To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To determine if specific dietary patterns are associated with breast cancer (BC) risk in Chinese women.
Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to identify generic dietary patterns based on daily food-frequency data.
The Chinese Wuxi Exposure and Breast Cancer Study (2013–2014).
A population-based case–control study (695 cases, 804 controls).
Four dietary patterns were identified, Prudent, Chinese traditional, Western and Picky; the proportion in the controls and cases was 0·30/0·32/0·16/0·23 and 0·29/0·26/0·11/0·33, respectively. Women in Picky class were characterised by higher extreme probabilities of non-consumption of specific foods, the highest probabilities of consumption of pickled foods and the lowest probabilities of consumption of cereals, soya foods and nuts. Compared with Prudent class, Picky class was associated with a higher risk (OR = 1·42, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·90), while the relevant association was only in post- (OR = 1·44, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·05) but not in premenopausal women. The Western class characterised by high-protein, high-fat and high-sugar foods, and the Chinese traditional class characterised by typical consumption of soya foods and white meat over red meat, both of them showed no difference in BC risk compared with Prudent class did.
LCA captures the heterogeneity of individuals embedded in the population and could be a useful approach in the study of dietary pattern and disease. Our results indicated that the Picky class might have a positive association with the risk of BC.
The molecular basis of resistance to tribenuron-methyl, an acetolactate synthase (ALS)–inhibiting herbicide was investigated in four resistant (R) and three susceptible (S) flixweed populations. The resistance level in the R populations was assessed in whole-plant pot experiments in a greenhouse, and resistance indices ranged from 723 to 1422. The ALS genes of the three S populations and four R populations were cloned and sequenced, and the full coding sequence of the ALS gene of flixweed was 2,004 bp. The sequences of the ALS genes of the three S populations collected from Shaanxi, Gansu, and Tianjin were identical. Comparison of the ALS gene sequences of the S and R populations with Arabidopsis revealed that proline at position 197 of the ALS gene was substituted by leucine in R population SSX-2, by alanine in R population SSX-3, and by serine in R populations TJ-2 and GS-2. In another study of two R flixweed populations from Hebei and Shaanxi, resistance was also related to mutation at position 197 of the ALS gene. Both studies confirmed tribenuron-methyl resistance in flixweed in China, with the resistance mechanism being conferred by specific ALS point mutations at amino acid position 197.
Reports arose from major Chinese wheat production regions that flixweed was not controlled by tribenuron after the herbicide was continuously used for several years. Flixweed seeds were collected from wheat fields that had been treated with tribenuron repeatedly over 3 to 15 yr or from road sides and remote hills that had never received tribenuron in Jiangsu, Hebei, Shanxi, Sichuan, Shandong, Shaanxi, and Henan provinces, and Tianjin and Beijing metropolises in China. The response of various biotypes to tribenuron was determined by whole plant experiments in the greenhouse. The experiments demonstrated that 11 of 32 flixweed biotypes were susceptible to tribenuron. The remaining 21 biotypes expressed moderate to high levels of tribenuron resistance with resistance indices ranging from 4 to > 1,500. DNA sequence analysis of acetolactate synthase (ALS) genes of selected biotypes 6, 7, 27, and 29 revealed a point mutation at position 197 of the ALS gene, as numbered relative to the protein sequence of Arabidopsis, where proline was substituted by leucine in biotype 7 and by threonine in biotype 29. These mutations are known to confer resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides and are responsible for the high resistance of these biotypes to tribenuron. The results also indicate that tribenuron resistance in flixweed is widespread in China and management programs to control these resistant populations are warranted.
Few studies have explored the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Evidence from non-Western areas is particularly lacking. In the present study, we aimed to examine the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of GDM in a Chinese population. A total of 3063 pregnant Chinese women from an ongoing prospective cohort study were included. Data on dietary intake were collected using a FFQ at 24–27 weeks of gestation. GDM was diagnosed using a 75 g, 2 h oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary patterns were determined by principal components factor analysis. A log-binomial regression model was used to examine the associations between dietary pattern and the risk of GDM. The analysis identified four dietary patterns: vegetable pattern; protein-rich pattern; prudent pattern; sweets and seafood pattern. Multivariate analysis showed that the highest tertile of the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM (relative risk (RR) 0·79, 95 % CI 0·64, 0·97), compared with the lowest tertile, whereas the highest tertile of the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM (RR 1·23, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·49). No significant association was found for either the protein-rich or the prudent pattern. The protective effect of a high vegetable pattern score was more evident among women who had a family history of diabetes (P for interaction = 0·022). These findings suggest that the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM, while the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM. These findings may be useful in dietary counselling during pregnancy.
Early identification of patients with bipolar disorder during their first depressive episode is beneficial to the outcome of the disorder and treatment, but traditionally this has been a great challenge to clinicians. Recently, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD), but it is not clear whether BDNF levels can be used to predict bipolar disorder among patients in their first major depressive episode.
To explore whether BDNF levels can differentiate between MDD and bipolar disorder in the first depressive episode.
A total of 203 patients with a first major depressive episode as well as 167 healthy controls were recruited. After 3 years of bi-annual follow-up, 164 patients with a major depressive episode completed the study, and of these, 21 were identified as having bipolar disorder and 143 patients were diagnosed as having MDD. BDNF gene expression and plasma levels at baseline were compared among the bipolar disorder, MDD and healthy control groups. Logistic regression and decision tree methods were applied to determine the best model for predicting bipolar disorder at the first depressive episode.
At baseline, patients in the bipolar disorder and MDD groups showed lower BDNF mRNA levels (P<0.001 and P = 0.02 respectively) and plasma levels (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01 respectively) compared with healthy controls. Similarly, BDNF levels in the bipolar disorder group were lower than those in the MDD group. These results showed that the best model for predicting bipolar disorder during a first depressive episode was a combination of BDNF mRNA levels with plasma BDNF levels (receiver operating characteristics (ROC) = 0.80, logistic regression; ROC = 0.84, decision tree).
Our findings suggest that BDNF levels may serve as a potential differential diagnostic biomarker for bipolar disorder in a patient's first depressive episode.
West Nile virus (WNV) infection is an emerging zoonosis that threatens global public health. In this study, a total of 95 bird serum samples from 14 species and 341 horse serum samples were collected from 2008 to 2010 in Shanghai, China. All serum samples were screened initially for WNV-reactive antibodies using a competitive ELISA. The positive samples detected by ELISA were further confirmed using a plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for WNV and its most closely related flaviviruses in the area to avoid false positives due to cross-reactivity. Five (5·3%) of the bird serum samples and none (0·0%) of the horse serum samples tested positive for WNV antibodies. The findings strongly suggest that some of the birds, specifically the resident birds in China, had been exposed to WNV.
Duck interleukin (IL)-18 mature protein gene was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from total RNA extracted from Ma duck (Tadorna ferruginea) splenocytes. The PCR product was cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector for sequencing. The result revealed that the nucleotide sequence of duck IL-18 mature protein gene (mDuIL-18) consisted of a 513 bp band. A prokaryotic plasmid of mDuIL-18, pQE30-mDuIL18, was obtained by subcloning the encoding region of the DuIL-18 mature peptide into pQE30. pQE30-mDuIL18 transformed Escherichia coli M15. The expression of mDuIL-18 gene was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Its molecular weight was 19.76 kDa, and could be specifically recognized by rabbit sera to chicken IL-18. The expressed products existed as inclusion bodies. After being degenerated, then renatured, the activities of the inclusion bodies were detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. In ducks injected intramuscularly with mDuIL-18 protein (150 ng or 200 ng per duck) and Avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccine 2 weeks after immunization, the average titres of haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies to AIV reached 7.5–7.7 log2, while those of HI antibody ranged between 6.3 and 6.6 log2 in ducks vaccinated with AIV vaccine only or with 100 ng mDuIL-18 and AIV vaccine. The results clearly showed that 150 ng mDuIL-18 per duck strengthened the in vivo immune responses induced by the inactivated oil emulsion AIV vaccine.
The indica rice Xieqingzao eB1 (XQZ eB1), a mutant with an elongated uppermost internode, was produced by mutagenesis from elite maintainer line Xieqingzao B (XQZ B) using γ-radiation. Compared with the wild-type XQZ B, plant height and the length of the rice panicle neck, second internode and third internode from the panicle were elongated significantly in XQZ eB1. Genetic analysis indicated that the trait for uppermost internode elongation of XQZ eB1 is controlled by a single recessive gene eui1, which is allelic to that of IR50eui (derived from 76:4512). Further studies were carried out using the bulk segregated analysis approach. An F3 population, derived from the cross XQZ eB1×Aijiaonante, was used to map the mutant gene eui1. Two SSR makers, RM164 and AC9, were identified to link to eui1, their genetic distances to eui1 being 18.4 and 7.9 cM, respectively. The eui1 gene was also mapped to the long arm of chromosome 5 in this research.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.