To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Rabies is endemic in Bangladesh. To identify risk factors, a case-control study was conducted based on hospital-reported rabid animal bite (RAB) cases in domestic ruminants, 2009 − 2018. RAB cases (n = 449) and three controls per case were selected. Dogs (87.8%) and jackals (12.2%) were most often identified as biting animals. In the final multivariable model, the risk of being a RAB case was significantly higher in cattle aged >0.5–2 years (odds ratio (OR) 2.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56–5.37), >2–5 years (OR 3.63; 95% CI: 1.97–6.67) and >5 years (OR 6.42; 95% CI: 3.39–12.17) compared to those aged <0.5 years. Crossbred cattle were at higher risk of being a RAB case (OR 5.48; 95% CI: 3.56–8.42) than indigenous. Similarly, female cattle were more likely to be a RAB case (OR 1.26; 95% CI: 1.15–2.29) than males. Cattle in rural areas (OR 39.48; 95% CI: 6.14–254.00) were at a much higher risk of being RAB cases than those in urban areas. Female, crossbred and older cattle, especially in rural areas should either be managed indoors during the dog breeding season (September and October) or vaccinated. A national rabies elimination program should prioritise rural dogs for mass vaccination. Jackals should also be immunised using oral bait vaccines. Prevention of rabies in rural dogs and jackals would also reduce rabies incidence in humans.
The Scaling-up Health-Arts Programme: Implementation and Effectiveness Research (SHAPER) project is the world's largest hybrid study on the impact of the arts on mental health embedded into a national healthcare system. This programme, funded by the Wellcome Trust, aims to study the impact and the scalability of the arts as an intervention for mental health. The programme will be delivered by a team of clinicians, research scientists, charities, artists, patients and healthcare professionals in the UK's National Health Service (NHS) and the community, spanning academia, the NHS and the charity sector. SHAPER consists of three studies – Melodies for Mums, Dance for Parkinson's, and Stroke Odysseys – which will recruit over 800 participants, deliver the interventions and draw conclusions on their clinical impact, implementation effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. We hope that this work will inspire organisations and commissioners in the NHS and around the world to expand the remit of social prescribing to include evidence-based arts interventions.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Adolescent diet, physical activity and nutritional status are generally known to be sub-optimal. This is an introduction to a special issue of papers devoted to exploring factors affecting diet and physical activity in adolescents, including food insecure and vulnerable groups.
Eight settings including urban, peri-urban and rural across sites from five different low- and middle-income countries.
Focus groups with adolescents and caregivers carried out by trained researchers.
Our results show that adolescents, even in poor settings, know about healthy diet and lifestyles. They want to have energy, feel happy, look good and live longer, but their desire for autonomy, a need to ‘belong’ in their peer group, plus vulnerability to marketing exploiting their aspirations, leads them to make unhealthy choices. They describe significant gender, culture and context-specific barriers. For example, urban adolescents had easy access to energy dense, unhealthy foods bought outside the home, whereas junk foods were only beginning to permeate rural sites. Among adolescents in Indian sites, pressure to excel in exams meant that academic studies were squeezing out physical activity time.
Interventions to improve adolescents’ diets and physical activity levels must therefore address structural and environmental issues and influences in their homes and schools, since it is clear that their food and activity choices are the product of an interacting complex of factors. In the next phase of work, the Transforming Adolescent Lives through Nutrition consortium will employ groups of adolescents, caregivers and local stakeholders in each site to develop interventions to improve adolescent nutritional status.
To determine the Final ICU Need in the 24 hours prior to ICU discharge for children with cardiac disease by utilising a single-centre survey.
A cross-sectional survey was utilised to determine Final ICU Need, which was categorised as “Cardiovascular”, “Respiratory”, “Feeding”, “Sedation”, “Systems Issue”, or “Other” for each encounter. Survey responses were obtained from attending physicians who discharged children (≤18 years of age with ICU length of stay >24 hours) from the Cardiac ICU between April 2016 and July 2018.
Measurements and results:
Survey response rate was 99% (n = 1073), with 667 encounters eligible for analysis. “Cardiovascular” (61%) and “Respiratory” (26%) were the most frequently chosen Final ICU Needs. From a multivariable mixed effects logistic regression model fitted to “Cardiovascular” and “Respiratory”, operations with significantly reduced odds of having “Cardiovascular” Final ICU Need included Glenn palliation (p = 0.003), total anomalous pulmonary venous connection repair (p = 0.024), truncus arteriosus repair (p = 0.044), and vascular ring repair (p < 0.001). Short lengths of stay (<7.9 days) had significantly higher odds of “Cardiovascular” Final ICU Need (p < 0.001). “Cardiovascular” and “Respiratory” Final ICU Needs were also associated with provider and ICU discharge season.
Final ICU Need is a novel metric to identify variations in Cardiac ICU utilisation and clinical trajectories. Final ICU Need was significantly influenced by benchmark operation, length of stay, provider, and season. Future applications of Final ICU Need include targeting quality and research initiatives, calibrating provider and family expectations, and identifying provider-level variability in care processes and mental models.
Our research group demonstrated that vitamin A restriction affected meat quality of Angus cross and Simmental steers. Therefore, the aim of this study is to highlight the genotype variations in response to dietary vitamin A levels. Commercial Angus and Simmental steers (n = 32 per breed; initial BW = 337.2 ± 5.9 kg; ~8 months of age) were fed a low-vitamin A (LVA) (1017 IU/kg DM) backgrounding diet for 95 days to reduce hepatic vitamin A stores. During finishing, steers were randomly assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of genotype × dietary vitamin A concentration. The LVA treatment was a finishing diet with no supplemental vitamin A (723 IU vitamin A/kg DM); the control (CON) was the LVA diet plus supplementation with 2200 IU vitamin A/kg DM. Blood samples were collected at three time points throughout the study to analyze serum retinol concentration. At the completion of finishing, steers were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Meat characteristics assessed were intramuscular fat concentration, color, Warner-Bratzler shear force, cook loss and pH. Camera image analysis was used for determination of marbling, 12th rib back fat and longissimus muscle area (LMA). The LVA steers had lower (P < 0.001) serum retinol concentration than CON steers. The LVA treatment resulted in greater (P = 0.03) average daily gain than the CON treatment, 1.52 and 1.44 ± 0.03 kg/day, respectively; however, there was no effect of treatment on final BW, DM intake or feed efficiency. Cooking loss and yield grade were greater and LMA was smaller in LVA steers (P < 0.05). There was an interaction between breed and treatment for marbling score (P = 0.01) and percentage of carcasses grading United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Prime (P = 0.02). For Angus steers, LVA treatment resulted in a 16% greater marbling score than CON (683 and 570 ± 40, respectively) and 27% of LVA Angus steers graded USDA Prime compared with 0% for CON. Conversely, there was no difference in marbling score or USDA Quality Grades between LVA and CON for Simmental steers. In conclusion, feeding a LVA diet during finishing increased marbling in Angus but not in Simmental steers. Reducing the vitamin A level of finishing diets fed to cattle with a high propensity to marble, such as Angus, has the potential to increase economically important traits such as marbling and quality grade without negatively impacting gain : feed or yield grade.
Background: In patients with acute hip fracture, a fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) has been shown to provide effective non-opioid analgesia, reduce the incidence of pneumonia, and potentially decrease the rate of delirium . However, this procedure was infrequently used in the St. Michael's Hospital (SMH) emergency department (ED). Aim Statement: Our aim was to increase the proportion of patients with hip fracture receiving FICB in the ED to 50% in six months. Measures & Design: We completed two Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles, measuring rates of FICB before and after each cycle. The first was a departmental rounds presentation with information about the process and benefits of FICB, addressing barriers identified by surveying the group. The second cycle included a bundle of interventions comprising of an “instruction card” with the steps required to do the procedure, access to a video tutorial, and a list of experienced physicians willing to help less experienced providers perform FICB. Evaluation/Results: In the three months prior to the project, the rate of FICB in the ED was 12.5% (3/24). For the three months after the first PDSA cycle, the rate increased to 22.2% (8/36). Then, the second cycle was performed. In the following two months the rate further increased to 36.8% (7/19). Discussion/Impact: Despite the clear increase in FICB rate, these changes were not statistically significant (p = 0.063). Our methodology was shown to be safe and effective, and our model can be applied to other ED groups looking to increase their rates of FICB.
Van Os et al. (2009) have proposed a Proneness-Persistence-lmpairment model to explain the psychosis continuum, and cognitive models of psychosis have suggested that appraisals of anomalous experiences may be key in determining ‘need for care’.
The present study investigated the interaction between appraisals and safety behaviours in the maintenance of impairing psychotic symptoms.
It was predicted that individuals with psychotic symptoms without a need for care would display fewer threat appraisals and safety behaviours than their clinical counterparts, and that these variables would predict distress.
The study recruited people with persistent psychotic experiences but who had no-need-for-care (Persistence group; n = 39) and individuals diagnosed with a psychotic disorder who were receiving current treatment (Impairment group; n = 28). The participants were assessed on semi-structured interviews of appraisals and safety behaviours in relation to their psychotic experiences and on anxiety and depression questionnaires.
Both groups had similar levels of psychotic symptoms in the last month, including first rank symptoms. However there was a large significant difference between Impairment and Persistence groups in threat appraisals and safety behaviours, with the Persistence group reporting higher levels of both. A mediation analysis found that threat appraisals mediated the relationship between safety behaviours and anomaly-related distress, suggesting that threat appraisals may maintain anomaly-related distress, a defining feature of Impairment status.
These data provide support for the cognitive model of psychosis, with threat appraisals potentially playing a major role in the transition from non-clinical anomalous experiences to clinical psychotic status.
We recently demonstrated that weight gain could be prevented in young people experiencing a first-episode of psychosis commencing treatment with antipsychotics. A 12-week, intensive lifestyle and life skills intervention – the Keeping the Body in Mind program, – was delivered by dedicated nursing, dietetic and exercise physiology clinicians, for new referrals with < one month of antipsychotic exposure. (Curtis et al., Early intervention in psychiatry, in press). At the conclusion of the intervention the 16 young people participating in the program experienced a mean weight gain of 1.8 kilograms, and a mean increase in waist circumference of 0.1 centimeters. The participants were followed up for two years after initial referral.
During the two-year follow-up, participants had continuing access to an in house gym and weekly cooking groups, but without the same intensity of follow-up. Two year follow-up data were obtained from 11 participants form the original cohort.
Mean weight gain at two-year follow-up was 0.90 (SD 8.7) kilograms, and this difference was not statistically significant [t (10) = 0.3, NS]. Waist circumference decreased by 0.7 (SD 7.7) centimeters, which was not t statistically significant [t (10) = 0.3, NS]. Nine of the participants (82%) did not experience clinically significant weight gain two years after initiation of antipsychotic medication.
This two-year follow-up data demonstrated that it is feasible to prevent weight gain in youth with first-episode psychosis over the first two years of treatment.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Nutrition interventions are critical for weight management and cardiometabolic risk reduction in people experiencing severe mental illness (SMI). As mental health teams evolve to incorporate nutrition interventions, evidence needs to guide clinical practice.
A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess whether nutrition interventions improve:
– anthropometric and biochemical measures,
– nutritional intake of people experiencing SMI.
To evaluate the effectiveness of a dietician-led nutrition intervention, as part of a broader lifestyle intervention, in the early stages of antipsychotic prescription.
An electronic database search was conducted to identify all trials with nutritional components. Included trials were pooled for meta-analysis. Meta-regression analyses were run on potential anthropometric moderators. Weekly individualised dietetic consultations plus group cooking classes were then offered to clients attending a Community Early Psychosis Programme, who had recently commenced antipsychotics for a 12-week period.
From pooled trials, nutrition interventions resulted in significant weight loss (19 studies, g = –0.39, P < 0.001), reduced BMI (17 studies, g = –0.40, P < 0.001), decreased waist circumference (10 studies, g = –0.27, P < 0.001) and lower blood glucose levels (5 studies, g = –0.37, P = 0.02). Dietician-led interventions (g = –0.90) and trials focussing on preventing weight gain (g = –0.61) were the most effective. The 12-week nutrition intervention resulted in a 47% reduction in discretionary (junk) food intake (P < 0.001) and reductions in daily energy (–24%, P < 0.001) and sodium intakes (–26%, P < 0.001), while improving diet quality (P < 0.05).
Evidence supports the inclusion of nutrition interventions as part of standard care for preventing weight gain and metabolic deterioration among people with SMI.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
People experiencing severe mental illness (SMI) face a shortened life expectancy of up to 20 years, primarily due to preventable cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Lifestyle interventions are effective in reducing CV risk, yet examples of service-wide interventions are lacking. Staff culture remains a barrier to the successful implementation of lifestyle interventions. The Keeping the Body in Mind (KBIM) program, established by SESLHD (Australia), aims to close the gap in life expectancy through multidisciplinary teams, including clinical nurse consultants, dieticians, exercise physiologists, and peer support workers. Prior to the KBIM rollout, an individualized lifestyle intervention called Keeping Our Staff In Mind (KoSiM) was offered to all district mental health staff.
KoSiM examined the effectiveness of a staff intervention to improve physical health, confidence, knowledge and attitudes of mental health staff.
Mental health staffs were invited to participate in an online survey and a 4-week individualized intervention including personalised health screening and lifestyle advice, with a 16-week follow-up. Outcomes assessed included: attitudes, confidence and knowledge regarding metabolic health, weight, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, sleep, diet, physical activity and exercise capacity.
Of a total of 702 staff, 204 completed the survey (29%). Among those completing the survey, 154 staff (75%) participated in the intervention. A mean decrease in waist circumference of 2 ± 2.7 cm, (P < 0.001) was achieved. Among staffs that were overweight or obese at baseline, 75% achieved a decrease in WC.
Improving staff culture regarding physical health interventions is an important step in integrating lifestyle interventions into routine care.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We evaluated the impact of exposure to a second language on infants’ emerging speech production skills. We compared speech produced by three groups of 12-month-old infants while they interacted with interlocutors who spoke to them in Spanish and English: monolingual English-learning infants who had previously received 5 hours of exposure to a second language (Spanish), English- and Spanish-learning simultaneous bilinguals, and monolingual English-learning infants without any exposure to Spanish. Our results showed that the monolingual English-learning infants with short-term exposure to Spanish and the bilingual infants, but not the monolingual English-learning infants without exposure to Spanish, flexibly matched the prosody of their babbling to that of a Spanish- or English-speaking interlocutor. Our findings demonstrate the nature and extent of benefits for language learning from early exposure to two languages. We discuss the implications of these findings for language organization in infants learning two languages.
The common C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene encoding the folate-metabolising enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase is implicated in hypertension and hypertension in pregnancy. Hypertension affects up to 15% of all pregnancies and has been identified as a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. We previously reported higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) in non-pregnant women with the variant MTHFR 677TT genotype compared to CT/CC genotypes. In addition, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in non-pregnant hypertensive adults from our Centre demonstrated that supplemental riboflavin (co-factor for MTHFR) lowers BP specifically in those with the TT genotype. However, the role of this common folate polymorphism and its interaction with riboflavin during pregnancy remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of MTHFR genotype and riboflavin status on BP in pregnancy. Data were generated from the ongoing Optimal Nutrition for the Prevention of Hypertension (OptiPREG) project. Pregnant women were recruited at the end of the first trimester from antenatal clinics in Northern Ireland and in the Republic of Ireland. Participants were screened for MTHFR genotype and BP was measured according to current clinical guidelines. Biomarker status of riboflavin was determined using the erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient (EGRac), a functional assay with higher EGRac values representing a lower status. Overall, 117 (11.6%) participants were identified with the variant MTHFR 677TT genotype. Both systolic and diastolic BP decreased from 8th to 16th gestational week (GW), however, this typical BP pattern was not observed in the TT genotype group. After adjusting for maternal age, GW and body mass index, women with the TT genotype at 12th GW had higher mean systolic (P 0.035) and diastolic (P 0.034) BP. When the results at the 12th GW were stratified by riboflavin status, the BP phenotype owing to this polymorphism was evident only among women with lower status (i.e. EGRac > 1.30), with mean (SEM) systolic BP of 120.4 (3.1) mmHg compared to 112.6 (2.5) mmHg in those with higher status (EGRac ≤ 1.30) within the TT genotype group; in contrast, low versus high riboflavin status had no impact on BP in CT/CC genotype groups. These results suggest that MTHFR genotype influences BP during pregnancy and that riboflavin can exert an important modulating effect on BP in women with TT genotype. An RCT is required to fully investigate the role of MTHFR genotype and its interactive effect with riboflavin in BP during pregnancy.
Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
In Breaking the Pendulum: The Long Struggle Over Criminal Justice (2017), Philip Goodman, Joshua Page, and Michelle Phelps advocate replacing the pendular notion of penal change with an agonistic approach, where contention is central. This Essay reflects on a pendulum component that has escaped theoretical or empirical scrutiny in pendular accounts of penal change: the pivot determining how freely a pendulum weight swings, and its resting equilibrium. In this parting glance at the pendulum heuristic, I relate this pivot to the agonistic perspective on punishment and—focusing on racial politics of juvenile justice—imagine an antiracist calibration of struggle over penal change.