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The experience of contemporary adolescents is one that differs profoundly from that of earlier generations. Research on adolescence has also endured substantial change, and the concept of change is central to the topics addressed in this handbook. Change, for example, is key to the very definition of adolescence as a developmental time period marked by rapid physical, social, and psychological transformation. Accumulating evidence in developmental neuroscience over the past decades reveals a complexity of change not previously understood. Mental health is also an evolving concept – both in definition and in practice – with our understanding of what constitutes “good” mental health subject to fluctuating societal norms and stigmas, emerging diagnostic categories and dimensions, and increasing prevalence rates. Yet perhaps most closely tied to the concept of change is digital media – inextricably linked with evolution, adaptation, and transformation. To understand digital media is to recognize and wrestle with a constantly evolving phenomenon – an entity that changes within a world that changes around it, both as a cause and a consequence of it.
Digital media, including social media, has fundamentally changed how the human species communicates with, relates to, and influences one another. Adolescents use digital media extensively. Researchers, scholars, teachers, parents, and teens themselves have many questions about the effects of digital media on young people's psychological development. This handbook offers a comprehensive synthesis of scientific studies that explain what we know so far about digital media and its effects on youth mental health. With chapters from internationally renowned experts in the fields of psychology, psychiatry, media, and communications, the book offers a broad overview of the positive and negative implications of youths' engagement with digital media for brain development, relationships, identity exploration, daily behaviors, and psychological symptoms. Chapters include a discussion of the current state of knowledge, directions for future research, and practical suggestions for parents, educators, and teens themselves. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Over the past several years there has been considerable interest in the relation between emotion dysregulation and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), particularly given that rates of NSSI have been increasing and NSSI is a critical risk factor for suicidal behavior. To date, however, no synthesis of empirical findings exists.
The present study presents a comprehensive meta-analytic review of the literature on the association between NSSI and emotion dysregulation. A total of 48 publications, including 49 independent samples, were included in this analysis.
Overall, a significant association was found between emotion dysregulation and NSSI (pooled OR = 3.03 [95% CI = 2.56–3.59]). This association was reduced but remained significant (OR = 2.40 [95% CI = 2.01–2.86]) after adjustment for publication bias. Emotion dysregulation subscales most strongly associated with NSSI included limited access to regulation strategies, non-acceptance of emotional responses, impulse control difficulties, and difficulties engaging goal-directed behavior. Lack of emotional awareness/clarity and cognitive aspects of dysregulation yielded weaker, yet significant, positive associations with NSSI.
Findings support the notion that greater emotion dysregulation is associated with higher risk for NSSI among individuals across settings, regardless of age or sex. Furthermore, findings reveal facets of dysregulation that may have unique implications for NSSI. This meta-analysis highlights the importance of better understanding emotion dysregulation as a treatment target for preventing NSSI.
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