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Vitamin D is engaged in various neural processes, with low vitamin D linked to depression and cognitive dysfunction. There are gender differences in depression and vitamin D level. However, the relationship between depression, gender, vitamin D, cognition, and brain function has yet to be determined.
One hundred and twenty-two patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 119 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) was calculated to assess brain function. Serum concentration of vitamin D (SCVD) and cognition (i.e. prospective memory and sustained attention) were also measured.
We found a significant group-by-gender interaction effect on SCVD whereby MDD patients showed a reduction in SCVD relative to controls in females but not males. Concurrently, there was a female-specific association of SCVD with cognition and MDD-related fALFF alterations in widespread brain regions. Remarkably, MDD- and SCVD-related fALFF changes mediated the relation between SCVD and cognition in females.
Apart from providing insights into the neural mechanisms by which low vitamin D contributes to cognitive impairment in MDD in a gender-dependent manner, these findings might have clinical implications for assignment of female patients with MDD and cognitive dysfunction to adjuvant vitamin D supplementation therapy, which may ultimately advance a precision approach to personalized antidepressant choice.
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been associated with deficits
in auditory and speech-related networks. However, the resting-state
cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations specific to AVHs in schizophrenia
To explore AVH-related CBF alterations in individuals with
In total, 35 individuals with schizophrenia with AVHs, 41 individuals
with schizophrenia without AVHs and 50 controls underwent arterial spin
labelling magnetic resonance imaging. The CBF differences were voxel-wise
compared across the three groups.
We found AVH-specific CBF increase in the right superior temporal gyrus
and caudate, and AVH-specific CBF decrease in the bilateral occipital and
left parietal cortices. We also observed consistent CBF changes in both
schizophrenia subgroups (i.e. those with and without AVHs) including
decreased CBF in the bilateral occipital regions, the left lateral
prefrontal and insular cortices, and the right anterior cingulate cortex
and increased CBF in the bilateral lateral temporal regions and putamen,
the left middle cingulate cortex and the right thalamus.
The AVH-specific CBF increases in the auditory and striatal areas and CBF
reductions in the visual and parietal areas suggest that there exists a
CBF redistribution associated with AVHs.
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