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The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview and critique of the major theories in the cognitive neuroscience of intelligence. In taking a broad view of this literature, two related themes emerge. First, as might be expected, theoretical developments have generally followed improvements in the methods available to acquire and analyze neural data. In turn, as a result of these developments, along with those in the psychometric and experimental literatures, cognitive neuroscience theories of intelligence have followed a general trajectory that runs from relatively global statements early on, to increasingly precise models and claims. As such, following Haier (2016), it is perhaps most instructive to divide the development of these models into early and later phases.
Children born very preterm (VP) display altered growth in corticolimbic structures compared with full-term peers. Given the association between the cortiocolimbic system and anxiety, this study aimed to compare developmental trajectories of corticolimbic regions in VP children with and without anxiety diagnosis at 13 years.
MRI data from 124 VP children were used to calculate whole brain and corticolimbic region volumes at term-equivalent age (TEA), 7 and 13 years. The presence of an anxiety disorder was assessed at 13 years using a structured clinical interview.
VP children who met criteria for an anxiety disorder at 13 years (n = 16) displayed altered trajectories for intracranial volume (ICV, p < 0.0001), total brain volume (TBV, p = 0.029), the right amygdala (p = 0.0009) and left hippocampus (p = 0.029) compared with VP children without anxiety (n = 108), with trends in the right hippocampus (p = 0.062) and left medial orbitofrontal cortex (p = 0.079). Altered trajectories predominantly reflected slower growth in early childhood (0–7 years) for ICV (β = −0.461, p = 0.020), TBV (β = −0.503, p = 0.021), left (β = −0.518, p = 0.020) and right hippocampi (β = −0.469, p = 0.020) and left medial orbitofrontal cortex (β = −0.761, p = 0.020) and did not persist after adjusting for TBV and social risk.
Region- and time-specific alterations in the development of the corticolimbic system in children born VP may help to explain an increase in anxiety disorders observed in this population.
Healthcare personnel with severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were interviewed to describe activities and practices in and outside the workplace. Among 2,625 healthcare personnel, workplace-related factors that may increase infection risk were more common among nursing-home personnel than hospital personnel, whereas selected factors outside the workplace were more common among hospital personnel.
Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light devices could be useful to reduce environmental contamination with Candida auris. However, variable susceptibility of C. auris strains to UV-C has been reported, and the high cost of many devices limits their use in resource-limited settings.
To evaluate the efficacy of relatively low-cost (<$15,000 purchase price) UV-C devices against C. auris strains from the 4 major phylogenetic clades.
A modification of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard quantitative disk carrier test method (ASTM E 2197) was used to examine and compare the effectiveness of UV-C devices against C. auris, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and bacteriophage Phi6. Reductions of 3 log10 were considered effective. UV-C irradiance measurements and colorimetric indicators were used to assess UV-C output.
Of 8 relatively low-cost UV-C devices, 6 met the criteria for effective decontamination of C. auris isolates from clades I and II, MRSA, and bacteriophage Phi6, including 3 room decontamination devices and 3 UV-C box devices. Candida auris isolates from clades III and IV were less susceptible to UV-C than clade I and II isolates; 1 relatively low-cost room decontamination device and 2 enclosed box devices met the criteria for effective decontamination of clade III and IV isolates. UV-C irradiance measurements and colorimetric indicator results were consistent with microorganism reductions.
Some relatively low-cost UV-C light technologies are effective against C. auris, including isolates from clades III and IV with reduced UV-C susceptibility. Studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of UV-C devices in clinical settings.
Suicide plans and attempts rarely occur without prior suicidal ideation but are hard to predict. Early intervention efforts need to focus on subgroups of the population who are more likely to transition from ideation to suicidal plans and attempts. The current study utilised data from a large nationally representative sample to investigate the time taken to transition and the demographic and mental health correlates of transitioning to suicidal plans and attempts among those with suicidal ideation.
Data were from 1237 Australians aged 16–85 years who reported suicidal thoughts at some point in their life. Discrete time survival analysis was used to retrospectively examine the time in years and correlates of transitioning from suicidal ideation to suicide plans and suicide attempt.
The majority of those who transitioned to suicide plans or attempts typically did so within 2 years of first experiencing suicidal ideation. Several factors were independently associated with increased speed to transition, including alcohol use disorder, drug use disorder, major depressive episode, obsessive compulsive disorder, sexual minority status, and non-urban location. Older age, being male, older age of first ideation and greater family support were associated with a slower transition.
The current study suggests that pre-existing mental or substance use disorders, particularly drug use disorder, as well as sexual minority status, sex and greater family support play an important role in the transition from suicidal ideation to plans or attempts. These results highlight the potential importance of suicide prevention programs that aim to improve social connectedness.
Fertilization is an exceptionally specific cell recognition event that represents the culmination of a complex sequence of morphological and functional maturational events. In the case of the male gamete, this process is initiated by the commitment of spermatogonial stem cells to differentiate, sequentially forming spermatogonia, spermatocytes and eventually spermatozoa that are released into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules . In addition to meiotic divisions, this process encompasses extensive cytoplasmic, organelle and nuclear remodeling events, thus establishing the unique and highly polarized architecture of the mature spermatozoon. A key aspect of this phase of development is the modification and repositioning of the Golgi apparatus to form a highly specialized secretory organelle, known as the acrosome, overlying the anterior aspect of the sperm head. Upon release from the testes the functionally immature spermatozoa enter the epididymis where they are progressively remodeled and acquire both motility and the potential to fertilize an oocyte . This potential is eventually realized after passage through the female reproductive tract whereupon the ejaculated cells complete a suite of biochemical and biophysical changes known as capacitation . These successive phases of functional maturation culminate in the acquired ability to release the acrosomal contents, during an event known as the acrosome reaction. This unique exocytotic event facilitates sperm passage through the outer vestments of the oocyte and is essential for successful in vivo fertilization in all mammalian species, including the human . Consequently, failure of acrosomal exocytosis represents a common etiology in defective spermatozoa of male infertility patients that have failed in vitro fertilization (IVF) in a clinical setting; accounting for as much as 29 percent of unexplained male infertility cases [5, 6]. Much of our current mechanistic understanding of the acrosome reaction is grounded in the ability to stimulate this process in vitro using simple chemically defined media and the application of pharmacological interventions, and/or transgenic mouse models. Here, we discuss the biological significance of the acrosome reaction and the application of histochemical techniques that have been developed to study the progression and completion of this critical physiological event.
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers are trained to place endotracheal tubes (ETTs) in the prehospital setting when indicated. Endotracheal tube cuffs are traditionally inflated with 10cc of air to provide adequate seal against the tracheal lumen. There is literature suggesting that many ETTs are inflated well beyond the accepted safe pressures of 20-30cmH2O, leading to potential complications including ischemia, necrosis, scarring, and stenosis of the tracheal wall. Currently, EMS providers do not routinely check ETT cuff pressures. It was hypothesized that the average ETT cuff pressure of patients arriving at the study site who were intubated by EMS exceeds the safe pressure range of 20-30cmH2O.
While ETT cuff inflation is necessary to close the respiratory system, thus preventing air leaks and aspiration, there is evidence to suggest that over-inflated ETT cuffs can cause long-term complications. The purpose of this study is to characterize the cuff pressures of ETTs placed by EMS providers.
This project was a single center, prospective observational study. Endotracheal tube cuff pressures were measured and recorded for adult patients intubated by EMS providers prior to arrival at a large, urban, tertiary care center over a nine-month period. All data were collected by respiratory therapists utilizing a cuff pressure measurement device which had a detectable range of 0-100cmH2O and was designed as a syringe. Results including basic patient demographics, cuff pressure, tube size, and EMS service were recorded.
In total, 45 measurements from six EMS services were included with ETT sizes ranging from 6.5-8.0mm. Mean patient age was 52.2 years (67.7% male). Mean cuff pressure was 81.8cmH2O with a range of 15 to 100 and a median of 100. The mode was 100cmH2O; 40 out of 45 (88.9%) cuff pressures were above 30cmH2O. Linear regression showed no correlation between age and ETT cuff pressure or between ETT size and cuff pressure. Two-tailed T tests did not show a significant difference in the mean cuff pressure between female versus male patients.
An overwhelming majority of prehospital intubations are associated with elevated cuff pressures, and cuff pressure monitoring education is indicated to address this phenomenon.
Local newspapers can hold back the rising tide of political division in America by turning away from the partisan battles in Washington and focusing their opinion page on local issues. When a local newspaper in California dropped national politics from its opinion page, the resulting space filled with local writers and issues. We use a pre-registered analysis plan to show that after this quasi-experiment, politically engaged people did not feel as far apart from members of the opposing party, compared to those in a similar community whose newspaper did not change. While it may not cure all of the imbalances and inequities in opinion journalism, an opinion page that ignores national politics could help local newspapers push back against political polarization.
Electron-probe microanalysis of uranium and uranium alloys poses several problems, such as rapid oxidation, large poorly constrained correction factors, and a large number of characteristic x-ray lines. We show that U-metal can grow 10 nm of oxide within ~20 s of air exposure, increasing to 15–20 nm within a few minutes, which can produce a 30% quantification error at 5 kV. A 15 nm carbon coating on the UO2 reference material also produces an ~30% quantification error of the uncoated but surface oxidized U sample at 5 kV. Correcting for both the coating and oxide improved the analysis accuracy to better than ±1% down to 7 kV and ~2% at 5 kV, but the error increases strongly below this. The measurement of C in U identified a previously unreported U N6–O4 line interference on the C Kα peak, which can produce over 1% error in the analysis total. Oxide stoichiometry was demonstrated to have only a small impact on quantification. The measurement of the O Kα and U Mα mass absorption coefficients in U as 9,528 and 798 cm2/g, respectively, shows good agreement with recently published values and also produces small differences in a quantification error.
Kinetoplastid parasites are responsible for both human and animal diseases across the globe where they have a great impact on health and economic well-being. Many species and life cycle stages are difficult to study due to limitations in isolation and culture, as well as to their existence as heterogeneous populations in hosts and vectors. Single-cell transcriptomics (scRNA-seq) has the capacity to overcome many of these difficulties, and can be leveraged to disentangle heterogeneous populations, highlight genes crucial for propagation through the life cycle, and enable detailed analysis of host–parasite interactions. Here, we provide a review of studies that have applied scRNA-seq to protozoan parasites so far. In addition, we provide an overview of sample preparation and technology choice considerations when planning scRNA-seq experiments, as well as challenges faced when analysing the large amounts of data generated. Finally, we highlight areas of kinetoplastid research that could benefit from scRNA-seq technologies.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: The Independent Investigator Incubator program provides 1:1 mentoring from ‘super-mentors’ to enhance junior faculty careers in research. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: In 2014, the Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) in collaboration with the Indiana CTSI established the Independent Investigator Incubator (I3) Program. The I3 Program is designed to provide 1:1 mentoring for new research faculty during the crucial early years of their careers. Our goal is to provide an overview of the I3 design and 5-year data. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The I3 Program employs a resource-sharing, centralized design that provides concentrated 1:1 mentorship from a senior faculty ‘super mentor’ as well as other resources, such as grant writing support. Unlike many mentorship programs, I3 mentors closely interact with the mentees within the School and are compensated for their efforts (5% full-time equivalency per mentee, max of 15%). The number of ‘super mentors’ has grown from 6 to 15 faculty over 5 years, and mentors typically serve 4 to 5 mentees. Mentee applications are accepted on a rolling enrollment basis. The I3 mentees represent a diverse group based on sex, ethnicity, terminal degree, academic track, and discipline. Mentors and mentees have annual reviews through the program. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In five years, 110 mentees have enrolled in the I3 program. Upon entering, 53% had no external funding, 28% had internal funding, 12% had K-awards, 7% had R03/R21 awards. Over the first five years, 75% have received extramural funding. The median funding was $340,000 with nearly a third of mentees securing grants > 1 million in direct costs. For mentees who joined the program in its first three years (n=59), the average time to a notable extramural grant (defined as a NIH or foundation grant >$300K direct costs) was 2.2 years (median - 2.6 years). Nearly all mentees were satisfied with their mentor pairing based on the mentor’s ‘availability’ and ‘valuable feedback,’ and all mentees wanted the mentoring relationship to continue DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Since 2014, the I3 Program has had a positive impact on the careers of junior faculty at IUSM as determined by faculty satisfaction and funding metrics. Future focus areas will include developing criteria/models for graduating from the program to balance fiscal sustainability with mentee needs during their transition to mid-career.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Development and implementation of a parent navigator program to help parents of justice-involved youth could assist parents in navigating the justice system, improve engagement with court and probation, and ultimately improve outcomes for youth involved in the juvenile justice system OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The goals of the study are to (1) develop a parent-peer navigator program utilizing community-based participatory design; and (2) implement and assess the feasibility of a parent peer navigator program in an urban juvenile justice system. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The EPIS framework will guide development and implementation of the navigator program as well as measurement of the implementation process, including measurements of feasibility and acceptability. In the Exploration phase, qualitative interviews with juvenile justice staff, parents of justice-involved youth, and members of the local family advisory board will inform program needs. In the preparation stage, I will work closely with the family advisory board to develop the actual parent navigator program protocol, including a training plan for navigators and their specific roles. I will conduct an open trial in the implementation phase, measuring program feasibility and acceptability among parents, navigators, juvenile justice staff, parents, and youth utilizing mixed methods. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Results will inform feasibility of implementing the program as well as acceptability of the program based on mixed methods data from parents of justice-involved youth, juvenile justice staff, family advisory board members, and other community stakeholders. Results will potentially inform conduct of a larger scale pilot hybrid implementation-effectiveness study. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Development and implementation of a parent navigator program to help parents of justice-involved youth could assist parents in navigating the justice system, improve engagement with court and probation, and ultimately improve outcomes for youth involved in the juvenile justice system.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This project aims to better understand mechanisms of sensory and motor deficits in individuals with ASD with the goal of informing diagnosis and treatment development. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Over-reliance on both visual and proprioceptive feedback have both been observed during motor behavior in persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), suggesting that separate sensory feedback processes may be selectively altered during different behaviors. The objective of this study is to clarify sensory mechanisms of fine motor control in ASD. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Participants with ASD (N=43) and controls (N=23) matched on age (10-20 yrs) and non-verbal IQ completed tests of precision gripping. Participants were instructed to press on force sensors with their index finger and thumb so that a moving bar corresponding to their force output reached and stayed as stable as possible at the level of a stationary target bar. Visual feedback was manipulated by changing the visual gain of the force bar (low, medium and high). The force bar moved more per change in force output at higher gains. Proprioceptive feedback was manipulated by applying 80 Hz tendon vibration at the wrist to induce an illusion of muscle contraction. This was compared to a condition with the tendon vibrator turned off. Force variability (standard deviation) and regularity (sample entropy) were examined. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Controls showed increased force variability with the tendon vibration on compared to off (t = -3.372, p < 0.001); however, the ASD group showed no difference in force variability between the tendon vibration conditions (t = -0.960, p = 0.338). Individuals with ASD had stronger age-associated reductions in force variability relative to controls across tendon vibrator and gain conditions (Group x Age: t = -4.05, p < .001). The ASD group also had greater age-associated increases in force regularity relative to controls, especially at higher gain levels (Group x Gain Level x Age: t = -3.22, p = 0.001). Unlike the ASD group for whom regularity increased with age in both tendon vibration conditions, controls only showed these age-related gains when the tendon vibrator was off (Group x Vibration Frequency x Age: t = 2.46, p = .014). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Our findings indicate that while controls integrate proprioceptive and visual feedback online to accurately adjust fine motor behavior, persons with ASD rely mostly on visual feedback. Our results suggest delayed development of sensory integration and reduced reliance on multisensory feedback during online fine motor control in persons with ASD.
Understanding the development of specific components of the neonatal immune system is critical to the understanding of the susceptibility of the neonate to specific pathogens . With the increasing survival of extremely premature infants, neonatologists and other physicians caring for these newborns need to be aware of the vulnerability of this population. Furthermore, it is important for neonatologists to be able to differentiate between immune immaturity and the manifestations of a true primary immunodeficiency that present during the neonatal period. Failure to properly identify primary or acquired immunodeficiency diseases can result in delayed diagnosis and treatment, adversely affecting outcomes. This chapter will briefly define the immune immaturity of the neonate and a diagnostic approach for primary immune deficiency diseases that may present in the neonatal period.
It is uncertain if long-term levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) affect cognition in middle age. We examined the association of LDL-C levels over 25 years with cognitive function in a prospective cohort of black and white US adults.
Lipids were measured at baseline (1985–1986; age: 18–30 years) and at serial examinations conducted over 25 years. Time-averaged cumulative LDL-C was calculated using the area under the curve for 3,328 participants with ≥3 LDL-C measurements and a cognitive function assessment. Cognitive function was assessed at the Year 25 examination with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST], Rey Auditory Visual Learning Test [RAVLT], and Stroop Test. A brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sub-study (N = 707) was also completed at Year 25 to assess abnormal white matter tissue volume (AWMV) and gray matter cerebral blood flow volume (GM-CBFV) as secondary outcomes.
There were 15.6%, 32.9%, 28.9%, and 22.6% participants with time-averaged cumulative LDL-C <100 mg/dL, 101–129 mg/dL, 130–159 mg/dL, and ≥160 mg/dL, respectively. Standardized differences in all cognitive function test scores ranged from 0.16 SD lower to 0.09 SD higher across time-averaged LDL-C categories in comparison to those with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL. After covariate adjustment, participants with higher versus lower time-averaged LDL-C had a lower RAVLT score (p-trend = 0.02) but no differences were present for DSST, Stroop Test, AWMV, or GM-CBFV.
Cumulative LDL-C was associated with small differences in memory, as assessed by RAVLT scores, but not other cognitive or brain MRI measures over 25 years of follow-up.
Psychological attachment to political parties can bias people’s attitudes, beliefs, and group evaluations. Studies from psychology suggest that self-affirmation theory may ameliorate this problem in the domain of politics on a variety of outcome measures. We report a series of studies conducted by separate research teams that examine whether a self-affirmation intervention affects a variety of outcomes, including political or policy attitudes, factual beliefs, conspiracy beliefs, affective polarization, and evaluations of news sources. The different research teams use a variety of self-affirmation interventions, research designs, and outcomes. Despite these differences, the research teams consistently find that self-affirmation treatments have little effect. These findings suggest considerable caution is warranted for researchers who wish to apply the self-affirmation framework to studies that investigate political attitudes and beliefs. By presenting the “null results” of separate research teams, we hope to spark a discussion about whether and how the self-affirmation paradigm should be applied to political topics.
This SHEA white paper identifies knowledge gaps and challenges in healthcare epidemiology research related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with a focus on core principles of healthcare epidemiology. These gaps, revealed during the worst phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, are described in 10 sections: epidemiology, outbreak investigation, surveillance, isolation precaution practices, personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental contamination and disinfection, drug and supply shortages, antimicrobial stewardship, healthcare personnel (HCP) occupational safety, and return to work policies. Each section highlights three critical healthcare epidemiology research questions with detailed description provided in supplementary materials. This research agenda calls for translational studies from laboratory-based basic science research to well-designed, large-scale studies and health outcomes research. Research gaps and challenges related to nursing homes and social disparities are included. Collaborations across various disciplines, expertise and across diverse geographic locations will be critical.