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Optimum nutrition plays a major role in the achievement and maintenance of good health. The Nutrition Society of the UK and Ireland and the Sabri Ülker Foundation, a charity based in Türkiye and focused on improving public health, combined forces to highlight this important subject. A hybrid conference was held in Istanbul, with over 4000 delegates from sixty-two countries joining the proceedings live online in addition to those attending in person. The primary purpose was to inspire healthcare professionals and nutrition policy makers to better consider the role of nutrition in their interactions with patients and the public at large to reduce the prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. The event provided an opportunity to share and learn from different approaches in the UK, Türkiye and Finland, highlighting initiatives to strengthen research in the nutritional sciences and translation of that research into nutrition policy. The presenters provided evidence of the links between nutrition and disease risk and emphasised the importance of minimising risk and implementing early treatment of diet-related disease. Suggestions were made including improving health literacy and strengthening policies to improve the quality of food production and dietary behaviour. A multidisciplinary approach is needed whereby Governments, the food industry, non-governmental groups and consumer groups collaborate to develop evidence-based recommendations and appropriate joined-up policies that do not widen inequalities. This summary of the proceedings will serve as a gateway for those seeking to access additional information on nutrition and health across the globe.
In epidemiological studies, dairy food consumption has been associated with minimal effect or decreased risk of some cardiometabolic diseases (CMD). However, current methods of dietary assessment do not provide objective and accurate measures of food intakes. Thus, the identification of valid and reliable biomarkers of dairy product intake is an important challenge to best determine the relationship between dairy consumption and health status. This review investigated potential biomarkers of dairy fat consumption, such as odd-chain, trans- and branched-chain fatty acids (FA), which may improve the assessment of full-fat dairy product consumption. Overall, the current use of serum/plasma FA as biomarkers of dairy fat consumption is mostly based on observational evidence, with a lack of well-controlled, dose–response intervention studies to accurately assess the strength of the relationship. Circulating odd-chain SFA and trans-palmitoleic acid are increasingly studied in relation to CMD risk and seem to be consistently associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in prospective cohort studies. However, associations with CVD are less clear. Overall, adding less studied FA such as vaccenic and phytanic acids to the current available evidence may provide a more complete assessment of dairy fat intake and minimise potential confounding from endogenous synthesis. Finally, the current evidence base on the direct effect of dairy fatty acids on established biomarkers of CMD risk (e.g. fasting lipid profiles and markers of glycaemic control) mostly derives from cross-sectional, animal and in vitro studies and should be strengthened by well-controlled human intervention studies.
Diet quality indexes (DQI) are useful tools for assessing diet quality in relation to health and guiding delivery of personalised nutritional advice; however, existing DQI are limited in their applicability to older adults (aged ≥ 65 years). Therefore, this research aimed to develop a novel evidence-based DQI specific to older adults (DQI-65). Three DQI-65 variations were developed to assess the impacts of different component quantitation methods and inclusion of physical activity. These were Nutrient and Food-based DQI-65 (NFDQI-65), NFDQI-65 with Physical Activity (NFDQI-65+PA) and Food-based DQI-65 with Physical Activity (FDQI-65+PA). To assess their individual efficacy, the NFDQI-65, NFDQI-65+PA and FDQI-65+PA were explored alongside the validated Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) and Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010) using data from the cross-sectional UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme. Scores for DQI-65 variations, the HEI-2015 and AHEI-2010 were calculated for adults ≥ 65 years from years 2–6 of the NDNS (n 871). Associations with nutrient intake, nutrient status and health markers were analysed using linear and logistic regression. Higher DQI-65 and HEI-2015 scores were associated with increased odds of meeting almost all our previously proposed age-specific nutritional recommendations, and with important health markers of importance for older adults, including lower BMI, lower medication use and lower C-reactive protein (P < 0·01). Few associations were observed for the AHEI-2010. This analysis suggests value of all three DQI-65 as measures of dietary quality in UK older adults. However, methodological limitations mean further investigations are required to assess validity and reliability of the DQI-65.
Individuals with discordantly high apoB to LDL-cholesterol levels carry a higher risk of atherosclerotic CVD compared with those with average or discordantly low apoB to LDL-cholesterol. We aimed to determine associations between apoB and LDL-cholesterol discordance in relation to nutrient patterns (NP) using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Participants were grouped by established LDL-cholesterol and apoB cut-offs (Group 1: low apoB/low LDL-cholesterol, Group 2: low apoB/high LDL-cholesterol, Group 3: high apoB/low LDL-cholesterol, Group 4: high apoB/high LDL-cholesterol). Principle component analysis was used to define NP. Machine learning (ML) and structural equation models were applied to assess associations of nutrient intake with apoB/LDL-cholesterol discordance using the combined effects of apoB and LDL-cholesterol. Three NP explained 63·2 % of variance in nutrient consumption. These consisted of NP1 rich in SFA, carbohydrate and vitamins, NP2 high in fibre, minerals, vitamins and PUFA and NP3 rich in dietary cholesterol, protein and Na. The discordantly high apoB to LDL-cholesterol group had the highest consumption of the NP1 and the lowest consumption of the NP2. ML showed nutrients that had the greatest unfavourable dietary contribution to individuals with discordantly high apoB to LDL-cholesterol were total fat, SFA and thiamine and the greatest favourable contributions were MUFA, folate, fibre and Se. Individuals with discordantly high apoB in relation to LDL-cholesterol had greater adherence to NP1, whereas those with lower levels of apoB, irrespective of LDL-cholesterol, were more likely to consume NP3.
Beneficial effects of probiotic, prebiotic and polyphenol-rich interventions on fasting lipid profiles have been reported, with changes in the gut microbiota composition believed to play an important role in lipid regulation. Primary bile acids, which are involved in the digestion of fats and cholesterol metabolism, can be converted by the gut microbiota to secondary bile acids, some species of which are less well reabsorbed and consequently may be excreted in the stool. This can lead to increased hepatic bile acid neo-synthesis, resulting in a net loss of circulating low-density lipoprotein. Bile acids may therefore provide a link between the gut microbiota and cardiovascular health. This narrative review presents an overview of bile acid metabolism and the role of probiotics, prebiotics and polyphenol-rich foods in modulating circulating cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers and bile acids. Although findings from human studies are inconsistent, there is growing evidence for associations between these dietary components and improved lipid CVD risk markers, attributed to modulation of the gut microbiota and bile acid metabolism. These include increased bile acid neo-synthesis, due to bile sequestering action, bile salt metabolising activity and effects of short-chain fatty acids generated through bacterial fermentation of fibres. Animal studies have demonstrated effects on the FXR/FGF-15 axis and hepatic genes involved in bile acid synthesis (CYP7A1) and cholesterol synthesis (SREBP and HMGR). Further human studies are needed to determine the relationship between diet and bile acid metabolism and whether circulating bile acids can be utilised as a potential CVD risk biomarker.
In France, dairy products contribute to dietary saturated fat intake, of which reduced consumption is often recommended for CVD prevention. Epidemiological evidence on the association between dairy consumption and CVD risk remains unclear, suggesting either null or inverse associations. This study aimed to investigate the associations between dairy consumption (overall and specific foods) and CVD risk in a large cohort of French adults. This prospective analysis included participants aged ≥18 years from the NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009–2019). Daily dietary intakes were collected using 24-h dietary records. Total dairy, milk, cheese, yogurts, fermented and reduced-fat dairy intakes were investigated. CVD cases (n 1952) included cerebrovascular disease (n 878 cases) and CHD (n 1219 cases). Multivariable Cox models were performed to investigate associations. This analysis included 104 805 French adults (mean age at baseline 42·8 (sd 14·6) years, mean follow-up 5·5 (sd 3·0) years, i.e. 579 155 person-years). There were no significant associations between dairy intakes and total CVD or CHD risks. However, the consumption of at least 160 g/d of fermented dairy (e.g. cheese and yogurts) was associated with a reduced risk of cerebrovascular diseases compared with intakes below 57 g/d (hazard ratio = 0·81 (95 % CI 0·66, 0·98), Ptrend = 0·01). Despite being a major dietary source of saturated fats, dairy consumption was not associated with CVD or CHD risks in this study. However, fermented dairy was associated with a lower cerebrovascular disease risk. Robust randomised controlled trials are needed to further assess the impact of consuming different dairy foods on CVD risk and potential underlying mechanisms.
Recent scientific evidence has indicated that the elderly have increased risk of COVID-19 infections, with over 70s and 80s being hardest hit – especially residents of care homes and in clinical settings, ethnic minorities, people who work indoors and those who are overweight and obese. Other potential risk factors include lack of exposure to sunlight, darker skin pigmentation, co-morbidities, poor diet, certain medications, disadvantaged social and economic status, and lifestyle factors such as smoking and excessive consumption of alcohol. A key question is to understand how and why certain groups of people are more susceptible to COVID-19, whether they have weakened immune systems and what the roles of good nutrition and specific micronutrients are in supporting immune functions. A varied and balanced diet with an abundance of fruits and vegetables and the essential nutrients like vitamin D, vitamin A, B vitamins (folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12), vitamin C and the minerals, Fe, Cu, Se and Zn are all known to contribute to the normal functions of the immune system. Avoidance of deficiencies and identification of suboptimal intakes of these micronutrients in targeted groups of patients and in distinct and highly sensitive populations could help to strengthen the resilience of people to the COVID-19 pandemic. It is important to highlight evidence-based public health messages, to prevent false and misleading claims about the benefits of foods and food supplements and to communicate clearly that the extent of knowledge between micronutrients and COVID-19 infection is still being explored and that no diet will prevent or cure COVID-19 infection. Frequent handwashing and social distancing will be critical to reduce transmission.
Apples are a rich source of polyphenols and fiber. Proanthocyanidins (PAs), the largest polyphenolic class in apples, can reach the colon almost intact where they interact with the gut microbiota producing simple phenolic acids. These metabolites have the potential to modulate gut microbiota composition and activity and impact on host physiology. A randomized, controlled, crossover, dietary intervention study was performed to determine the broad effects of whole apple intake on fecal gut microbiota composition and activity. Forty heathy mildly hypercholesterolemic volunteers (23 women, 17 men), with a mean BMI (± SD) 25.3 ± 3.7 kg/m2 and age 51 ± 11 years, consumed 2 apples/day (Renetta Canada, rich in PAs), or a sugar matched control apple beverage, for 8 weeks separated by a 4-week washout period in a random order. Fecal and 24-h urine samples were collected before and after each treatment. The broad effects of apple intake on fecal gut microbiota composition were explored by the high throughput sequencing (HTS) of 16S rRNA gene lllumina MiSeq sequencing (V3-V4 region). Sequencing data analysis was performed using the Quantitative Insight Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) open-source pipeline version 1.9.1. Specific bacterial groups were also enumerated using the quantitative Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH). Furthermore, the potential formation of microbial polyphenol metabolites, after apple intake, was explored in urine using Liquid Chromatography (LC) High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) metabolomics. Preliminary analysis showed no changes in gut microbiota abundances measured by Illumina MiSeq, after correction for multiple testing. Apple intake significantly decreased Enterobacteriaceae population (P = 0.04) compared to the control beverage, as determined with FISH. Twenty-four polyphenol microbial metabolites were identified in higher concentrations in the apple group (P < 0.05) compared to the control, including valerolactones, valeric and phenolic acids. In conclusion, preliminary data suggest that the daily intake of 2 Renetta Canada apples significantly decreased Enterobacteriaceae population, a family known for its pathogenic members, in healthy mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. Moreover, several polyphenol microbial metabolites were identified, suggesting that microbial activity is crucial and a prerequisite for the absorption of apple polyphenols, producing active metabolites with potential health benefits.
Diets higher in fibre have been associated with beneficial effects on cardiometabolic disease (CMD) risk markers including obesity, blood pressure and cholesterol levels. However, the relationship between dietary fibre intake and body composition is unclear. Therefore, the objective of the study was to further assess the association between fibre intake, body composition and CMD risk markers.
Materials and Methods:
A single-centred cross-sectional study was conducted in 277 healthy adults (n = 107 men and n = 170) women with a mean age of 41 (SD 16) y and body mass index (BMI) of 23.9 (SD 3.8) kg/m2. Total body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and dietary intake was assessed with a 4-day weighed food diary.CMD risk markers included fasting lipids and glucose quantified using an ILAB 600 clinical chemistry analyser and clinic blood pressure measured using an Omron blood pressure monitor.
Average AOAC fibre intake in the cohort was 23.0 (SD 9) g/day, with higher intakes found in men (25.0 (SD 10.3) g/day) than women (21.9 (SD 7.8) g/day; P = 0.015). AOAC fibre intakes were significantly weakly correlated with weight (rs = 0.142), percentage body fat (rs = 0.193), bone mineral density (rs = 0.156) and fat free mass (rs = 0.257; P ≤ 0.009), and inversely correlated with fasting total cholesterol (rs = -0.124), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (rs = 0.144) and total to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio (rs = -0.129; P ≤ 0.042). After stratifying data according to quartiles of AOAC fibre intake and adjusting for covariates (including age, sex, BMI, weight, energy expended per day through physical activity and total energy intake per day) total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in quartiles (Q)3 (21.0–29.5 g/d) and Q4 (30–63.5 g/d) than Q1 (3.0–18.8 g/d) and Q2 (19.3–20.9 g/d). Systolic blood pressure was also lower in Q4 than Q1 and Q2 (P < 0.05). Anthropometric and body composition measures were not found to be different across quartiles of increasing AOAC fibre intake.
Findings from this cross-sectional study have revealed daily fibre consumption greater than 21 g to be associated with lower fasting total and LDL cholesterol, and intakes ≥ 30 g also associated with lower systolic blood pressure. With only 9% of UK adults meeting the current recommended intake, raising public awareness of the importance of dietary fibre is an important strategy for CMD prevention.
The adoption of poor dietary and lifestyle habits have been associated with the development of non-communicable disease. The majority of strategies implemented to enhance dietary quality of individuals follow a “one size fits all” standardised approach. Results of recent trials have suggested that Personalised Nutrition (PN), tailored to individual requirements, is able to improve dietary intakes, yet limited focus has been given to the effectiveness of face-to-face compared with online methods. The aim of the EatWellQ8 randomised control trial (RCT) was to assess the impact of web-based PN advice, face-to-face PN advice and standardised advice, on adherence to healthy eating in Kuwait.
Materials and Methods
Free living adults aged 21–65 years, were recruited for the 12-week study and randomised to; face-to-face PN, web-based PN or generalised (control) advise groups. Dietary intake and self-reported anthropometric measurements were assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) modified from the EPIC FFQ was used to assess food and nutrient intake. Diet quality was assessed by a 10-component modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index (m-AHEI) which was used to generate the PN advice. At 0 and 12-weeks post FFQ completion, participants randomised to the PN intervention groups were presented with 3 tailored dietary messages based on the m-AHEI components that received the lowest scores.
320 participants completed the trial. Due to over/underreporting, 100 were included in the analysis (71% female, 29% male) with a mean age of 38.6 years (SD 14.3), and body mass index (BMI) of 25.1 kg/m2 (SD 4.2). After 12-weeks intervention, m-AHEI scores increased significantly in both PN intervention groups (face-to-face PN 19%, web-based 12%) compared to controls (4%) (P < 0.01) and significantly higher intakes of vegetables and fruits, and lower intakes of sugars compared with controls (P < 0.05). The PN intervention groups also significantly increased their intakes of omega 3 fatty acids and total folate compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The Face-to-face PN group significantly reduced weight (-1.9 kg) and BMI (-0.5 kg/m2) compared to web-based PN and control groups(P < 0.01).
In adults living in Kuwait, PN advice, delivered face-to-face or online, was more effective at improving dietary quality than population-based advice. Face-to-face PN was found to be more effective at inducing weight-loss in adults compared to web-based PN and population-based advice.
Dietary inorganic nitrate has been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) and improve endothelial function(1). The main sources of dietary nitrate are vegetables (root and green leafy varieties) as well as drinking water but data available on dietary analysis software on nitrate levels in vegetables and vegetable-based foods is very limited. To date, very few studies have investigated the relationship between the level of consumption of dietary nitrate on BP and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a representative UK population. The aim of the study was to address this knowledge gap using data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) years 1–8, a cross-sectional study conducted in 3339 men and women aged 19–64 y between 2008/09–2011/12. A comprehensive database was first developed to evaluate the nitrate and nitrite levels in vegetables, cured meats and composite dishes to more accurately estimate the dietary nitrate intakes of the NDNS participants. The population was then classified into quartiles of daily nitrate intake, with quartile 1 (Q1: 26–106 mg/d) and quartile 4 (Q4: 183–559 mg/d) representing diets with the lowest and highest intakes, respectively. ANCOVA analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the level of daily nitrate intake with available data on biomarkers of CVD risk (including BP (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure), lipid profile, (total, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) cholesterol), C-reactive protein, anthropometric measures (body mass index and waist to hip ratio) and glycaemic control (glucose and glycated haemoglobin). There were significant differences in systolic (P-trend = 0.008) and diastolic (P-trend = 0.025) BP across increasing quartiles of dietary nitrate intake, with BP significantly lower in Q3 than all other quartiles. Pulse pressure (calculated as systolic–diastolic BP) was also found to be significantly different across quartiles (P-trend = 0.001), with diets of participants in Q3 and Q4 being associated with significantly lower pulse pressures than those in Q1 (P-Q1 vs. Q3 = 0.005, P-Q1 vs. Q4 = 0.007). All of the other CVD risk markers were not different between quartile groups. Our preliminary results suggest that the level of dietary nitrate intake may be significantly associated with BP, a key independent CVD risk factor. There is an urgent need to more accurately estimate the dietary nitrate intake in the UK population and to determine whether the source of dietary nitrate (vegetables vs cured meats) impacts on the significant relationship with BP.
Current French National Health and Nutrition Plan (PNNS) recommends 2 servings of dairy products per day for adults. However, dairy contributes to dietary saturated fat intake, of which reduced consumption is often recommended for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. Epidemiological evidence on the association between dairy product consumption and CVD risk remains unclear, with findings from recent prospective cohorts suggesting either null or inverse associations between dairy intake and CVD risk(1,2). This study aimed to investigate the associations between intakes of dairy products (overall and specific types) and CVD risk in a large cohort of French adults.
This prospective study included self-selected participants aged ≥ 18 years from the NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009–2019). Dietary data were collected every 6 months using 24 h-dietary records, averaged in daily intakes and coded as sex-specific quartiles. Dairy foods were classified according the PNNS dairy groups: milk, cheese, and yogurts (i.e. yogurts, curd cheese and petit-suisses). Total, fermented and low-fat dairy intakes were also investigated. CVD cases (n = 1,952) included cerebrovascular (i.e. stroke and transient ischemic attack, n = 878 cases) and coronary heart diseases (i.e. myocardial infarction, angina, acute coronary syndrome and angioplasty, n = 1,219 cases). Multivariable Cox models were performed to characterize associations and were adjusted for age, gender, without-alcohol energy intake, number of 24h-dietary records, smoking status, educational level, physical activity, BMI, alcohol intake and family history of CVD.
This analysis included n = 104,805 French adults with a mean age 42.8 (SD 14.6) years and the mean number of dietary records per subject was 5.7 (SD 3.1). There was no association between total or specific dairy intakes and total CVD or coronary heart disease risks. However, consumption of fermented dairy, such as cheese and yogurts, was associated with a 19% reduction in the risk of cerebrovascular disease (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.81 [0.66–0.98], p trend = 0.01).
Despite being important dietary sources of saturated fat, dairy product consumption was not associated with total CVD or coronary heart disease risks in a large cohort of French adults. However, fermented dairy products may be associated with a lower risk of cerebrovascular diseases. Further observational and interventional studies may be needed to further assess the impact of dairy on CVD risk and to identify potential mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of fermented dairy products on cerebrovascular disease risk.
Little is known about who would benefit from Internet-based personalised nutrition (PN) interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of participants who achieved greatest improvements (i.e. benefit) in diet, adiposity and biomarkers following an Internet-based PN intervention. Adults (n 1607) from seven European countries were recruited into a 6-month, randomised controlled trial (Food4Me) and randomised to receive conventional dietary advice (control) or PN advice. Information on dietary intake, adiposity, physical activity (PA), blood biomarkers and participant characteristics was collected at baseline and month 6. Benefit from the intervention was defined as ≥5 % change in the primary outcome (Healthy Eating Index) and secondary outcomes (waist circumference and BMI, PA, sedentary time and plasma concentrations of cholesterol, carotenoids and omega-3 index) at month 6. For our primary outcome, benefit from the intervention was greater in older participants, women and participants with lower HEI scores at baseline. Benefit was greater for individuals reporting greater self-efficacy for ‘sticking to healthful foods’ and who ‘felt weird if [they] didn’t eat healthily’. Participants benefited more if they reported wanting to improve their health and well-being. The characteristics of individuals benefiting did not differ by other demographic, health-related, anthropometric or genotypic characteristics. Findings were similar for secondary outcomes. These findings have implications for the design of more effective future PN intervention studies and for tailored nutritional advice in public health and clinical settings.
CVD remains the greatest cause of death globally, and with the escalating prevalence of metabolic diseases, including type-2 diabetes, CVD mortality is predicted to rise. While the replacement of SFA has been the cornerstone of effective dietary recommendations to decrease CVD risk since the 1980s, the validity of these recommendations have been recently challenged. A review of evidence for the impact of SFA reduction revealed no effect on CVD mortality, but a significant reduction in risk of CVD events (7–17%). The greatest effect was found when SFA were substituted with PUFA, resulting in 27% risk reduction in CVD events, with no effect of substitution with carbohydrate or protein. There was insufficient evidence from randomised controlled trials to conclude upon the impact of SFA replacement with MUFA on CVD and metabolic outcomes. However, there was high-quality evidence that reducing SFA lowered serum total, and specifically LDL-cholesterol, a key risk factor for CVD, with greatest benefits achieved by replacing SFA with unsaturated fats. The exchange of SFA with either PUFA or MUFA, also produced favourable effects on markers of glycaemia, reducing HbA1c, a long-term marker of glycaemic control. In conclusion, the totality of evidence supports lowering SFA intake and replacement with unsaturated fats to reduce the risk of CVD events, and to a lesser extent, cardiometabolic risk factors, which is consistent with current dietary guidelines.
The internet has considerable potential to improve health-related food choice at low-cost. Online solutions in this field can be deployed quickly and at very low cost, especially if they are not dependent on bespoke devices or offline processes such as the provision and analysis of biological samples. One key challenge is the automated delivery of personalised dietary advice in a replicable, scalable and inexpensive way, using valid nutrition assessment methods and effective recommendations. We have developed a web-based personalised nutrition system (eNutri) which assesses dietary intake using a validated graphical FFQ and provides personalised food-based dietary advice automatically. Its effectiveness was evaluated during an online randomised controlled trial dietary intervention (EatWellUK study) in which personalised dietary advice was compared with general population recommendations (control) delivered online. The present paper presents a review of literature relevant to this work, and describes the strategies used during the development of the eNutri app. Its design and source code have been made publicly available under a permissive open source license, so that other researchers and organisations can benefit from this work. In a context where personalised diet advice has great potential for health promotion and disease prevention at-scale and yet is not currently being offered in the most popular mobile apps, the strategies and approaches described in the present paper can help to inform and advance the design and development of technologies for personalised nutrition.
CVD are the leading cause of death in women globally, with ageing associated with progressive endothelial dysfunction and increased CVD risk. Natural menopause is characterised by raised non-fasting TAG concentrations and impairment of vascular function compared with premenopausal women. However, the mechanisms underlying the increased CVD risk after women have transitioned through the menopause are unclear. Dietary fat is an important modifiable risk factor relating to both postprandial lipaemia and vascular reactivity. Meals rich in SFA and MUFA are often associated with greater postprandial TAG responses compared with those containing n-6 PUFA, but studies comparing their effects on vascular function during the postprandial phase are limited, particularly in postmenopausal women. The present review aimed to evaluate the acute effects of test meals rich in SFA, MUFA and n-6 PUFA on postprandial lipaemia, vascular reactivity and other CVD risk factors in postmenopausal women. The systematic search of the literature identified 778 publications. The impact of fat-rich meals on postprandial lipaemia was reported in seven relevant studies, of which meal fat composition was compared in one study described in three papers. An additional study determined the impact of a high-fat meal on vascular reactivity. Although moderately consistent evidence suggests detrimental effects of high-fat meals on postprandial lipaemia in postmenopausal (than premenopausal) women, there is insufficient evidence to establish the impact of meals of differing fat composition. Furthermore, there is no robust evidence to conclude the effect of meal fatty acids on vascular function or blood pressure. In conclusion, there is an urgent requirement for suitably powered robust randomised controlled trials to investigate the impact of meal fat composition on postprandial novel and established CVD risk markers in postmenopausal women, an understudied population at increased cardiometabolic risk.