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Ten-day-old neonate who underwent correction of interrupted aortic arch developed a giant early post-surgical aneurysm. To our knowledge, this unusual complication has been only reported as a late complication.
S100B is a calcium-binding astrocyte-specific cytokine, that is considered a biomarker of neurodegeneration; which may be involved in the imbalance of the inflammatory response observed in several brain disorders, including major depression and schizophrenia. Two meta-analyses have reported higher serum levels of S100B in patients with schizophrenia respect to healthy controls.
Different studies have described circadian and seasonal variations of biological variables, such as melatonin or cortisol. It has been reported that there is not circadian rhythm of S100B blood levels in healthy subjects. However, it is not known whether there are circadian oscillations in S100B blood concentrations in patients with schizophrenia.
The aim of this study is to describe S100B serum levels in patients with schizophrenia and to analyse whether they follow a circadian rhythm.
Our sample consists in 47 patients in acute phase and stabilized status. Blood samples were collected at 12:00 and 00:00 hours by venipuncture. Serum levels of Protein S100B were measured three times: at admission, discharge and three months after discharge. Protein S100B was measured by means of ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) techniques.
P Admission Vs. Discharge
P Admission Vs. Control
P Discharge Vs. Control
There is a significance difference between 12:00 and 24:00 at admission for the Protein S100B.However, these difference did not occur at discharge and at three months after discharge.It can be interpreted as there is a circadian rhythm of Protein S100B when the patient has got a psychotic outbreak and disappears at discharge and when is psychopathologically stable.
With respect to our results we can hypothesize that schizophrenic patients in acute relapse present circadian S100B rhythm that is not present when the patients are clinically stable.Furthermore, the decrease of serum protein S100B levels at discharge is indicative of a reduction of the cerebral inflammation, thus it can be a biomarker of cerebral inflammation and this reduction can be the effect of the treatment. Finally, its circadianity could be a guide of this process and clinical improvement.
Suicide among children, adolescents and young adults is a major health problem, as it represents the fourth leading cause of death among people aged 15-29 (WHO, 2022). A recent study showed that the years of potential life lost (YPLL) due to suicide in 2018 were 1,344,552, which is very close to the 1,591,487 YPLL caused by COVID-19 in the year 2020 (Porras-Segovia et al, 2021). In the recent years, there is a growing interest in suicide prevention research in differentiating attempter profiles in terms of lifetime suicide attempts. Specifically, studies suggest that there may be meaningful differences concerning risk factors between patients with a history of one versus multiple suicide attempts. Multiple attempters (MA) show more suicidal ideation, depressive symptoms and hopelessness than single attempters (SA) (Esposito et al, 2003; Goldston et al, 1998).
We aimed to answer the question ‘What are the factors associated with attempting suicide for the first time and are they different from the factors associated with re-attempting suicide in children and adolescents?’
We conducted a systematic literature search in four databases. Article selection and data extraction according to a predefined protocol, including bias risk assessment, were performed by independent peer reviewers. Due to the different way to present data in the studies effect sizes were pre-calculated to standard mean differences (SMD). Random effects model was used to calculate the pooled effect size for all meta-analysis. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots.
14 studies were included in the systematic review, and 13 in the meta-analysis. Original articles used in the meta-analysis included a total of 4286 participants of whom 1579 were multiple suicide-attempters and 2707 single suicide attempters.
MAs showed significantly higher proportion of anxiety disorders (SMD = 0.387, 95%CI [0.09, 0.68], p < 0.022), alcohol abuse disorder (SMD = 0.382, 95%CI [0.07, 0.70], p < 0.036) and substance abuse disorder (SMD = 0.526, 95%CI [0.21, 0.84], p <0.013) than SAs. Mean depression severity was higher among MAs than SAs (SMD = 0.515, 95%CI [0.17, 0.86], p < 0.011). MAs showed higher impulsivity (SMD = 0.28, 95%CI [-0.03, 0.60], p < 0.068) and aggressiveness (SMD = 0.688, 95%CI [0.42, 0.96], p < 0.00) than SAs. Hopelessness (SMD = 0.482, 95%CI [0.06, 0.91], p < 0.03) and suicidal ideation (SMD = 0.399, 95%CI [0.34, 0.46], p < 0.007) was significantly higher in MA.
On the basis of the current results, multiple attempters may represent a distinct patient population in terms of being a more severe clinical profile. This can provide the basis of stronger suicide prevention and vigilance programs focused in this suicidal phenotype.
There is evidence that anxiety and depressive symptoms may lead individuals to under-estimate their own sleep quality, particularly among younger subjects (aged <45 yrs).
The aim of this study was to investigate the discrepancy between objective and subjective measurements of sleep quality in a sample of healthy control subjects (HCs) with no Axis I mental disorders, and the possible impact of panic-agoraphobic spectrum symptoms.
A total of 117 HCs (65 males and 97 females; Age: 35.3±14yrs) were evaluated by the: Panic Agoraphobic Spectrum-Self Report (PAS-SR), to investigate panic spectrum; the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and actigraphy, respectively for the subjective and the objective sleep efficiency (SE) measures. Groups were divided according to the congruence between SE-actigraphic vs SE-PSQI (“Accurate”, “Underestimate”, “Overestimate”), establishing as a threshold an SE>85% as a measure of good SE. Regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between PAS-SR domains and the discrepancy between objective and subjective measurements, controlling confounding factors such as age, gender and BMI
Since our data showed that a low sleep quality was associated with a greater age and that higher PAS-SR scores were associated with younger age, we used a sub-sample of 117 participants with age <45 years and comparing the 3 groups of subjects created on the basis of the discrepancy: Accurate, N = 74 (63.2 %), “Overestimate group”, N= 23 (19.7 %), “Underestimate group”: N=20 (17.1 %), we found a statistically significant difference among groups in the PAS.SR separation anxiety domain (p value=0.032), with a multinomial regression model confirming this domain contributed significantly to the differentiation between the three groups with higher symptoms being associated with a higher probability of belonging to the “underestimate” group.
Our results suggest that the discrepancy between objective and subjective sleep efficiency measurements in HCs could be affected by panic spectrum symptoms, particularly separation anxiety.
Currently, in addition to their frequent use in community medicine, the use of antidepressants is a fundamental pillar of pharmacological treatments used in psychiatry. Due to this frequent use, we must be aware of the possible side effects, in particular the SIADH produced in this clinical case by SSRIs. There are already described cases of this association including other antidepressants and many different types of drugs.
To review the current literature on the management of this pathology when it is secondary to the use of frequently used drugs such as SSRIs.
We report the case of a 64-year-old woman hospitalised in the psychiatric department for malnutrition secondary to unspecified eating disorder (ED). During admission, treatment with sertraline was started with ascending doses up to 100mg, subsequently producing slight edema with the following analytical results: plasma Na: 123 mEq/L (135-145), plasma osmolarity: 250 mOsm/kg (275-300), urinary Na: 174 mEq/L (>40), fulfilling diagnostic criteria for SIADH.
Afterwards, we reduced sertraline until discontinuation and started treatment with water restriction and urea (30 grams/24 hours) during admission and after discharge. During admission, we observed disappearance of the edema and partial improvement of the analytical values (Na:131 mEq/L), which were normalised with home treatment of daily urea.
The precise prevalence of SIADH from the use of SSRIs is unknown, it is known that patients older than 65 are at higher risk of developing severe hyponatraemia in the first 5 weeks after initiation. Similarly, treatment with water and urea restriction, together with discontinuation of SSRIs, appears to be sufficient.
SSRIs can cause SIADH a reversible but potentially life-threatening pathology, and we need to be aware of this possibility especially in the older population and being able to handle it
Fahr’s disease (FD) is a rare disorder consisting of bilateral and symmetrical calcium deposits in basal ganglia and cerebral cortex. These lesions are associated with neurological and psychiatric symptoms such as a rigid hypokinetic syndrome, mood disorders and memory and concentration abnormalities. It can be idiopathic or secondary to endocrine disorders, infectious diseases or mitochondrial myopathies.
To highlight the importance of considering organic causes when evaluating patients presenting atypical psychiatric symptoms and claim the role of neuroimaging.
Case report and non-systematic review of literature: sources obtained from Pubmed database.
A 69-year-old man, native of Syracuse (Italy), was admitted to the Psychiatry Unit in February 2022 presenting behavioural disturbances and irritability. In July 2021 he presented the same symptoms, being mistakenly diagnosed with Bipolar Disease type I. He has no previous psychiatric history. He started with changes in his personality, short-term memory loss, aggressiveness and disorganized behaviour at the age of 66. At admission he was talkative and hyperfamiliar, presenting delusions of grandiosity, exalted affectivity and insomnia. Neurological examination showed short-term memory problems, signs of frontal disinhibition and abnormal glabellar tap sign. Blood tests, CT brain and MRI were performed to rule out organic underlying causes. Neuro-imaging found bilateral and symmetric calcifications in globus pallidus, thalamus and corpus striatum, in favour of FD. Secondary causes (abnormalities in the PTH, vitamin disorders and infectious diseases such as HIV, brucellosis or neurosyphilis) where discarded, allowing us to conclude it was probably a primary case of FD. Valproate was started as a mood stabilizer and anticonvulsant. Genetic tests were indicated.
FD should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the evaluation of psychiatric symptoms, especially when atypical and/or presented with neurological symptoms. The role of neuro-imaging is essential.
Dementia has a significant psychological and emotional impact on families, especially for caregivers of people living with dementia. In this perspective, the World Health Organization has developed iSupport for Dementia, an online training and skills program to prevent and/or reduce mental health problems associated with the provision of care and improve the quality of life of caregivers. It is being translated and adapted in different countries and as of August 2022, 31 adaptations using 27 different languages were in progress. However, the availability of the program should only be carried out after evaluating its effects on caregivers’ mental health outcomes (such as burden, depressive and anxious symptoms, quality of life, among others).
To analyze randomized clinical trial protocols to assess the effects of the iSupport program in different countries.
This is a data survey carried out in October 2022 on clinical trial registry platforms Clinical Trials, The Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Netherlands Trial Register and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry by two independent researchers. Descriptive analyzis were performed for sample size, primary outcomes, secondary outcomes and intervention design.
Seven clinical trial registries were identified, conducted in Australia/China, Brazil, Great Britain, the Netherlands, India, Japan and Portugal, published in English, from 2018 to 2022. The sample size ranged from 184 to 390 participants. Regarding the primary outcomes linked to the effect of using iSupport, five countries will analyze burden, anxiety and depression. Only in Australia/China and the Netherlands, the primary outcome will be quality of life and stress, respectively. Secondary outcomes vary between studies, with measures of quality of life (n=6), self-efficacy (n=4), program usability (n=4), cognition and problematic behaviors (n=3), attitudes (n=3), quality of support (n=3), positive aspects of care (n=2), knowledge, competence, resilience and informal costs of care (n=1). Most studies will carry out assessments at baseline, 3 and 6 months after the intervention, with the exception of Japan that will perform at baseline and at 1 and 3 months after the intervention and 6 months.
Analysis of the effectiveness of iSupport is one of the World Health Organization guidelines for countries that are culturally adapting this program. Brazil is the only country in Latin America with a clinical trial registration so far. Burden, anxiety and depression are outcomes considered by most countries. The results could provide evidence to strengthen and expand the possibilities for collaboration between researchers, as internet-based interventions have shown promising results on the mental health and well-being.
Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD), parallel, patients with BD report significantly higher rates of exposure to major lifetime traumatic events than the general population with a high risk of developing PTSD.
The aim of this study was to compare sleep parameters subjectively and objectively measured, in patients with BD with or without PTSD with respect to healthy control subjects.
73 patients with BD (26 BD+ PTSD and 46 BDw/oPTSD) and 88 HC were evaluated through actigraphic monitoring to explore sleep and circadian parameters, scales exploring sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index -PSQI-) and chronotype (reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire –rMEQ-) and the Trauma and Loss Spectrum Self Report (TALS-SR), for lifetime trauma and loss spectrum symptoms.
Compared to age-matched HC, patients with BD reported lower sleep quality, lower rMEQ scores suggestive of delayed chronotype, longer total sleep time, higher waking after sleep onset, lower interdaily stability and lower sleep health. Patients with BD+PTSD reported significantly higher PSQI scores than BDw/oPTSD; significant correlations between the PSQI total scores and TALS-SR symptomatic domains emerged in the BD+PTSD group only.
Our results suggest a strong correlation between sleep disturbances, particularly evaluated by subjective measures, and PTSD symptoms in patients with BD.
It has been reported an inflammatory state in schizophrenia, with altered levels of some cytokines (Zhou et al. Cytokine 2021; 141:155441). Recent publications have shown the importance of IL- 33, a member of the IL-1 cytokine family which acts as an alarmin (Han et al. Neurosci Bull 2011; 27, 351-357). The role of this cytokine as a biomarker has been investigated in schizophrenia (Koricanac et al. Front Psychiatry 2022; 13, 925757). However, results are controversial. Some studies have not found significant associations between IL-33 and chronic schizophrenia (Campos-Carli et al. Compr Psychiatry 2017; 74 96-101), while other papers have reported increased levels (Kozlowska et. al. J Psychiatr Res. 2021; 138 380-387). In all these studies, levels of IL-33 were measured in a single daily measure, so that it has not been studied if IL-33 has changes during hospitalization.
To study the serum level of IL-33 at 12:00 and 00:00 hours in schizophrenia patients at admission and before hospital discharge.
Fifteen inpatients with diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia according to ICD-10 criteria were studied. Patients were hospitalized at the University Hospital of the Canary Islands psychiatric ward because of an acute relapse. A total of four blood samples were taken from each patient: at 12:00 and 00:00 hours the day after admission and at 12:00 and 00:00 hours the day before discharge. Serum IL-33 levels were measured by ELISA techniques. Daytime and nighttime IL-33 serum levels at admission and discharge were compared using a non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
In table 1 the results of the comparison of IL-33 at admission and discharge are presented. There is a significant reduction of IL-33 levels at 00:00 h. at discharge in comparison with the IL-33 levels at 00:00 h. at admission (p=0.028). No other statistically significant differences were observed.
The decrease of serum IL-33 at 00:00 at discharge compared to the 00:00 IL-33 serum level at admission points to the utility of this biomarker as a surrogate of brain inflammation.
Wenicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is a neurological disorder caused by thiamine deficiency. Wernicke Encephalopathy (WE) is the acute phase and the chronic phase is called Korsakoff-syndrome (KS).
To review the current literature on the management of WKS in a patient with anorexia nervosa.
We report the case of a 63-year-old woman admitted to the Psychiatry Unit after weight loss in the last 3 months (from 39 kg to 33,500 kg). She only made one meal a day. By exploration and analysis, neoplastic disease is ruled out (thoraco-abdomino-pelvic CT without pathological findings). She has maintained restrictive intakes for more than 30 years. A long-term anorexia nervosa (AN) is suspected, with a worsening of restrictive behavior in recent months. Upon admission, she has a weight of 33,500 kg and a BMI of 14,10. She has a left palpebral ptosis and an alteration of the anterograde memory as well as affectation of executive functions. Progressive oral diet is started, and due to the suspicion of a WKS, thiamine ev is started for a week and then continued with oral thiamine. Thiamine levels are extracted once the ev treatment has begun, so we do not have previous levels to know if they were decreased. Brain MRI shows bilateral hyperintensities in white matter and at supratentorial level in T2 and FLAIR. After a month and a half of admission, the patient has progressively regained weight, has managed to make adequate intakes and has improvement in memory.
An adverse consequence of severe malnutrition in AN due to severe food restriction and purging behavior is thiamine deficiency, and also global cerebral atrophy and concomitant cognitive deficits can be found. Thiamine deficiency occurs in 38% of individuals with AN and is often unrecognized. WKS is caused by thiamine deficiency, and WE is the acute phase of this syndrome (presentation of triad can vary). The chronic phase is KS and consists in amnesia with confabulations. WKS typically develops after malnourishment in alcoholic patients but can be associated in nonalcoholic such as prolonged intravenous feeding, hyperemesis, anorexia nervosa, refeeding after starvation, thyrotoxicosis, malabsorption syndromes; hemodialysis; peritoneal dialysis; AIDS; malignancy. WKS is a clinical diagnosis, and no specific abnormalities have been found in cerebrospinal fluid, brain imaging or electroencephalograms. MRI has a sensitivity of 53%, but high specificity of 93%, and shows an increased signal in T2 and FLAIR sequences, bilaterally symmetrical in the paraventricular regions of the thalamus, the hypothalamus, mamillary bodies, the periaquedutal region, the floor of the fourth ventricle and midline cerebellum.
If the disorder is suspected, thiamine should be initiated immediately in order to prevent irreversible brain damage, with an estimated mortality rate of about 20%, or to the chronic form of the WE in up to 85% of survivors
Community-based organizations (CBOs) are important equity-promoting delivery channels for evidence-based interventions (EBIs). However, CBO practitioners often cannot access needed support to build EBI skills. Additionally, the capacity-building literature is hindered by inconsistent definitions, limited use of validated measures, and an emphasis on the perspectives of EBI developers versus implementers. To address these gaps, we explored commonalities and differences between CBO practitioners and academics in conceptualizing and prioritizing core EBI skills.
We utilized Group Concept Mapping, a mixed-methods approach connecting qualitative data (e.g., regarding the range of critical EBI skills) and quantitative data (e.g., sorting and ranking data regarding unique skills) to create conceptual maps integrating perspectives from diverse participants. A total of 34 practitioners and 30 academics working with cancer inequities participated in the study.
Participants nominated 581 core skills for EBI use, and our team (including practitioners and academics) identified 98 unique skills from this list. Participants sorted them into conceptual groups, yielding five clusters: (1) using data and evaluation, (2) selecting and adapting EBIs, (3) connecting with community members, (4) building diverse and equitable partnerships, and (5) managing EBI implementation. The ordering of importance and presence of skill clusters were similar across groups. Overall, importance was rated higher than presence, suggesting capacity gaps.
There are helpful commonalities between practitioners’ and academics’ views of core EBI skills in CBOs and apparent capacity gaps. However, underlying patterns suggest that differences between the groups’ perceptions warrant further exploration.
The use of prostaglandin E1 is well documented in ductus arteriosus-dependent CHD or in neonatal pulmonary pathologies that cause severe pulmonary hypertension. The intravenous infusion is well established in loading infusion and maintenance with an onset of action of 30 minutes until 2 hours or even more. Our aim is to report three patients with pulmonary atresia that presented hypercyanotic spell due to a ductal spasm during cardiac catheterisation in whom the administration of a bolus of alprostadil reversed the spasm and increased pulmonary flow, immediately stabilising the condition of the patients allowing subsequent successful stent placement with no serious complications or sequelae after the administration of the bolus. More studies are needed to make a recommendation regarding the use of alprostadil in bolus in cases where the ductal spasm might jeopardise the life of the patient.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Assistive technology (AT) can improve older adults’ function in daily activities. However, Latinos are among the least likely to use AT. Given that primary health care physicians (PCPs) have low awareness about AT, this study aims to evaluate the usability and acceptability of an AT WebAPP among PCPs to increase older Latinos’ access to AT. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A team of an established researcher, a sub-graduate faculty and student, and a graduate student will recruit ten PCPs in Puerto Rico and will interview them to explore their current practice in addressing the functional needs of older Spanish-speaking Latinos. The researchers will then train PCPs in the use of a Spanish evidence-based AT WebAPP developed in one of our earlier studies. PCP participants will use the APP with their older patients for 30 days. At the end of the usage period, the analysis will include a mixed method design, consisting of the simultaneous collection of quantitative data using a validated scale followed by qualitative data through individual interviews. Quantitative data will be analyzed with descriptive statistics and qualitative data with thematic content analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We expect that the AT WebAPP will be rated as particularly useful and acceptable by the PCPs to increase older Latinos’ access to information about AT that could compensate for their physical function disabilities. We also expect that PCPs will offer recommendations for enhancing the design and usability of the AT WebAPP. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Studying the usability and acceptability of this AT WebAPP among PCPs will advance our understanding of its feasibility in enhancing PCPs AT knowledge and recommendations of AT devices for older adults with disabilities in Puerto Rico and in Latino communities in the continental United States.
Sequential thermal analysis allows for deconvoluting the refractory nature and complexity of carbon mixtures embedded in mineral matrices for subsequent offline stable carbon and radiocarbon (14C) isotope analyses. Originally developed to separate Holocene from more ancient sedimentary organic matter to improve dating of marine sediments, the Ramped Pyrolysis and Oxidation (RPO) apparatus, or informally, the “dirt burner” is now used to address pressing questions in the broad field of biogeochemistry. The growing interest in the community now necessitates improved handling and procedures for routine analyses of difficult sample types. Here we report on advances in CO2 purification during sample processing, modifications to the instrumentation at the National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (NOSAMS) facility, and introduce sodium bicarbonate procedural standards with differing natural abundance 14C signatures for blank assessment. Measurements from different environmental samples are used to compare the procedure to the different generations of sequential thermal analyses. With this study, we aim to improve the standardization of the procedures and prepare this instrumentation for innovations in online stable carbon isotopes and direct AMS-interface measurements in the future.
The region of Coquimbo has the highest percentage of goats (Capra hircus) in Chile and is severely affected by droughts. This can lead to environmental challenges such as limited water and forage availability when goats are kept in natural grasslands. The objective of this study was to assess the welfare of dairy goats in semi-intensive production systems under drought conditions. The study was carried out in La Serena city, region of Coquimbo, Chile and 22 semi-intensive dairy goat farms were assessed using the Animal Welfare Indicators protocol. In each evaluation, the following indicators and information were gathered: physical and behavioural indicators of animal welfare, farmers’ sociodemographic information, farm facilities, husbandry practices and management of the farm, and farmers’ perception of animal welfare. Of the goats evaluated (n = 446), the vast majority had a body condition score (BCS) considered normal (n = 349; 78.25%). The main welfare problems were poor hair condition, faecal soiling, overgrown claws and improper disbudding or dehorning. The majority of farmers (96%) considered it ‘rather important’ or ‘very important’ to handle their goats in a gentle manner, expressing concern about the welfare of their animals and considering pain as a negative experience for goats. A lower than expected percentage of very thin animals (low BCS) were seen, considering the drought conditions and the forage shortage that affects the region, and no animals were observed with signs of thermal stress. The semi-intensive production systems could be an alternative to pasture-based systems to overcome environmental challenges.
The macadamia nut borer, Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the main pest of Macadamia integrifolia Maiden and Betche (Proteaceae) in Central America. We identified five compounds in female sex pheromone gland extracts, (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate, tetradecyl acetate, dodecyl acetate, (E)-8-dodecenol, and (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate, in a ratio of 100:44.9:33.4:6.5:1.2, respectively, from Guatemalan populations of this insect. All compounds except tetradecyl acetate elicited electroantennography responses in two- to five-day-old males. In field tests, traps baited with single compounds did not capture males, except for the major component (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate. Mixtures of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate with secondary components were active in field tests, but the number of G. aurantianum males trapped did not differ between these mixtures and (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate alone. Doses of more than 1 mg (1.5 or 2 mg) of the major component did not significantly increase capture. The gradual loss of the amount of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate in rubber septa under field conditions indicates that septa should be renewed every four weeks. In conclusion, the addition of secondary components to the major component of the sex pheromone gland contents does not improve capture of G. aurantianum males. Our results demonstrate that 1 mg of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate could be used as an attractant for monitoring populations of this moth.
The COVID-19 pandemic caused considerable burden on mental health worldwide. To address this emergency in Peru, Socios en Salud (SES) implemented an innovative digital system for the diagnosis and psychological therapy in vulnerable populations. We describe the development, implementation, and participant outcomes of this intervention.
We conducted an intervention in a general population of Lima, Peru using a digital tool, ChatBot-Juntos, incorporating the abbreviated Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) to screen psychological distress. Participants positive for psychological distress received remote Psychological First Aid (PFA) and grief therapy if needed. Participants with a mental health condition or safety concern were referred to mental health services. SRQ scores were collected 3 months after PFA sessions. Differences between screening and follow-up scores were compared using Wilcoxon sign-rank test.
In total, 2027 people were screened; 1581 (77.9%) screened positive for psychological distress. Nine hundred ninety-seven (63%) people with psychological distress received PFA, and 320 (32.1%) of those were also referred for mental health care. At 3 months after follow-up, SRQ scores were collected for 579 (58%) participants. Significant reduction in SRQ scores was observed 3 months after PFA [median SRQ score changed from 9 to 5 (p < 0.001)], and after PFA plus referral to mental health services [median SRQ score changed from 11 to 6 (p < 0.001)].
Digital technology can be used to screen for psychological distress and deliver mental health support for populations affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. More research is needed to determine whether technology contributes to improved mental health outcomes.
CHDs are the most common type of birth defect. One in four newborns with a heart defect has a critical CHD. In Mexico, there is a lack of data available to determine its prevalence. Pulse oximetry screening programmes have been implemented worldwide, reporting opportunity areas in algorithm interpretation and data management. Our study aims to share preliminary results of a 3-year experience of a multicentre pulse oximetry screening programme that addresses critical challenges.
Materials and methods:
This retrospective study examined the reports of newborns screened from February 2016 to July 2019 from five hospitals. Two algorithms –the New Jersey and the American Academy of Pediatrics– were implemented over consecutive periods. The algorithms’ impact was assessed through the calculation of the false-positive rate in an eligible population.
A total of 8960 newborns were eligible for the study; from it, 32.27% were screened under the New Jersey and 67.72% under the American Academy of Pediatrics algorithm – false-positive rate: 1% (CI 95: ± 0.36%) and 0.71% (CI 95: ± 0.21%), respectively. Seventy-nine newborns were referred, six were diagnosed with critical CHD, and six with CHD. The critical CHD estimated prevalence was 6.69:10,000 newborns (CI 95: ± 5.36). Our results showed that the algorithm was not related to the observable false-positive rate reduction.
Other factors may play a role in decreasing the false-positive rate. Our experience implementing this programme was that a systematic screening process led to more confident results, newborn’s report interpretation, and follow-up.
Following inception in 2005 as a multiregional practice-based research network (PBRN), the “National Dental PBRN” expanded nationwide in 2012, and in 2019 implemented additional organizational changes. The objectives are to: (1) describe the new structure and function of the network; and (2) quantify its scientific productivity since 2005.
A national Administrative and Resource Center is based in Alabama; regional and specialty nodes are based in Alabama, Florida, Illinois, Minnesota, Oregon, New York, and Texas. A Network Coordinating Center is based in Oregon. Studies are funded via investigator-initiated grants. Scientific productivity is assessed using specific metrics, including the Relative Citation Ratio.
To date, 58 studies have been completed or are in data collection or development. These studies have investigated a broad range of topics using a wide variety of study designs. Of the studies that have completed enrollment, 70,665 patients were enrolled, as were 19,827 practitioners (some participated in multiple studies), plus electronic records for 790,493 patients in two data-only studies. To date, these studies have led to 193 peer-reviewed scientific publications in 62 different journals. The mean (1.40) Relative Citation Ratio of Network publications connotes a greater-than-average influence in their fields.
These metrics demonstrate that the PBRN research context can successfully engage practitioners and patients from diverse settings nationally with a high and sustained level of scientific productivity. This infrastructure has enabled clinical scientists in oral health and nonoral health topics and provided additional recruitment venues outside of the typical academic health center research context.
The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of cactus pear as a moistening additive on fermentative and microbiological characteristics, aerobic stability (AS), chemical composition and in situ rumen degradability of corn grain silage at different opening times. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted in a 4 × 3 factorial scheme with four levels of dry matter (DM) (50; 60; 70 and 80% of DM) and three opening times (30; 60 and 120 days after ensiling), with four replications. There was an effect of interaction (P < 0.05) between the DM levels and opening times on silage yeast population, effluent losses, gas losses, dry matter recovery (DMR), AS of the silage and on lactic acid bacteria, mould and yeast populations after AS trial. The 60% DM level presented DMR values above 930 g/kg of DM. However, the lowest AS time (96.52 h) was observed in silages with 60% DM at 60 days after ensiling, although all silages have shown high AS. The DM in situ degradability of the ensiled mass increased after the ensiling process at all DM levels and opening times, with the 60% DM content showing the best result. When using cactus pear as a corn grain moistening additive, the 60% DM level is recommended when the opening time is up 120 days.