. On the basis of 25 dates by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), it appears that aeolian activities occurred episodically at 33.5, 20.3, 13.9, 11.8–11.0, 9.4, 7.8, and 5.7 (5.5) ka, which is largely consistent with the recent findings from the adjacent semi-arid areas. Aeolian sand mobility occurring during the early to mid Holocene conflicts with a climatic optimum inferred from lacustrine records in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. This inconsistency may be resolved by interpreting aeolian activity as a response to decreased effective moisture due to enhanced evaporation, induced by higher summer insolation at that time, together with local terrain and its effects on moisture. Our results suggest that aeolian sand and paleosol cannot be simply ascribed to regional dry and wet climates, respectively, and they most likely reflect changes in effective moisture.
Polymer/clay nanocomposites have received considerable attention during the past decade, both in industry and in academia, because of their attractive improvement of material properties relative to pure polymers and conventional polymer composites. The improvements include mechanical, thermal, flame retardant, and gas barrier performance. It is believed that the improvements are mainly attributable to the nanometric size dispersion of the clay and the specific interfacial interaction between the polymer matrix and clay layers.
The structure and properties of clays
The clays commonly used in polymer nanocomposites belong to the family of 2:1 layered silicates or phyllosilicates. The crystal structure of the clay layers is made up of two tetrahedrally coordinated silicon atoms, which are fused to an edge-shared octahedral sheet of either aluminum or magnesium hydroxide. The layer thickness is about 1 nm and the lateral dimension of the layers may vary from 30 nm to several micrometers or even larger, depending on the particular silicate. There is a van der Waals gap between the layers, usually called a gallery or interlayer. Isomorphic substitution within the crystal structure of the layer (for example, Al3+ replaced by Mg2+ or by Fe2+, or Mg2+ replaced by Li+) generates negative charges that are counterbalanced by alkali and alkaline earth cations situated inside the interlayer.
Approximately 75% of the East Asian Flyway Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus bewickii population winters in the Yangtze River floodplain, China. Historically the species was more widely distributed throughout the floodplain but now most of the population is confined to five wetlands in Anhui Province and to Poyang Lake in Jiangxi Province, where the majority (up to 113,000 birds) occur. Within-winter counts suggest that swans congregate at Poyang Lake before dispersing to other sites later in the winter. Counts show large between-year fluctuations, but suggest declines at Shengjin and Fengsha Lakes (both in Anhui) during the last five years. Declines at Shengjin Lake are likely due to decreases in submerged vegetation (particularly tuber-producing Vallisneria, a major food item) perhaps linked to eutrophication. Range contractions throughout the floodplain may also be linked to reductions in submerged vegetation coverage elsewhere. Changes in water quality and lake hydrology post-Three Gorges Dam may have adversely affected submerged vegetation productivity. Key information needs for the effective implementation of conservation measures for Tundra Swans include: (1) annual surveys of all major wintering sites throughout each winter to establish the importance of different sites during the non-breeding period; (2) more information on swan diets at important sites; and (3) an assessment of adverse effects of water quality and lake water levels post-Three Gorges Dam on submerged vegetation productivity at Poyang Lake and other important sites.
Two new species of ciliates parasitizing marine molluscs in the Yellow Sea were described using live observation, protargol and wet silver impregnation: Sphenophrya solinis sp. nov. from the gills of Solen grandis and Planeticovorticella paradoxa sp. nov. from the gills as well as the mantle cavity of Meretrix meretrix. Sphenophrya solinis is elongate boat-shaped, and characterized by having the right system of 5–6 kineties more or less distinctly longer than the left system of 3–5 kineties and the bud formed on the dorsal left of body during budding. Planeticovorticella paradoxa is a second member of the genus Planeticovorticella, and characterized by the free-swimming, cylindroidal trophonts usually with no stalk or with a very short and non-contractile stalk, the C-shaped macronucleus longitudinally oriented in mid-body, and the apically located contractile vacuole. The morphology, infraciliature and morphometry of the two new species were studied in detail and compared with those of their most similar congeners.
It is well known that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) plays pivotal roles in various mitotic events, but its function in mammalian oocyte meiosis remains unknown. In this study, we found that no specific JNK2 signal was detected in germinal vesicle stage. JNK2 was associated with the spindles especially the spindle poles and cytoplasmic microtubule organizing centers at prometaphase I, metaphase I, and metaphase II stages. JNK2 became diffusely distributed and associated with the midbody at telophase I stage. Injection of myc-tagged JNK2α1 mRNA into oocytes also revealed its localization on spindle poles. The association of JNK2 with spindle poles was further confirmed by colocalization with the centrosomal proteins, γ-tubulin and Plk1. Nocodazole treatment showed that JNK2 may interact with Plk1 to regulate the spindle assembly. Then we investigated the possible function of JNK2 by JNK2 antibody microinjection and JNK specific inhibitor SP600125 treatment. These two manipulations caused abnormal spindle formation and decreased the rate of first polar body (PB1) extrusion. In addition, inhibition of JNK2 resulted in impaired localization of Plk1. Taken together, our results suggest that JNK2 plays an important role in spindle assembly and PB1 extrusion during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation.
Titanium doped indium oxide (TIO) thin films were deposited on glass substrate by DC sputtering with different O2/Ar gas ratios at 330 °C. The effects of sputtering on the structural, morphologic, optical and electrical characteristics of TIO thin films were investigated by XRD, Hall measurement and optical transmission spectroscopy. The deposited films exhibited polycrystalline in the preferred (222) orientation, with higher mean grain size and lower resistivity 3.37 ×10-4Ω·cm at O2/Ar ratio of 1/10. The average optical transmittance of the films is over 90%, and the transmittance has no evident change with changing O2/Ar ratio.
Polypyrrole/ polyaniline (PPy/PAn) composite films have been prepared by direct electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole in an aqueous solution of PAn. Spectroscopic results demonstrated that the polyanion, PAn, was incorporated into the PPy matrix as a dopant. The composite films exhibited a higher thermal stability than that of pure PPy. Scanning electron microscopic images revealed that the composite film had smooth and compact morphology.
A novel poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposite containing dispersed inorganic nanoribbons [ZnO–0.15Zn(CH3COO)2–0.85H2O] was prepared by free radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate in the acetone solution. Experimental results showed that inorganic nanoribbons were uniformly distributed in and bonded to the PMMA host matrix without macroscopic organic–inorganic phase separation. It was found that the thermal stability and glass-transition temperature of the nanocomposite films increased effectively with increasing inorganic content at low content and remained above 1 wt% inorganic content. These results suggest the network formation because of the strong interaction between the inorganic nanoribbons and the polymer matrix, which induces the mobility restriction of polymer chains. The characteristics of the one-dimensional inorganic nanoribbons we used here may play a key role in the formation of the “cross-link” networks and in the decision to lower the content of the inorganic nanoribbon additive.
Embryonic germ (EG) cells are pluripotent cells derived from the primordial germ cells of gonads, gonadal ridges and mesenteries, and analogies of foetuses, with the ability to undergo both self-renewal and multiple differentiation. These cells can differentiate into derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers when transferred to an in vitro environment and have the ability to form any fully differentiated cell of the body. The present paper investigates some factors influencing the efficiency of isolation and culture of human EG cells, such as foetus age, culture serum, added cytokines and feeder cells. The results demonstrate that foetuses of 7–12 weeks are optimal for in vitro culture of human EG cells. The basic medium consisted of DMEM, 1×non-essential amino acids, 2 mM l-glutamine and 1 mM sodium pyruvate. Supplementation with 15% foetal bovine serum, 4 ng/ml human recombinant leukaemia inhibitory factor, 4 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor and 20 ng/ml stem cell factor clearly improved the efficiency of isolation and culture of human EG cells. Murine embryonic fibroblasts were better feeder cells than human embryonic fibroblasts, bovine embryonic fibroblasts or STO cell line.