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This study aimed to investigate the association between hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) severity and early enteral tube feeding on cardiometabolic markers in offspring cord blood. We included women admitted for HG, who participated in the MOTHER randomised controlled trial (RCT) and observational cohort. The MOTHER RCT showed that early enteral tube feeding in addition to standard care did not affect symptoms/birth outcomes. Among RCT and cohort participants, we assessed how HG severity affected lipid, c-peptide, glucose and free thyroxine cord blood levels. HG severity measures were severity of vomiting at inclusion and 3 weeks after inclusion, pregnancy weight gain and 24-h energy intake at inclusion, readmissions and duration of hospital admissions. Cord blood measures were also compared between RCT participants allocated to enteral tube feeding and those receiving standard care. Between 2013-2016, 215 women were included: 115 RCT and 100 cohort participants. Eighty-one cord blood samples were available. Univariable not multivariable regression analysis showed that lower maternal weight gain was associated with higher cord blood glucose levels (β: –0·08, 95% CI –0·16, –0·00). Lower maternal weight gain was associated with higher Apo-B cord blood levels in multivariable regression analysis (β: –0·01, 95% CI –0·02, –0·01). No associations were found between other HG severity measures or allocation to enteral tube feeding and cord blood cardiometabolic markers. In conclusion, while lower maternal weight gain was associated with higher Apo-B cord blood levels, no other HG severity measures were linked with cord blood cardiometabolic markers, nor were these markers affected by enteral tube feeding.
Traditional naming tests are unsuitable to assess naming impairment in diverse populations, given the influence of culture, language, and education on naming performance. Our goal was therefore to develop and validate a new test to assess naming impairment in diverse populations: the Naming Assessment in Multicultural Europe (NAME).
We carried out a multistage pilot study. First, we generated a list of 149 potentially suitable items – e.g. from published cross-linguistic word lists and other naming tests – and selected those with a homogeneous age of acquisition and word frequency across languages. We selected three to four colored photographs for each of the 73 remaining items; 194 controls selected the most suitable photographs. Thirteen items were removed after a pilot study in 15 diverse healthy controls. The final 60-item test was validated in 39 controls and 137 diverse memory clinic patients with subjective cognitive impairment, neurological/neurodegenerative disease or psychiatric disorders in the Netherlands and Turkey (mean age: 67, SD: 11). Patients were from 15 different countries; the majority completed primary education or less (53%).
The NAME showed excellent reliability (Spearman–Brown coefficient: 0.95; Kuder–Richardson coefficient: 0.94) and robust correlations with other language tests (ρ = .35–.73). Patients with AD/mixed dementia obtained lower scores on most (48/60) NAME items, with an area under the curve of 0.88. NAME scores were correlated with age and education, but not with acculturation or sex.
The NAME is a promising tool to assess naming impairment in culturally, educationally, and linguistically diverse individuals.
To determine whether: the N95 respirator affects nasal valve patency; placement on the bony vault improves patency; and external nasal anatomy affects the outcome.
A prospective study with 50 participants was conducted. Nasal patency was measured by the minimal cross-sectional area via acoustic rhinometry, and using the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation survey, before and after wearing the N95 respirator and after adjustment.
The minimal cross-sectional area was narrowed by 27 per cent when wearing the N95 respirator (p < 0.001), and improved by 9.2 per cent after adjustment (p = 0.003). The total Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation score increased from 10.2 to 25.4 after donning the N95 respirator (p < 0.001), and decreased from 25.4 to 15.6 after adjustment (p < 0.001). There was no correlation with external nasal anatomy parameters.
Wearing the N95 respirator causes narrowing of the nasal valve, and adjustment onto the bony vault improves symptoms. The findings were not affected by external nasal anatomy.
Meeting the recommended daily protein intake can be a challenge for community-dwelling older adults (CDOA). In order to understand why, we studied attitudes towards protein-rich products and healthy eating in general; identified needs and preferences, barriers and promotors and knowledge regarding dietary behaviour and implementation of high protein products. Attitudes towards protein-rich products and healthy eating were evaluated in focus groups (study 1, n 17). To gain insights in the needs and preferences of older adults with regard to meals and meal products (study 2, n 30), visual information on eating behaviour was assessed using photovoicing and verified in post-photovoice interviews. In studies 3 and 4, semi-structured interviews were conducted to identify protein consumption-related barriers, opportunities (n 20) and knowledge and communication channels (n 40), respectively. Risk of low protein intake was assessed using ProteinScreener55+ (Pro55+) in studies 2–4 (n 90). Focus groups showed that participants were unaware of potential inadequate dietary protein. Photovoicing showed that sixteen of thirty participants mainly consumed traditional Dutch products. In post-photovoice interviews, participants indicated that they were satisfied with their current eating behaviour. Barriers for adequate use of protein-rich products were ‘lack of knowledge’, ‘resistance to change habits’ and ‘no urge to receive dietary advice’. Promotors were ‘trust in professionals’ and ‘product offers’. Sixty-two percent had a low risk of low protein intake. CDOA feel low urgency to increase protein intake, possibly linked to low knowledge levels. A challenge for professionals would be to motivate older adults to change their eating pattern, to optimise protein intake.
Previous studies into mental health service utilisation during the COVID-19 pandemic are limited to a few countries or specific type of service. In addition, data on changes in telepsychiatry are currently lacking.
We aimed to investigate whether the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with changes in mental health service utilisation, including telepsychiatry, and how these changes were distributed among patients with mental illness during the first COVID-19 outbreak.
This retrospective study obtained routinely assessed healthcare data from a large Dutch mental healthcare institute. Data from the second quarter of 2020 (the first COVID-19 outbreak period) were compared with the pre-pandemic period between January 2018 and March 2020. Time-series analyses were performed with the quasi-Poisson generalised linear model, to examine the effect of the COVID-19 lockdown and the overall trend of mental health service utilisation per communication modality and diagnostic category.
We analysed 204 808 care contacts of 28 038 patients. The overall number of care contacts in the second quarter of 2020 remained the same as in the previous 2 years, because the number of video consultations significantly increased (B = 2.17, P = 0.488 × 10−3) as the number of face-to-face out-patient contacts significantly decreased (B = −0.98, P = 0.011). This was true for all different diagnostic categories, although this change was less pronounced in patients with psychotic disorders.
Diminished face-to-face out-patient contacts were well-compensated by the substantial increase of video consultations during the first COVID-19 outbreak in The Netherlands. This increase was less pronounced for psychotic disorders. Further research should elucidate the need for disorder-specific digital mental healthcare delivery.
Background: Phase 3 COMET trial (NCT02782741) compares avalglucosidase alfa (n=51) with alglucosidase alfa (n=49) in treatment-naïve LOPD. Methods: Primary objective: determine avalglucosidase alfa effect on respiratory muscle function. Secondary/other objectives include: avalglucosidase alfa effect on functional endurance, inspiratory/expiratory muscle strength, lower/upper extremity muscle strength, motor function, health-related quality of life, safety. Results: At Week 49, change (LSmean±SE) from baseline in upright forced vital capacity %predicted was greater with avalglucosidase alfa (2.89%±0.88%) versus alglucosidase alfa (0.46%±0.93%)(absolute difference+2.43%). The primary objective, achieving statistical non-inferiority (p=0.0074), was met. Superiority testing was borderline significant (p=0.0626). Week 49 change from baseline in 6-minute walk test was 30.01-meters greater for avalglucosidase alfa (32.21±9.93m) versus alglucosidase alfa (2.19±10.40m). Positive results for avalglucosidase alfa were seen for all secondary/other efficacy endpoints. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) occurred in 86.3% of avalglucosidase alfa-treated and 91.8% of alglucosidase alfa-treated participants. Five participants withdrew, 4 for AEs, all on alglucosidase alfa. Serious AEs occurred in 8 avalglucosidase alfa-treated and 12 alglucosidase alfa-treated participants. IgG antidrug antibody responses were similar in both. High titers and neutralizing antibodies were more common for alglucosidase alfa. Conclusions: Results demonstrate improvements in clinically meaningful outcome measures and a more favorable safety profile with avalglucosidase alfa versus alglucosidase alfa. Funding: Sanofi Genzyme
Higher milk intake has been associated with a lower stroke risk, but not with risk of CHD. Residual confounding or reverse causation cannot be excluded. Therefore, we estimated the causal association of milk consumption with stroke and CHD risk through instrumental variable (IV) and gene-outcome analyses. IV analysis included 29 328 participants (4611 stroke; 9828 CHD) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-CVD (eight European countries) and European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) case-cohort studies. rs4988235, a lactase persistence (LP) SNP which enables digestion of lactose in adulthood was used as genetic instrument. Intake of milk was first regressed on rs4988235 in a linear regression model. Next, associations of genetically predicted milk consumption with stroke and CHD were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression. Gene-outcome analysis included 777 024 participants (50 804 cases) from MEGASTROKE (including EPIC-CVD), UK Biobank and EPIC-NL for stroke, and 483 966 participants (61 612 cases) from CARDIoGRAM, UK Biobank, EPIC-CVD and EPIC-NL for CHD. In IV analyses, each additional LP allele was associated with a higher intake of milk in EPIC-CVD (β = 13·7 g/d; 95 % CI 8·4, 19·1) and EPIC-NL (36·8 g/d; 95 % CI 20·0, 53·5). Genetically predicted milk intake was not associated with stroke (HR per 25 g/d 1·05; 95 % CI 0·94, 1·16) or CHD (1·02; 95 % CI 0·96, 1·08). In gene-outcome analyses, there was no association of rs4988235 with risk of stroke (OR 1·02; 95 % CI 0·99, 1·05) or CHD (OR 0·99; 95 % CI 0·95, 1·03). Current Mendelian randomisation analysis does not provide evidence for a causal inverse relationship between milk consumption and stroke or CHD risk.
Cognitive deficits may be characteristic for only a subgroup of first-episode psychosis (FEP) and the link with clinical and functional outcomes is less profound than previously thought. This study aimed to identify cognitive subgroups in a large sample of FEP using a clustering approach with healthy controls as a reference group, subsequently linking cognitive subgroups to clinical and functional outcomes.
204 FEP patients were included. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using baseline brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia (BACS). Cognitive subgroups were compared to 40 controls and linked to longitudinal clinical and functional outcomes (PANSS, GAF, self-reported WHODAS 2.0) up to 12-month follow-up.
Three distinct cognitive clusters emerged: relative to controls, we found one cluster with preserved cognition (n = 76), one moderately impaired cluster (n = 74) and one severely impaired cluster (n = 54). Patients with severely impaired cognition had more severe clinical symptoms at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up as compared to patients with preserved cognition. General functioning (GAF) in the severely impaired cluster was significantly lower than in those with preserved cognition at baseline and showed trend-level effects at 6- and 12-month follow-up. No significant differences in self-reported functional outcome (WHODAS 2.0) were present.
Current results demonstrate the existence of three distinct cognitive subgroups, corresponding with clinical outcome at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up. Importantly, the cognitively preserved subgroup was larger than the severely impaired group. Early identification of discrete cognitive profiles can offer valuable information about the clinical outcome but may not be relevant in predicting self-reported functional outcomes.
Total rhinectomy is an invasive procedure that significantly impairs the intranasal turbulence, humidification and heating of inspired air. The use of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for the treatment of sleep-disordered breathing disorders such as primary snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea has diminished over the past years because of the emergence of less invasive procedures and alternative therapeutic options. This clinical record presents the treatment of a long-term side effect of total rhinectomy using uvulopalatopharyngoplasty.
In 1997, a 62-year-old male underwent total rhinectomy for a nasal schwannoma, followed by rehabilitation with a nasal prosthesis. Twenty-one years later, he presented with severe complaints of nasal blockage and breathing difficulties during both daytime and night-time. Clinical examination revealed no major anomalies besides significant velopharyngeal narrowing. Thus, in 2019, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty was performed to re-establish velopharyngeal patency. Hereafter, the symptoms of nasal blockage disappeared, resulting in an improved quality of life.
Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty may prove useful to treat selected patients with daytime breathing difficulties due to velopharyngeal narrowing.
A transdiagnostic and contextual framework of ‘clinical characterization’, combining clinical, psychopathological, sociodemographic, etiological, and other personal contextual data, may add clinical value over and above categorical algorithm-based diagnosis.
Prediction of need for care and health care outcomes was examined prospectively as a function of the contextual clinical characterization diagnostic framework in a prospective general population cohort (n = 6646 at baseline), interviewed four times between 2007 and 2018 (NEMESIS-2). Measures of need, service use, and use of medication were predicted as a function of any of 13 DSM-IV diagnoses, both separately and in combination with clinical characterization across multiple domains: social circumstances/demographics, symptom dimensions, physical health, clinical/etiological factors, staging, and polygenic risk scores (PRS). Effect sizes were expressed as population attributable fractions.
Any prediction of DSM-diagnosis in relation to need and outcome in separate models was entirely reducible to components of contextual clinical characterization in joint models, particularly the component of transdiagnostic symptom dimensions (a simple score of the number of anxiety, depression, mania, and psychosis symptoms) and staging (subthreshold, incidence, persistence), and to a lesser degree clinical factors (early adversity, family history, suicidality, slowness at interview, neuroticism, and extraversion), and sociodemographic factors. Clinical characterization components in combination predicted more than any component in isolation. PRS did not meaningfully contribute to any clinical characterization model.
A transdiagnostic framework of contextual clinical characterization is of more value to patients than a categorical system of algorithmic ordering of psychopathology.
Aggression and violent incidents are a major concern in psychiatric inpatient care, potentially leading to physical and psychological consequences for both patients and staff. Nutritional supplementation was found to reduce aggressive incidents and rule violations in forensic populations and children with behavioural problems.
To assess whether multivitamin, mineral and n-3 PUFA supplementation is effective in reducing the number of aggressive incidents among psychiatric patients who are chronically admitted.
In a pragmatic, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, psychiatric inpatients were randomized to receive either three supplements containing multivitamins, minerals, and n-3 PUFA or placebo. During the intervention period of six months, aggressive incidents were assessed using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale – Revised (SOAS-R). Secondary outcome parameters were the patients’ quality of life and affective symptoms. The trial was registered in the Clinical Trials Register (NCT02498106).
A total of 176 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive supplements (n=87) or placebo (n=89). They were on average 49.3 years old (SD=14.5), and 64.2% were male. Most patients had a psychotic disorder (60.8%). Supplementation versus placebo significantly increased circulating micronutrient levels. The primary outcome of SOAS-R incidents was similar in those assigned to supplements (1.03 incidents per month; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74-1.37) and placebo (0.90; 95%CI: 0.65-1.19), with a rate ratio of 1.08 (95%CI: 0.67-1.74; p=0.75). Differential effects were neither found in sensitivity analyses on the SOAS-R, nor on secondary outcomes.
Six months of nutritional supplementation did not reduce aggressive incidents among chronically admitted psychiatric inpatients.
Alcohol consumption, smoking and mood disorders are leading contributors to the global burden of disease and are highly comorbid. Yet, their interrelationships have remained elusive. The aim of this study was to examine the multi-cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between (change in) smoking and alcohol use and (change in) number of depressive symptoms.
In this prospective, longitudinal study, 6646 adults from the general population were included with follow-up measurements after 3 and 6 years. Linear mixed-effects models were used to test multi-cross-sectional and longitudinal associations, with smoking behaviour, alcohol use and genetic risk scores for smoking and alcohol use as independent variables and depressive symptoms as dependent variables.
In the multi-cross-sectional analysis, smoking status and number of cigarettes per day were positively associated with depressive symptoms (p < 0.001). Moderate drinking was associated with less symptoms of depression compared to non-use (p = 0.011). Longitudinally, decreases in the numbers of cigarettes per day and alcoholic drinks per week as well as alcohol cessation were associated with a reduction of depressive symptoms (p = 0.001–0.028). Results of genetic risk score analyses aligned with these findings.
While cross-sectionally smoking and moderate alcohol use show opposing associations with depressive symptoms, decreases in smoking behaviour as well as alcohol consumption are associated with improvements in depressive symptoms over time. Although we cannot infer causality, these results open avenues to further investigate interventions targeting smoking and alcohol behaviours in people suffering from depressive symptoms.
A recent hypothesis postulates the existence of an ‘immune-metabolic depression’ (IMD) dimension characterized by metabolic dysregulations. Combining data on metabolomics and depressive symptoms, we aimed to identify depressions associated with an increased risk of adverse metabolic alterations.
Clustering data were from 1094 individuals with major depressive disorder in the last 6 months and measures of 149 metabolites from a 1H-NMR platform and 30 depressive symptoms (IDS-SR30). Canonical correlation analyses (CCA) were used to identify main independent metabolite-symptom axes of variance. Then, for the replication, we examined the association of the identified dimensions with metabolites from the same platform and cardiometabolic diseases in an independent population-based cohort (n = 6572).
CCA identified an overall depression dimension and a dimension resembling IMD, in which symptoms such as sleeping too much, increased appetite, and low energy level had higher relative loading. In the independent sample, the overall depression dimension was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk, such as (i.e. per s.d.) HOMA-1B −0.06 (95% CI −0.09 – −0.04), and visceral adipose tissue −0.10 cm2 (95% CI −0.14 – −0.07). In contrast, the IMD dimension was associated with well-known cardiometabolic diseases such as higher visceral adipose tissue 0.08 cm2 (95% CI 0.04–0.12), HOMA-1B 0.06 (95% CI 0.04–0.09), and lower HDL-cholesterol levels −0.03 mmol/L (95% CI −0.05 – −0.01).
Combining metabolomics and clinical symptoms we identified a replicable depression dimension associated with adverse metabolic alterations, in line with the IMD hypothesis. Patients with IMD may be at higher cardiometabolic risk and may benefit from specific treatment targeting underlying metabolic dysregulations.
A cumulative environmental exposure score for schizophrenia (exposome score for schizophrenia [ES-SCZ]) may provide potential utility for risk stratification and outcome prediction. Here, we investigated whether ES-SCZ was associated with functioning in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls.
This cross-sectional sample consisted of 1,261 patients, 1,282 unaffected siblings, and 1,525 healthy controls. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale was used to assess functioning. ES-SCZ was calculated based on our previously validated method. The association between ES-SCZ and the GAF dimensions (symptom and disability) was analyzed by applying regression models in each group (patients, siblings, and controls). Additional models included polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS-SCZ) as a covariate.
ES-SCZ was associated with the GAF dimensions in patients (symptom: B = −1.53, p-value = 0.001; disability: B = −1.44, p-value = 0.001), siblings (symptom: B = −3.07, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = −2.52, p-value < 0.001), and healthy controls (symptom: B = −1.50, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = −1.31, p-value < 0.001). The results remained the same after adjusting for PRS-SCZ. The degree of associations of ES-SCZ with both symptom and disability dimensions were higher in unaffected siblings than in patients and controls. By analyzing an independent dataset (the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis study), we replicated the results observed in the patient group.
Our findings suggest that ES-SCZ shows promise for enhancing risk prediction and stratification in research practice. From a clinical perspective, ES-SCZ may aid in efforts of clinical characterization, operationalizing transdiagnostic clinical staging models, and personalizing clinical management.
Precision psychiatry is currently described as an approach that would bring significant advance to psychiatric clinical practice. Theaim of this article is to investigate Precision Psychiatry’s promise for the future; should we substantially invest in this new approach? Thearticle is based on a review of the literature and reports a conceptual analysis. A critical examination of Precision Psychiatry’s foundationsshows us that its fundaments are obsolete and flawed: we cannot reduce mental suffering to essences in biology. It is problematic to statethat biological processes hold and capture qualia and meaning, and in themselves and without context would hold and capture somethinglike abnormality. Despite its good efforts, precision psychiatry does not represent a sufficiently promising alternative to the phenotyping thatcomes with the current classification systems.
Childhood trauma is associated with an elevated risk for psychosis, but the psychological mechanisms involved remain largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate emotional and psychotic stress reactivity in daily life as a putative mechanism linking childhood trauma and clinical outcomes in individuals at ultra-high-risk (UHR) for psychosis.
Experience sampling methodology was used to measure momentary stress, affect and psychotic experiences in the daily life of N = 79 UHR individuals in the EU-GEI High Risk Study. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to assess self-reported childhood trauma. Clinical outcomes were assessed at baseline, 1- and 2-year follow-up.
The association of stress with positive (β = −0.14, p = 0.010) and negative affect (β = 0.11, p = 0.020) was modified by transition status such that stress reactivity was greater in individuals who transitioned to psychosis. Moreover, the association of stress with negative affect (β = 0.06, p = 0.019) and psychotic experiences (β = 0.05, p = 0.037) was greater in individuals exposed to high v. low levels of childhood trauma. We also found evidence that decreased positive affect in response to stress was associated with reduced functioning at 1-year follow-up (B = 6.29, p = 0.034). In addition, there was evidence that the association of childhood trauma with poor functional outcomes was mediated by stress reactivity (e.g. indirect effect: B = −2.13, p = 0.026), but no evidence that stress reactivity mediated the association between childhood trauma and transition (e.g. indirect effect: B = 0.14, p = 0.506).
Emotional and psychotic stress reactivity may be potential mechanisms linking childhood trauma with clinical outcomes in UHR individuals.
Although attenuated psychotic symptoms in the psychosis clinical high-risk state (CHR-P) almost always occur in the context of a non-psychotic disorder (NPD), NPD is considered an undesired ‘comorbidity’ epiphenomenon rather than an integral part of CHR-P itself. Prospective work, however, indicates that much more of the clinical psychosis incidence is attributable to prior mood and drug use disorders than to psychosis clinical high-risk states per se. In order to examine this conundrum, we analysed to what degree the ‘risk’ in CHR-P is indexed by co-present NPD rather than attenuated psychosis per se.
We examined the incidence of early psychotic experiences (PE) with and without NPD (mood disorders, anxiety disorders, alcohol/drug use disorders), in a prospective general population cohort (n = 6123 at risk of incident PE at baseline). Four interview waves were conducted between 2007 and 2018 (NEMESIS-2). The incidence of PE, alone (PE-only) or with NPD (PE + NPD) was calculated, as were differential associations with schizophrenia polygenic risk score (PRS-Sz), environmental, demographical, clinical and cognitive factors.
The incidence of PE + NPD (0.37%) was lower than the incidence of PE-only (1.04%), representing around a third of the total yearly incidence of PE. Incident PE + NPD was, in comparison with PE-only, differentially characterised by poor functioning, environmental risks, PRS-Sz, positive family history, prescription of antipsychotic medication and (mental) health service use.
The risk in ‘clinical high risk’ states is mediated not by attenuated psychosis per se but specifically the combination of attenuated psychosis and NPD. CHR-P/APS research should be reconceptualised from a focus on attenuated psychotic symptoms with exclusion of non-psychotic DSM-disorders, as the ‘pure' representation of a supposedly homotypic psychosis risk state, towards a focus on poor-outcome NPDs, characterised by a degree of psychosis admixture, on the pathway to psychotic disorder outcomes.
Mental disorders are common in people living with HIV (PLWH) but often remain untreated. This study aimed to explore the treatment gap for mental disorders in adults followed-up in antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in South Africa and disparities between ART programmes regarding the provision of mental health services.
We conducted a cohort study using ART programme data and linked pharmacy and hospitalisation data to examine the 12-month prevalence of treatment for mental disorders and factors associated with the rate of treatment for mental disorders among adults, aged 15–49 years, followed-up from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2017 at one private care, one public tertiary care and two pubic primary care ART programmes in South Africa. We calculated the treatment gap for mental disorders as the discrepancy between the 12-month prevalence of mental disorders in PLWH (aged 15–49 years) in South Africa (estimated based on data from the Global Burden of Disease study) and the 12-month prevalence of treatment for mental disorders in ART programmes. We calculated adjusted rate ratios (aRRs) for factors associated with the treatment rate of mental disorders using Poisson regression.
In total, 182 285 ART patients were followed-up over 405 153 person-years. In 2017, the estimated treatment gap for mental disorders was 40.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19.5–52.9) for patients followed-up in private care, 96.5% (95% CI 95.0–97.5) for patients followed-up in public primary care and 65.0% (95% CI 36.5–85.1) for patients followed-up in public tertiary care ART programmes. Rates of treatment with antidepressants, anxiolytics and antipsychotics were 17 (aRR 0.06, 95% CI 0.06–0.07), 50 (aRR 0.02, 95% CI 0.01–0.03) and 2.6 (aRR 0.39, 95% CI 0.35–0.43) times lower in public primary care programmes than in the private sector programmes.
There is a large treatment gap for mental disorders in PLWH in South Africa and substantial disparities in access to mental health services between patients receiving ART in the public vs the private sector. In the public sector and especially in public primary care, PLWH with common mental disorders remain mostly untreated.
There is ongoing debate regarding the relationship between clinical symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). The present study aimed to explore the potential relationships between symptoms, with an emphasis on negative symptoms, and social and non-social cognition.
Hierarchical cluster analysis with k-means optimisation was conducted to characterise clinical subgroups using the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms in n = 130 SSD participants. Emergent clusters were compared on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery, which measures non-social cognition and emotion management as well as demographic and clinical variables. Spearman’s correlations were then used to investigate potential relationships between specific negative symptoms and emotion management and non-social cognition.
Four distinct clinical subgroups were identified: 1. high hallucinations, 2. mixed symptoms, 3. high negative symptoms, and 4. relatively asymptomatic. The high negative symptom subgroup was found to have significantly poorer emotion management than the high hallucination and relatively asymptomatic subgroups. No further differences between subgroups were observed. Correlation analyses revealed avolition-apathy and anhedonia-asociality were negatively correlated with emotion management, but not non-social cognition. Affective flattening and alogia were not associated with either emotion management or non-social cognition.
The present study identified associations between negative symptoms and emotion management within social cognition, but no domains of non-social cognition. This relationship may be specific to motivation, anhedonia and apathy, but not expressive deficits. This suggests that targeted interventions for social cognition may also result in parallel improvement in some specific negative symptoms.