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Presenteeism is an expensive and challenging problem in the healthcare industry. In anticipation of the staffing challenges expected with the COVID-19 pandemic, we examined a decade of payroll data for a healthcare workforce. We aimed to determine the effect of seasonal influenza-like illness (ILI) on absences to support COVID-19 staffing plans.
Retrospective cohort study.
Large academic medical center in the United States.
Employees of the academic medical center who were on payroll between the years of 2009 and 2019.
Biweekly institutional payroll data was evaluated for unscheduled absences as a marker for acute illness-related work absences. Linear regression models, stratified by payroll status (salaried vs hourly employees) were developed for unscheduled absences as a function of local ILI.
Both hours worked and unscheduled absences were significantly related to the community prevalence of influenza-like illness in our cohort. These effects were stronger in hourly employees.
Organizations should target their messaging at encouraging salaried staff to stay home when ill.
Northern (Macronectes halli) and southern (M. giganteus) giant petrels breed at different times at sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Long-term census and breeding success data are used to test for competitive overlap between the two species by correlating population trends with those of land-based prey/carrion species. No parameter was singularly important in population regulation of either giant petrel species and the assumed dependence of breeding northern giant petrels on southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina carrion is not entirely supported.
THIS was the first time a Society conference had been hosted by the Huntington. The invitation was issued by Robert Ritchie, Research Director of the Huntington, and the event was organised jointly by Anthony Fletcher and John Tosh. Two days of discussion devoted to the history of English politeness was always going to seem somewhat out of place in the environment of southern California. In the event the choice of theme acquired unanticipated layers of meaning, since it began three days after the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington on September 11. Its content now seemed even more at odds with the world around us, while the decision to proceed with the event became caught up in the `business as usual' outlook with which so many Americans responded to the tragedy. For a day or two it was not clear whether the conference could be held at all. A substantial proportion of the British contingent was temporarily stranded at the Grand Canyon, while three of the scheduled speakers – Michèle Cohen, Philip Carter and Penny Russell – were prevented from attending altogether by the disruption of air traffic. However, with the strong encouragement of Robert Ritchie, it was decided to proceed with the conference. The first session was preceded by a flag-pole ceremony at which conference participants and Huntington staff could pay their respects to the dead. The size of the audience was inevitably reduced. Some thirty people, mostly from the Los Angeles region, attended, in an atmosphere which was sombre but attentive. Several people made the point that, in these appalling circumstances, it was no bad thing to be reminded of the virtues of politeness, particularly their capacity to transcend their early elitist associations.
Between the late eighteenth century and the mid-nineteenth century the notion of the `polite gentleman' lost its political purchase. `Manliness' became the identifying code of both the business class and the `respectable' working class. The virtues of rugged individualism and personal integrity were emphasised at the expense of sociability and ease of manner. In the political sphere debates about who should be included in the franchise were permeated by the language of manliness, and the politicians with the greatest popular following were hailed as `plain men' possessing a `simple manliness'.
The history of the family, at least for the nineteenth century, has reached a certain maturity. Though not yet incorporated into mainstream history – that would be too much to expect – it now boasts a considerable specialist literature and some useful general surveys. Undoubtedly the driving force has been the aspiration of women’s history to reconstruct the lives of women in the past. Now that the personal records of women are being studied with such attention, there is a wealth of insights into their experience as daughters, wives, and widows. Jeanne Peterson’s account of the Paget family and their circle in Victorian England is a typical example. For the nineteenth-century women’s historian, there is the added bonus that this was the period when the claims of women to have the dominant influence in the family were taken most seriously – as witness the persistent appeal of the Angel Mother. Hence to research the history of the Victorian family promises results which will feature women as agents, and not merely as victims of patriarchal oppression.