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Research on neurobiologic underpinnings of psychotherapy in depression is still sparse, particularly in psychodynamic oriented research. At present, there is insufficient data on neurobiologic parameters that could allow a targeted use of therapeutic interventions. One reason for this is the methodological difficulty of investigating complex and individual phenomena relevant to the psychotherapeutic process with functional neuroimaging techniques. The Zurich Depression Study takes up this strong research need developing a pioneer study design.
An individualized neuroimaging paradigm was developed based on the MIPQS (Maladaptive Interpersonal Q-Sort (Zimmermann et al., accepted), a self report instrument derived from the OPD-2 axis interpersonal relations (Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis 2, Arbeitskreis OPD, 2006). Visual stimuli were developed and tested that systematically illustrate interpersonal behaviour patterns (Interpersonal Relations Picture Set (IRPS)). They are employed in an individualized fMRI experiment. The experiment was validated with ten healthy study participants
Preliminary results suggest that the experimental paradigm is an accurate method to be employed in psychotherapy research with depressed patients. Specific hemodynamic activation patterns observed during the individualized fMRI task involve brain regions commonly identified as playing a role in emotion processing and autobiographic memory. A final overview of these first results will be given at the EPA 2014 congress.
A staple theme in clinical psychology, emotion regulation, or the ability to manage one's emotions, is directly linked with personal wellbeing and the ability to effectively navigate the social world. Until recently, this concept has been limited to a focus on intrapersonal processes, such as suppression. Less emphasis has been placed on developmental, social, and cultural aspects of emotion regulation. We argue here that as social beings, our engagement in emotion regulation may often occur interpersonally, with trusted others helping us to regulate our emotions. This review will highlight recent research on interpersonal emotion regulation processes.
Attractive colloidal dispersions, suspensions of fine particles which aggregate and frequently form a space-spanning elastic gel are ubiquitous materials in society with a wide range of applications. The colloidal networks in these materials can exist in a mode of free settling when the network weight exceeds its compressive yield stress. An equivalent state occurs when the network is held fixed in place and used as a filter through which the suspending fluid is pumped. In either scenario, hydrodynamic instabilities leading to loss of network integrity occur. Experimental observations have shown that the loss of integrity is associated with the formation of eroded channels, so-called streamers, through which the fluid flows rapidly. However, the dynamics of growth and subsequent mechanism of collapse remain poorly understood. Here, a phenomenological model is presented that describes dynamically the radial growth of a streamer due to erosion of the network by rapid fluid back flow. The model exhibits a finite-time blowup – the onset of catastrophic failure in the gel – due to activated breaking of the inter-colloid bonds. Brownian dynamics simulations of hydrodynamically interacting and settling colloids in dilute gels are employed to examine the initiation and propagation of this instability, which are in good agreement with the theory. The model dynamics is also shown to accurately replicate measurements of streamer growth in two different experimental systems. The predictive capabilities and future improvements of the model are discussed and a stability-state diagram is presented providing insight into engineering strategies for avoiding settling instabilities in networks meant to have long shelf lives.
The origin of the Brγ-line emission in Herbig Ae/Be stars is still an open question and might be related e.g., to a disc wind or the stellar magnetosphere. The study of the continuum and Brγ-emitting region of Herbig Ae/Be stars with high-spectral and high-spatial resolution gives great insights into the sub-au scale hydrogen gas distribution.
We observed the Herbig Be star MWC 120 with the VLTI/AMBER instrument in different spectral channels across the Brγ line with a spectral resolution of R~1500. Using radiative transfer modeling we found a radius of the line emitting region of ~0.4 au that is only two times smaller than the K-band continuum region. This is consistent with a disc wind scenario rather than an origin of magnetospheric emission.
We present near-infrared AMBER (R~12000) observations of the Herbig B[e] star MWC297 in the Brγ-line. We found that the near-infrared continuum emission is ~3.6 times more compact than the expected dust-sublimation radius, possibly indicating the presence of highly refractory dust grains or optically thick gas emission in the inner disk. Our velocity-resolved channel maps marking the first time that kinematic effects in the sub-AU inner regions of a protoplanetary disk could be directly imaged.
Elemental, chemical, and structural analysis of polycrystalline materials at the micron scale is frequently carried out using microfocused synchrotron X-ray beams, sometimes on multiple instruments. The Maia pixelated energy-dispersive X-ray area detector enables the simultaneous collection of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and diffraction because of the relatively large solid angle and number of pixels when compared with other systems. The large solid angle also permits extraction of surface topography because of changes in self-absorption. This work demonstrates the capability of the Maia detector for simultaneous measurement of XRF and diffraction for mapping the short- and long-range order across the grain structure in a Ni polycrystalline foil.
A new generation of solar instruments provides improved spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution, thus facilitating a better understanding of dynamic processes on the Sun. High-resolution observations often reveal multiple-component spectral line profiles, e.g., in the near-infrared He i 10830 Å triplet, which provides information about the chromospheric velocity and magnetic fine structure. We observed an emerging flux region, including two small pores and an arch filament system, on 2015 April 17 with the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ of the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS) situated at the 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. We discuss this method of obtaining fast (one per minute) spectral scans of the solar surface and its potential to follow dynamic processes on the Sun. We demonstrate the performance of the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ by tracking chromospheric high-velocity features in the arch filament system.
The presence of multiple fields during inflation might seed a detectable amount of non-Gaussianity in the curvature perturbations, which in turn becomes observable in present data sets like the cosmic microwave background (CMB) or the large scale structure (LSS). Within this proceeding we present a fully analytic method to infer inflationary parameters from observations by exploiting higher-order statistics of the curvature perturbations. To keep this analyticity, and thereby to dispense with numerically expensive sampling techniques, a saddle-point approximation is introduced whose precision has been validated for a numerical toy example. Applied to real data, this approach might enable to discriminate among the still viable models of inflation.
In this study, compact Charpy impact testing was used to investigate the effect of processing history and dendrite morphology of bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMCs) on impact toughness. Composite samples were fabricated via suction casting and semisolid forging, and the results were compared with crystalline alloys in the same geometry. A strong dependence on processing was observed, with samples exhibiting up to a 30-fold increase in impact toughness depending on processing and microstructure. Provided that attention is paid to processing techniques, BMGMCs are shown to have properties that equal or surpass some conventionally used crystalline alloys. These properties invite further exploration of these materials in structural applications.
One of the multiple capabilities of the new Joint Engineering, Environmental and Processing (JEEP) beamline I12 at Diamond Light Source is the set-up for polychromatic high-energy X-ray diffraction for the study of polycrystalline deformation and residual stresses. The results and interpretation of the first experiments carried out on JEEP are reported. Energy dispersive diffraction patterns from titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V were collected using the new 23-cell ‘horseshoe’ detector and interpreted using Pawley refinement to determine the residual elastic strains at the macro- and meso-scale. It provides a clear demonstration of the tensile-compressive hardening asymmetry of the hexagonal close-packed grains oriented with the basal plane perpendicular to the loading direction.
A major drawback in using bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) as structural materials is their extremely poor fatigue performance. One way to alleviate this problem is through the composite route, in which second phases are introduced into the glass to arrest crack growth. In this paper, the fatigue crack growth behavior of in situ reinforced BMGs with crystalline dendrites, which are tailored to impart significant ductility and toughness to the BMG, was investigated. Three composites, all with equal volume fraction of dendrite phases, were examined to assess the influence of chemical composition on the near-threshold fatigue crack growth characteristics. While the ductility is enhanced at the cost of yield strength vis-à-vis that of the fully amorphous BMG, the threshold stress intensity factor range for fatigue crack initiation in composites was found to be enhanced by more than 100%. Crack blunting and trapping by the dendritic phases and constraining of the shear bands within the interdendritic regions are the micromechanisms responsible for this enhanced fatigue crack growth resistance.
Previous studies investigating attentional biases in social anxiety disorder (SAD) have yielded mixed results. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies using the dot-probe paradigm in non-anxious participants have shown that the P1 component is sensitive to visuospatial attention towards emotional faces. We used a dot-probe task in conjunction with high-density ERPs and source localization to investigate attentional biases in SAD.
Twelve SAD and 15 control participants performed a modified dot-probe task using angry–neutral and happy–neutral face pairs. The P1 component elicited by face pairs was analyzed to test the hypothesis that SAD participants would display early hypervigilance to threat-related cues. The P1 component to probes replacing angry, happy or neutral faces was used to evaluate whether SAD participants show either sustained hypervigilance or decreased visual processing of threat-related cues at later processing stages.
Compared to controls, SAD participants showed relatively (a) potentiated P1 amplitudes and fusiform gyrus (FG) activation to angry–neutral versus happy–neutral face pairs; (b) decreased P1 amplitudes to probes replacing emotional (angry and happy) versus neutral faces; and (c) higher sensitivity (d′) to probes following angry–neutral versus happy–neutral face pairs. SAD participants also showed significantly shorter reaction times (RTs) to probes replacing angry versus happy faces, but no group differences emerged for RT.
The results provide electrophysiological support for early hypervigilance to angry faces in SAD with involvement of the FG, and reduced visual processing of emotionally salient locations at later stages of information processing, which might be a manifestation of attentional avoidance.
The transformation of schwertmannite to goethite was studied by ageing one synthetic and five natural schwertmannites in water at room temperature. Additionally, one synthetic and two natural schwertmannites were kept at variable pH (2, 4, 6 and 8). After one year, only the synthetic sample and one natural schwertmannite had transformed to goethite. However, the oxalate solubility of Fe and trace elements in all the samples decreased, whereas the total Fe/S ratios and specific surface areas of all samples increased. Arsenic and organic matter appeared to suppress the schwertmannite-to-goethite phase transformation. At pH 2, synthetic schwertmannite fully-transformed to goethite, but at pH 4–6 only minor transformation occurred. Depending on pH, many trace elements were released into solution during ageing of the natural schwertmannites. In general, Co, Mn, Zn and Si were released to solution, whereas As was enriched in the remaining iron oxide fraction. Al was dissolved at pH <4.
In a particular success for translational research agendas, characterization of the neuronal circuits underlying fear extinction, and basic research in animal extinction paradigms, has led to intervention studies examining the use of D-cycloserine (DCS) to enhance therapeutic learning from exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). In this article, we review these intervention studies, and discuss DCS augmentation of CBT relative to more traditional combination-treatment strategies in the treatment of anxiety disorders. We offer an accounting, based on evidence for internal context effects, of current limitations in the combination of antidepressant or benzodiazepine medications with CBT and discuss the advantages of isolated-dosing strategies with DCS relative to these limitations. This strategy is contrasted with the chronic-dosing applications of DCS for schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, and future directions for isolated-dosing strategies are discussed.
The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) includes several pathogens of veterinary and human medical importance. An understanding of the diversity of Anaplasma major surface proteins (MSPs), including those MSPs that modulate infection, development of persistent infections, and transmission of pathogens by ticks, is derived in part, by characterization and phylogenetic analyses of geographic strains. Information concerning the genetic diversity of Anaplasma spp. MSPs will likely influence the development of serodiagnostic assays and vaccine strategies for the control of anaplasmosis.
Metallic copper nanostructured particles were synthesised by thermal decomposition of a CuC2O4 precursor obtained via the precipitation reaction between Cu(NO3)2·6H2O and Na2C2O4 in the present of hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC). X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG) were used to characterise the particles and their evolution during the transformation to metallic copper. We highlight the nanostructured nature of the oxalate precursor, which is made up of anisotropic nanosized buildings blocks (25nm by 40nm). These produce an anisotropy in the oxalate particle and influence the decomposition pathway. The results show the evolution of the nanostructure as a function of degree of reaction and a possible kinetic model is discussed.
I was a senior fellow under the supervision of Dr. M when a situation arose regarding informed consent. Mr. W had been hospitalized 4 days earlier and was increasingly concerned that Dr. M's search to find the reason for his mysterious set of symptoms, including three consultations with colleagues, had been unsuccessful. He was convinced he had undergone almost every diagnostic procedure imaginable.
Dr. M agreed with a recommendation that a liver biopsy be performed. She carefully explained all the reasons for doing the procedure, emphasized the potentially helpful information it could produce, and described the possible complications. She also discussed what few alternatives were available and the relative advantages and disadvantages of each one, but she concluded by noting they were unlikely to produce very useful information.
Having confidence in Dr. M's clinical judgment, Mr. W stated he was willing to have the liver biopsy. At that point, Dr. M mentioned that, as her senior fellow, she would like me to perform the procedure. She informed Mr. W that she would be present during the liver biopsy, and he gave consent.
Nano-sized Fe particles were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Condensation (CVC) Process using the precursor of iron carbonyl (Fe(CO)5) as the source. We investigated the microstructures, magnetic properties of the Fe nanoparticles and their oxidation behavior during annealing systematically by means of HRTEM, DTA-TG, Mössbauer spectroscopy. The prepared particle was nearly spherical shape and core-shell type structure. The magnetic states of Fe nanoparticles changed from superparamagnetism to ferromagnetism with the particle size and microstructure. Oxidation heat treatment leads to the successive appearance of oxide phases.