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As the IAU heads towards its second century, many changes have simultaneously transformed Astronomy and the human condition world-wide. Amid the amazing recent discoveries of exoplanets, primeval galaxies, and gravitational radiation, the human condition on Earth has become blazingly interconnected, yet beset with ever-increasing problems of over-population, pollution, and never-ending wars. Fossil-fueled global climate change has begun to yield perilous consequences. And the displacement of people from war-torn nations has reached levels not seen since World War II.
The early Cambrian (Terreneuvian, Stage 2) tommotiid Kulparina rostrata Conway Morris and Bengtson in Bengtson et al., 1990 is revised. The pyramidal sclerites of K. rostrata are shown to be bilaterally symmetrical and homologues of the symmetrical S1 sclerites of Paterimitra pyramidalis Laurie, 1986. The scleritome of K. rostrata is also shown to include flattened asymmetrical sclerites that were originally described under the name Eccentrotheca guano Bengtson in Bengtson et al., 1990 and which correspond to the L-sclerites of Paterimitra. A modified tubular scleritome and a sessile filter-feeding mode of life is envisaged for Kulparina rostrata.
This article discusses the relation between knowing, learning and teaching in relation to early Palaeolithic technologies. We begin by distinguishing between three kinds of knowledge: knowing how, knowing what and knowing that. We discuss the relation between these types of knowledge and different forms of learning and long-term memory systems. On the basis of this analysis, we present three types of teaching: (1) helping and correcting; (2) showing; and (3) explaining. We then use this theoretical framework to suggest what kinds of teaching are required for the pre-Oldowan, the Oldowan, the early Acheulean and the late Acheulean stone-knapping technologies. As a general introductory overview to this special section, the text concludes with a brief presentation of the papers included.
We examined whether conversion to dementia can be predicted by self-reported olfactory impairment and/or by an inability to identify odors. Common forms of dementia involve an impaired sense of smell, and poor olfactory performance predicts cognitive decline among the elderly. We followed a sample of 1529 participants, who were within a normal range of overall cognitive function at baseline, over a 10-year period during which 159 were classified as having a dementia disorder. Dementia conversion was predicted from demographic variables, Mini-Mental State Examination score, and olfactory assessments. Self-reported olfactory impairment emerged as an independent predictor of dementia. After adjusting for effects of other predictors, individuals who rated their olfactory sensitivity as “worse than normal” were more likely to convert to dementia than those who reported normal olfactory sensitivity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.40, 3.37]). Additionally, low scores on an odor identification test also predicted conversion to dementia (OR per 1 point increase = 0.89; 95% CI [0.81, 0.98]), but these two effects were additive. We suggest that assessing subjective olfactory complaints might supplement other assessments when evaluating the risk of conversion to dementia. Future studies should investigate which combination of olfactory assessments is most useful in predicting dementia conversion. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–9)
The well-known Mesolithic cemeteries of Northern Europe have long been viewed as evidence of developing social complexity in those regions in the centuries immediately before the Neolithic transition. These sites also had important symbolic connotations. This study uses new and more detailed analysis of the burial practices in one of these cemeteries to argue that much more is involved than social differentiation. Repeated burial in the densely packed site of Zvejnieki entailed large-scale disturbance of earlier graves, and would have involved recurrent encounters with the remains of the ancestral dead. The intentional use of older settlement material in the grave fills may also have signified a symbolic link with the past. The specific identity of the dead is highlighted by the evidence for clay face masks and tight body wrappings in some cases.
I am sitting at my computer with a purring cat resting its head against the keyboard – a real animal–animal situation and a reciprocal relationship. For 15 years, my wife and I looked after horses that our children had left behind when they moved off into the world. The reason was that the horses belonged, in their own way, to the extended family. So I have no difficulty understanding what Overton and Hamilakis call ‘social zooarchaeology’. As a pet owner who has personally observed the individuality of animals – from hens to horses – I have no problem accepting their view that animals are individuals, something that my urban colleagues often question. When discussing with hunters who have specialized for many years in one type of hunting, they can describe how different individuals in flocks – for example, among red deer and moose – can behave. They spend many hours moving in the terrain and observe the different animal species, not to hunt them but to acquire further knowledge about the animals, sometimes to find out which animals should later be culled, but often only for the sheer pleasure of feeling a kind of relationship between themselves and the animals they follow.
According to the theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy, the challenge for women to ensure paternal investment increased their jealousy response to emotional infidelity, whereas paternal uncertainty exerted selective pressures that shaped men to become more distressed by sexual infidelity. Several studies have investigated whether the effect of these sexually dimorphic selection pressures can be detected in contemporary human populations, with conflicting results. To date, no genetically informed studies of sex differences in jealousy have been conducted. We used data from the Screening Across the Lifespan of Twins Younger (SALTY) sample, containing information concerning self-rated jealousy from 3,197 complete twin pairs collected by the Swedish Twin Registry. Intra-class correlations and structural equation models were used to assess the genetic influence on jealousy and to investigate sex differences at genetic level. We saw a highly significant sex effect on the relationship between infidelity types, indicating that men, relative to women, reported greater jealousy in response to sexual infidelity than in response to emotional infidelity. The twin models revealed significant heritabilities for both sexual (32%) and emotional (26%) jealousy. The heritabilities were of a similar magnitude in both sexes, and no qualitative sex differences could be detected. We show for the first time that variance in jealousy is to some extent explained by genetic factors. Even though our results from the mean value analyses are in line with the theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy, we could not identify any sex differences on a genetic level.
The Swedish Twin Registry (STR) today contains more than 194,000 twins and more than 75,000 pairs have zygosity determined by an intra-pair similarity algorithm, DNA, or by being of opposite sex. Of these, approximately 20,000, 25,000, and 30,000 pairs are monozygotic, same-sex dizygotic, and opposite-sex dizygotic pairs, respectively. Since its establishment in the late 1950s, the STR has been an important epidemiological resource for the study of genetic and environmental influences on a multitude of traits, behaviors, and diseases. Following large investments in the collection of biological specimens in the past 10 years we have now established a Swedish twin biobank with DNA from 45,000 twins and blood serum from 15,000 twins, which effectively has also transformed the registry into a powerful resource for molecular studies. We here describe the main projects within which the new collections of both biological samples as well as phenotypic measures have been collected. Coverage by year of birth, zygosity determination, ethnic heterogeneity, and influences of in vitro fertilization are also described.
Several studies have, with conflicting results, investigated the relationship between the Val66Met polymorphism in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We assessed longitudinal, quantitative phenotypes of hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention in order to determine whether the Val66Met polymorphism is associated with age-specific and/or persistent symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity and/or inattention in a community-based cohort of 1236 Swedish individuals for which ADHD symptom data were collected when the participants were aged 8–9, 13–14 and 16–17 yr. The Met allele was associated with symptoms of ADHD at ages 8–9 and 13–14 yr. A multivariate regression analysis revealed that the observed effect of the Met allele on ADHD symptoms reflects an influence on persistent hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. The present findings support the hypothesis that BDNF is involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD. The results highlight the importance of distinguishing between hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention, respectively, and demonstrate the value of using a longitudinal approach in genetic studies of ADHD symptoms.
(Ti1–xSix)Ny (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.20; 0.99 ≤ y(x) ≤ 1.13) thin films deposited by arc evaporation have been investigated by analytical transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and nanoindentation. Films with x ≤ 0.09 are single-phase cubic (Ti,Si)N solid solutions with a dense columnar microstructure. Films with x > 0.09 have a featherlike microstructure consisting of cubic TiN:Si nanocrystallite bundles separated by metastable SiNz with coherent-to-semicoherent interfaces and a dislocation density of as much as 1014 cm−2 is present. The films exhibit retained composition and hardness between 31 and 42 GPa in annealing experiments to 1000 °C due to segregation of SiNz to the grain boundaries. During annealing at 1100–1200 °C, this tissue phase thickens and transforms to amorphous SiNz. At the same time, Si and N diffuse out of the films via the grain boundaries and TiN recrystallize.
A novel cryogenic electrostatic storage device consisting of two ion-beam storage rings with a common straight section for studies of interactions between oppositely charged ions at low and well-defined relative velocities is under construction at Stockholm University. Here we consider the prospect of using this new tool to measure cross-sections and rate coefficients for mutual neutralization reactions of importance in interstellar ion chemistry in general and specifically in cosmic pre-biotic ion chemistry.
An increasing number of buildings are coming to light on prehistoric sites in Scandinavia that seem to be related to ritual, cult, or religious activities. This paper documents examples of such buildings from the Mesolithic to the Viking Period. The Late Meolithic cemetery at Skateholm provides evidence for structures associated with materials only otherwise found in grave contexts. Certain aspects of Early Neolithic long barrows and palisaded enclosures may infer ritual practices not directly of a funerary nature. The later Neolithic was marked in the cultural groupings of various regions by the construction of palisaded enclosures, wooden structures associated with graves, or pile dwellings, each often associated with a rich finds assemblage and frequent evidence for burning. These structures and their contents show obvious distinctions from the contemporary domestic settlement and burial sites with which they were associated. Bronze Age examples include rectangular stone walled and D- and C-shaped wooden structures placed beside burial areas and facing cairns. The latter forms continue into the Iron Age, for which few other clear examples of ritual structures are apparent, in spite of historical references. Those that have been identified seem to be associated with important central places. The site of Uppåkra, in southernmost Sweden, has produced an unusual small building set beside a hall around and within which were deposited hundreds of weapons and gold and glass objects. This relationship bears a striking resemblance to the description of the hall of Wodan at Valhalla in Norse mythology.
Six years ago we reported the discovery of a central place at Uppåkra in southern Sweden which promised to be unusually rich and informative (Hårdh 2000). At 40ha it already stood out as the largest concentration of residual phosphate in the whole province of Scania, with surface finds of Roman and late Iron Age metalwork (second-tenth century AD). Following this thorough evaluation, the project moved into its excavation phase which has brought to light several buildings of the first millennium AD, among them one that has proved truly exceptional. Its tall structure and numerous ornamented finds suggest an elaborate timber cult house. This is the first Scandinavian building for which the term ‘temple’ can be justly claimed and it is already sign-posting new directions for the early middle ages in northern Europe.
We describe the production of hierarchical branched nanowire structures by the sequential seeding of multiple wire generations with metal nanoparticles. Such complex structures represent the next step in the study of functional nanowires, as they increase the potential functionality of nanostructures produced in a self-assembled way. It is possible, for example, to fabricate a variety of active heterostructure segments with different compositions and diameters within a single connected structure. The focus of this work is on epitaxial III-V semiconductor branched nanowire structures, with the two materials GaP and In As used as typical examples of branched structures with cubic (zinc blende) and hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structures. The general morphology of these structures will be described, as well as the relationship between morphology and crystal structure.
We investigate Carlson type inequalities for finite sums, that is, inequalities of the form
to hold for some constant C independent of the finite, non-zero set a1,…,am of non-negative numbers. We find constants C which are strictly smaller than the sharp constants in the corresponding infinite series case. Moreover, corresponding results for integrals over bounded intervals are given and a case with any finite number of factors on the right-hand side is proved.
Along with rapidly developing nanotechnology, new types of analytical
instruments and techniques are needed. Here we report an alternative
procedure for electrical measurements on semiconductor nanowhiskers,
allowing precise selection and visual control at close to atomic
resolution. We use a combination of two powerful microscope techniques,
scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and simultaneous viewing in a
transmission electron microscope (TEM). The STM is mounted in the
sample holder for the TEM. We describe here a method for creating an
ohmic contact between the STM tip and the nanowhisker. We examine three
different types of STM tips and present a technique for cleaning the
STM tip in situ. Measurements on 1-μm-tall and 40-nm-thick
epitaxially grown InAs nanowhiskers show an ohmic contact and a
resistance of down to 7 kΩ.
Background: Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is critical for adequate treatment and care. Recently it has been shown that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be important in preclinical detection of AD. The purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in memory-related brain activation between persons with high versus low risk for AD. This was achieved by combining a validated neurocognitive screening battery (the 7-minutes test) with memory assessment and fMRI. Methods: One hundred two healthy community-living persons with subjective memory complaints were recruited through advertisement and tested with the 7-minutes test. Based on their test performance they were classified as having either high (n = 8) or low risk (n = 94) for AD. Six high-risk individuals and six age-, sex-, and education-matched low-risk individuals were investigated with fMRI while engaged in episodic memory tasks. Results: The high-risk individuals performed worse than low-risk individuals on tests of episodic memory. Patterns of brain activity during episodic encoding and retrieval showed significant gourp differences (p < .05 corrected). During both encoding and retrieval, the low-risk persons showed increased activity relative to a baseline condition in prefrontal brain regions that previously have been implicated in episodic memory. By contrast, the high-risk persons did not significantly activate any prefrontal regions, but instead showed increased activity in visual occipito-temporal regions. Conclusion: Patterns of prefrontal brain activity related to episodic memory differ between persons with high versus low risk for AD, and lowered prefrontal activity may predict subsequent disease.
We investigated sex difference across a number of olfactory tasks. Thirty-six men and 35 women ranging in age from 19 to 36 years were assessed in 6 different tasks: absolute sensitivity for n-butanol, intensity discrimination, quality discrimination, episodic recognition memory for familiar and unfamiliar odors, and odor identification. No sex differences were observed in the tasks tapping primarily sensory acuity (i.e., odor sensitivity, intensity discrimination, and quality discrimination) or in episodic memory for unfamiliar odors. By contrast, women outperformed men in the tasks involving verbal processing (i.e., memory for familiar odors and odor identification). Interestingly, controlling for odor naming ability resulted in that the observed sex difference in episodic odor memory for familiar odors disappeared. This outcome suggests that women's superiority in episodic odor memory is largely mediated by their higher proficiency in odor identification.