To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We consider the numerical solution of competitive exothermic and endothermic reactions in the presence of a chaotic advection flow. The resulting behaviour is characterized by a strong dependence on the competitive reaction history. The burnt temperature is not immediately connected to simple enthalpy calculations, so there is a subtlety in the interplay between the major parameters, notably the Damköhler number, the ratio of the heats of exothermic and endothermic reactions, as well as the ratio of their respective activation energies. This paper seeks to explore the way these parameters affect the steady states of these reaction fronts and their stability.
Glioblastoma (GBM), an aggressive primary adult brain tumor, is feared for its near uniformly fatal prognosis. Despite the use of aggressive treatment including surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the outcome of patients with GBM has failed to improve significantly. Numerous studies have implicated CD133+GBM subpopulation as driver of chemo- and radio-resistance. CD133 expression correlates with disease progression, recurrence, and poor overall survival of GBM patients. Here, we describe the preclinical evaluation of a recombinant CD133xCD3 bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibody that redirects human polyclonal T cells to CD133+GBM cells, inducing very potent anti-tumor response. CD133-specific BiTE was constructed; with one arm recognizing the tumor antigen (CD133) while the second is specific to CD3 antigen. Using CD133high and CD133low primary GBM lines, we validated the binding of BiTEs to CD133+GBMs and CD3+T cells. In order to test the ability of BiTEs to functionally elicit CD133-specific cytotoxic responses in vitro, we performed killing assays. We observed CD133-specific BiTE mediated T cell activation and redirection to kill CD133-expressing GBM cells in a co-culture of T cells and GBM cells. The killing was more efficient in CD133high GBMs compared to CD133low GBMs, validating its specificity to target CD133+BTICs. Treatment with BiTEs yielded significant reductions in brain tumor burden in vivo. These data offers compelling evidence that BiTE-mediated cytotoxicity against treatment-resistant CD133+GBMs could provide a very potent, specific and can be a novel therapeutic strategy for GBM patients.
Cotton–wheat (CW) is an important cropping system in South Asia. Wheat yields under a conventional CW system are generally lower compared to a rice–wheat system due to delayed seeding. Relay seeding of wheat can help timely sowing, capturing residual soil moisture of last irrigation to cotton, and increase the productivity and profitability of CW system. The field experiment included two Bt-cotton genotypes having different canopy cover (RCH 776 and MRC 7017), two types of relay seeders (RSs) for cotton planted at 67.5-cm and 101-cm row spacing and four types of relay seeding methods (manual broadcast, strip rotor (SR) and zero-till double disc and conventional till). Relay planting of wheat allowed one additional boll picking, which increased seed cotton yield by 12% compared with conventional tillage wheat. Cotton genotypes and RSs had no effect on emergence and yield of wheat. The RSs with SR and zero till double disc furrow openers performed better in terms of wheat emergence and grain yield compared to zero-till tine openers. Under relay seeding, wheat sowing was advanced by 31 days, which increased grain yield by 18.8% compared with conventional tillage practice. Net returns from the CW system with relay seeding of wheat were higher by US$ 311 to 425 ha−1 compared with the conventional CW system.
Annual bluegrass is a weed species in turfgrass environments known for exhibiting resistance to multiple herbicide modes of action, including photosystem II (PSII) inhibitors. To evaluate populations of annual bluegrass for susceptibility to PSII inhibitors of varied chemistries, populations were treated with herbicides from triazolinone, triazine, and substituted urea families: amicarbazone, atrazine, and diuron, respectively. Sequencing of the psbA gene confirmed the presence of a Ser264 to Gly amino acid substitution within populations that exhibited resistance to both atrazine and amicarbazone. A single biotype, DR3, which lacked any previously reported psbA gene point mutation, exhibited resistance to diuron, atrazine, and amicarbazone. DR3 had a significantly lower rate of absorption and translocation of atrazine and had enhanced atrazine metabolism when compared with both the Ser264 to Gly resistant mutant and susceptible biotypes. We thus report possible nontarget mechanisms of resistance to PSII-inhibiting herbicides in annual bluegrass.
Bacterial blight (BB) of rice is a widespread disease in tropical Asia, contained largely through the deployment of race-specific resistance genes. Although more than 25 BB resistance genes have been identified, none are effective individually against all the pathotypes prevalent in north-western India. The response of a set of 327 accessions of 13 wild Oryza species and cultivated African rice, O. glaberrima, was evaluated to infection with seven pathotypes of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae over a period of 3–4 years. Of these, 67 were resistant or moderately resistant to all pathotypes. These comprised 13 accessions of O. glaberrima, 5 of O. barthii, 10 of O. rufipogon, 4 of O. longistaminata, 22 of O. nivara, 6 of O. officinalis, 2 of O. rhizomatis and 5 of O. minuta. Inheritance studies, molecular mapping and transfer of some of these genes into O. sativa ssp. indica are in progress.
Starch gel electrophoresis was carried out on ten monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Oryza officinalis (CC genome) in O. sativa (AA genome) at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India during 1993–1995. The diploid progeny from MAALs were studied for possible gene transfer of isozyme genes. Analysis showed introgression for alleles of wild species for peroxidase, esterase and acid phosphatase isozymes in progeny of MAAL 2, esterase in MAAL 7 and acid phosphatase in MAAL 6, indicating partial homology between the two genomes. MAAL 2 yielded the highest number of recombinants. The potential of addition lines for alien gene transfer as well as for linkage mapping is discussed.
The study was undertaken at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, in 1991–1992 to investigate
the behaviour of the pollen tubes of four wild Pennisetum species in the stigmatic tract of P. typhoides
and to identify stages of pre-fertilization impediments to interspecific hybridization. Pollen
germination was normal in crosses with P. violaceum, P. squamulatum and P. orientale and slightly
inhibited in a cross with P. setaceum. Fertilization was accomplished within 3 h of pollination in a
control cross within P. typhoides. P. typhoides × P. violaceum was a compatible cross and the pollen
tubes of P. violaceum reached the ovary within 4 h of pollination. The presence of P. squamulatum
and P. orientale pollen tubes in the ovary 10–15 h after pollination indicated the possibility of normal
fertilization, while in crosses with P. setaceum, pollen tubes did not penetrate the ovary even 15 h after
pollination. The study indicated that there is no impediment at the pollen germination stage or in the
stigmatic hairy region. Delayed/restricted growth of pollen tubes indicated that the barrier operates
in the styllar hairless region for the crosses with P. squamulatum and P. orientale, and at the ovarian
level for the P. typhoides × P. setaceum cross.
MOST (Microvariability & Oscillations of STars / Microvariabilite et Oscillations STellaire) is a Canadian microsatellite mission intended to detect rapid photometric oscillations at the μmag level in stars brighter than V ∼ 6. This limit is set primarily by the 15-cm aperture of the MOST telescope. The small size and mass of the MOST bus (similar to a suitcase) sets a limit on the pointing accuracy of about ±10 arcsec. To achieve the required photometric precision under these conditions, the MOST focal plane features a set of Fabry microlenses which can spread the target starlight into a pupil image of the telescope onto a CCD. The large size (∼1600 pixels) and positional stability (±0.1 pixel) of these images makes MOST insensitive to CCD flat-fielding errors. MOST is currently on schedule to be launched in early 2002.
The role that disorder plays in shaping the form of the optical absorption spectrum of hydrogenated amorphous silicon is investigated. Disorder leads to a redistribution of states, which both reduces the ‘Tauc’ gap and broadens the absorption tail. The observed relationship between the ‘Tauc’ gap and the breadth of the absorption tail is thus explained.
Male adult rats were fed on diets containing 80 g/kg galactomannans with different galactose (G): mannose (M) ratios/kg. The galactomannans were compared with purified cellulose (Solkaflok) and the animals were also fed on a basal diet free from fibre. All diets contained cholesterol (10 g/kg) and sodium cholate (2 g/kg). The three galactomannans were fenugreek gum (1G:1M), guar gum (1G:2M) and locust-bean gum (1G:4M). In comparison with the fibre-free and Solkaflok diets, all three galactomannans lowered the concentrations of cholesterol in both liver and blood plasma. The galactomannans also decreased the rate of hepatic synthesis of cholesterol. Dietary galactomannans increased caecal volatile fatty acids, particularly propionic, increased the weight of the caecum and its contents and increased the amount of water in the faeces. The increase in propionic acid production was significantly related to a decrease in caecal pH, but not to changes in plasma cholesterol or hepatic cholesterol synthesis. These effects were significantly influenced by chemical composition and structure of the galactomannan; they were most evident when the proportion of galactose in the galactomannan was highest (i.e. fenugreek gum). The three galactomannans also differed markedly in their effects on the viscosity of the digesta, but the galactomannan which gave the highest viscosity was least effective in lowering plasma cholesterol. A separate experiment with perfused loops of small intestine in vivo showed that the most effective galactomannan, fenugreek gum, had no direct effect on cholesterol absorption.
Pulse crops play an important role in Indian agriculture because of their unique ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Greengram, blackgram and soya bean are commonly grown during the kharif season (July–October) in Northern India. The availability of pulses is decreasing due to a decrease in area. Average yield of these crops is rather low and subject to great variation due to the vagaries of weather and pest attack.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.