To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Taking a Systemic Functional Linguistic perspective, this book explores how language builds our knowledge about the past and gives value to historical events, thereby shaping contemporary culture. It brings together cutting-edge research from an international team of scholars to provide a detailed study of texts from three different world languages (English, Spanish and Mandarin Chinese) – revealing how the discourse of history is constructed in these languages. Each chapter provides examples and step-by-step analyses of how knowledge and value are constructed in history texts, drawing on Systemic Functional Linguistics to develop theory and description in relation to text analysis. It also makes connections with disciplinary literacy and history education, showing how linguistic findings can benefit the teaching and learning of historical literacy. Providing theoretical and analytical foundations for studies of the discourse of history, it is essential reading for anyone interested in literacy, discourse analysis and language description.
The clinical field of depression and other mood disorders is characterised by the vast heterogeneity between those who present for care, and the highly variable degree of response to the range of psychological, pharmacological and physical treatments currently provided. These individual differences likely have a genetic component, and leveraging genetic risk is appealing because genetic risk factors point to causality. The possibility that individual genotyping at entry to health care may be a key way forward is worthy of discussion (Torkamani et al., 2018).
To assess the relative risk of hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile (HO-CDI) during each month of the early coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to compare it with historical expectation based on patient characteristics.
This study used a retrospective cohort design. We collected secondary data from the institution’s electronic health record (EHR).
The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Ohio, a large tertiary healthcare system in the Midwest.
Patients or participants:
All adult patients admitted to the inpatient setting between January 2018 and May 2021 were eligible for the study. Prisoners, children, individuals presenting with Clostridioides difficile on admission, and patients with <4 days of inpatient stay were excluded from the study.
After controlling for patient characteristics, the observed numbers of HO-CDI cases were not significantly different than expected. However, during 3 months of the pandemic period, the observed numbers of cases were significantly different from what would be expected based on patient characteristics. Of these 3 months, 2 months had more cases than expected and 1 month had fewer.
Variations in HO-CDI incidence seemed to trend with COVID-19 incidence but were not fully explained by our case mix. Other factors contributing to the variability in HO-CDI incidence beyond listed patient characteristics need to be explored.
Annual bluegrass is a troublesome weed in turfgrass, with reported resistance to at least 12 herbicide sites of action. The mitotic-inhibiting herbicide pronamide has both preemergence and postemergence activity on susceptible annual bluegrass populations. Previous studies suggest that postemergence activity may be compromised due to lack of root uptake, as well as target-site- and translocation-based mechanisms. Research was conducted to determine the effects of spray droplet spectra on spray coverage and control of annual bluegrass with pronamide, flazasulfuron, and a mixture of pronamide plus flazasulfuron. Herbicides were delivered to annual bluegrass plants having two to three leaves via five different spray spectra based on volume median diameters (VMD) of 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1,000 µm. Fluorescent tracer dye was added to each treatment solution to quantify the effects of herbicide and spray droplet spectra on herbicide deposition. In another experiment, the efficacy of 0.58, 1.16, and 2.32 kg pronamide ha−1; 0.022, 0.044, and 0.088 kg flazasulfuron ha−1, or a combination of the two, were assessed in iteration with droplet spectrum sprays of 400 and 1,000 µm on two pronamide-resistant and two pronamide-susceptible annual bluegrass populations. Spray droplet spectrum affected the deposition of pronamide and flazasulfuron, applied alone and in combination. Pronamide foliar deposition decreased with increasing droplet spectra. Pronamide efficacy was affected by droplet spectrum, with the largest (1,000 µm) exhibiting improved control. Flazasulfuron efficacy and pronamide plus flazasulfuron efficacy were not affected by droplet spectra. Pronamide plus flazasulfuron mixture controlled all four populations more effectively than pronamide alone, regardless of droplet spectra. A mixture of pronamide plus flazasulfuron applied with relatively large droplets may be optimal for annual bluegrass control, which offers valuable insights for optimizing herbicide application and combatting herbicide resistance. However, applications in this controlled-growth pot study may not mimic conditions in which thatch and turfgrass canopy limit the soil deposition of pronamide.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) has been a leader in weed science research covering topics ranging from the development and use of integrated weed management (IWM) tactics to basic mechanistic studies, including biotic resistance of desirable plant communities and herbicide resistance. ARS weed scientists have worked in agricultural and natural ecosystems, including agronomic and horticultural crops, pastures, forests, wild lands, aquatic habitats, wetlands, and riparian areas. Through strong partnerships with academia, state agencies, private industry, and numerous federal programs, ARS weed scientists have made contributions to discoveries in the newest fields of robotics and genetics, as well as the traditional and fundamental subjects of weed–crop competition and physiology and integration of weed control tactics and practices. Weed science at ARS is often overshadowed by other research topics; thus, few are aware of the long history of ARS weed science and its important contributions. This review is the result of a symposium held at the Weed Science Society of America’s 62nd Annual Meeting in 2022 that included 10 separate presentations in a virtual Weed Science Webinar Series. The overarching themes of management tactics (IWM, biological control, and automation), basic mechanisms (competition, invasive plant genetics, and herbicide resistance), and ecosystem impacts (invasive plant spread, climate change, conservation, and restoration) represent core ARS weed science research that is dynamic and efficacious and has been a significant component of the agency’s national and international efforts. This review highlights current studies and future directions that exemplify the science and collaborative relationships both within and outside ARS. Given the constraints of weeds and invasive plants on all aspects of food, feed, and fiber systems, there is an acknowledged need to face new challenges, including agriculture and natural resources sustainability, economic resilience and reliability, and societal health and well-being.
The main role of prolactin is associated mainly with lactogenesis but additionally it participates in several endocrinological and metabolic processes. The prolactin level may be increased with some antipsychotics such as risperidone, paliperidone, and amisulpride increasing the risk of Bone Mineral Mass (BMM) decrease leading to osteopenia and osteoporosis.
To determine the loss of BMM associated with antipsychotic-related iatrogenic hyperprolactinemia (iHPRL) in a sample of patients suffering of chronic psychotic mental disorder and treated with antipsychotics at least for one year.
A cross-sectional observational and epidemiological study in a sample of 140 patients (males 56.9%; females 43.1%; mean age 48 years), receiving antipsychotics was carried out. After giving informed consent, personal data, prolactin level, antipsychotic use and lifestyle were collected. An evaluation of BMM with a central DEXA Scan was performed. The bone mineral density considering the subject´s age and the peak bone mass in the neck of the femur, hip and in the lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4) was obtained. Inclusion criteria: presence of psychotic disorder, age between 18-65 years and treatment with an antipsychotic at least for one year. Statistical analysis was carried out using the statistical software SPSS version 26.0. A significance level α=0.05 was considered throughout the study.
45 out of 140 patients (32,13%) had some BMM lost (osteopenia). The prevalence of osteoporosis was 5.71% (n=8). The median prolactin level in the sample was 46.1 ng/dL ± 33.1. Patients with hyperprolactinaemia showed a higher frequency of osteopenia/osteoporosis (50% with mild iHPRL and 48% with moderate/severe iHPRL) than those with normal prolactin levels (25.7%). A strong and significant relationship between the presence of osteoporosis and the treatment with risperidone was found (p=0.007).
Osteopenia and osteoporosis are associated with hyperprolactinemic antipsychotic. Risperidone was related with a significant increased osteoporosis risk. The rutinary and systematic control of the BMM is crucial in these patients to avoid progressive bone demineralization. Managing strategies should be individualized to avoid bone demineralization and to preserve physical health.
In a new era where, more and more children are standing up against governments concerning important subjects like climate change that will impact their physical health in a near future, it is time to question ourselves on all the other decisions that are being taken and that could have a sustainably high impact on some of our children’s development and mental health. Unfortunately, many of those children are forced to remain silent - unable to express themselves - or are just not being heard – unable to gain international medias’ attention - because of their social condition, cultural background, age or religion. But more sadly, most of them remain silent because they are just unaware of the consequences their living conditions or hardships might have on their future mental health, due to lack of information or education.
Therefore, it is our responsibility as childhood experts and professionals to speak for those children who cannot, to stand up for themselves and promote the importance of putting their interest first no matter what.
We have chosen six different studies led in different contexts of struggle for children all around the world to illustrate the consequences on their development and mental health.
We will communicate on the situations of children living in refugee camps, children living with their mothers in prison cells, children being forcibly separated from their mothers returning from Daesh territories in France or children being forcibly separated from their migrant mothers at the US border, we will describe the hardships but also the effective support provided to unaccompanied minors in Canada, and especially discuss with our cochair expertise how the issue is or could be different for them according to government policies and legislations.
By describing these different contexts of unstable living conditions or traumatic experiences orchestrated by government legislation regarding children care, we want to highlight the responsibility that every government legislation must consider when it comes to child care and how it should become an absolute priority.
Home Treatment (HT) teams are among the better-studied options to reduce admission at the hospital, having been described as an alternative to hospitalization in patients with schizophrenia. There may be certain risk factors which has already been described such as living alone (Dean and Gadd, BMJ, 1990; 301, 1021–1023; Schnyder et al., Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 1999; 99, 179–187), lack of awareness of the illness, uncooperativeness (Cotton et al., BMC Psychiatry, 2007; 7, 52) and fewer visits carried out (Morgan et al., Aust. New Zeal. J. Psychiatry,2006; 40, 683–690) which together can negatively influence the possibility of conducting intensive home follow-up and, therefore, increase the likelihood of hospitalization.
To describe de relative contribution of several risk factors to patient hospitalization related to the possibility of conducting intensive home follow-up of patients diagnosed with Schizophrenia following home treatment. Second, to determine de risk of hospitalization related to the possibility of conducting intensive home follow-up according to the presence of one or more risk factors of patients diagnosed with Schizophrenia following home treatment.
All patients with schizophrenia who were visited by a home treatment team in Barcelona between January 2017 and December 2021 were included in the study. To assess whether there was an increased risk of hospitalization associated with factors such as living alone, uncooperativeness (PANSS G8 item >= 4) and ≤1 home visit, two bivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. We studied these factors as independent variables to assess the relative contribution to the risk of hospitalization, and we studied if the presence of 1, 2, 3 or 4 of these risk factors as independent variables worsened the risk of hospitalization.
Uncooperativeness shows the highest contribution to the risk of hospitalization, followed by ≤ 1 home visit, lack of insight and living alone, all results reaching significance (p=0.000).
There is an increase in the risk of hospitalization depending of the presence of 1,2,3 or 4 of these risk factors (1 risk factor (Odds Ratio = 1.21), 2 risk factors (Odds Ratio = 5.28), 3 risk factors (Odds ratio = 13.53), 4 risk factors (Odds ratio = 29.18).
There are a number of factors directly related to the possibility of conducting intensive follow-up that appear relevant in the case of psychotic patients in acute crisis treated at home. This set of variables are the lack of awareness of the illness, lack of collaboration, living alone and the number of visits that have been made, all with statistically significant differences in our study. These factors together also greatly increase the risk of hospitalization, becoming almost 30 times more likely when these 4 factors are present.
Nowadays, In the exercise of psychiatric clinical activity, the prescription of atypical antipsychotics is a widespread practice.
However, despite the approval in the treatment of psychoses and bipolar affective disorder, where its effectiveness is clearly demonstrated, these drugs are off-label prescribed in most of the clinical situations.
This work aims to clarify which atypical antipsychotics are most frequent prescribed and the clinical conditions where their off-label prescription is more common.
Bibliographic research in the Pubmed® database using the terms “atypical antipsychotics and off-label use”
According to the scientific literature consulted, the off-label prescription of atypical antipsychotics may represent about 70% of the total prescription of these psychotropic drugs.
Risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine and aripiprazole are the most off-label prescribed among the atypical antipsychotics.
The psychiatric conditions where atypical antipsychotics are most often off-label prescribed are addictive disorders, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, personality disorders, eating disorders, insomnia and dementia, where therapeutic benefits are demonstrated when carefully selected.
The off-label prescription can be interpreted from two points of view. On the one hand, it can guide innovation in clinical practice and improve symptoms in patients who do not respond to standard treatments. On the other hand, it may be associated with negative consequences due to the lack of data on safety and efficacy in these situations.
Despite widespread prescribing of atypical antipsychotics, there is no evidence-based recommendation beyond psychoses and bipolar affective disorder.
Thus, when prescribed, we must proceed with careful monitoring and consider the risks and benefits in relation to off-label prescription.
It is estimated that the prevalence of severe Intellectual Disability (ID) is 6 per 1,000 people. ID is sometimes the cause of Behavioral Disorders (BD) with aggressive and impulsive behaviors that make family and social life difficult. However, despite its high prevalence, the number of studies on it is very scarce.
When BD appears, it should be evaluated if there is a physical or psychiatric cause that causes it and assess non-pharmacological treatments. If they are insufficient, treatments such as risperidone are used to manage BD. When these are ineffective, the use of drugs with greater difficulties in their effects and clinical management, such as clozapine, is required.
The objective is to describe the use of clozapine in patients with severe ID associated with BD.
Retrospective descriptive study. Patients older than 18 years with severe ID and BD, treated with clozapine for at least two years were included. Those with medical or psychiatric comorbidity were excluded.
The sample consisted of 12 patients, 16.67% women (n=2) and 83.33% men (n=10), aged 47.57±9.27 years. Prior to the introduction of clozapine, a mean of 2.67±1.21 antipsychotics had been tested. The mean dose of clozapine was 264.24±70.50 mg/day. The patients had received treatment for 51.57±25.67 months, following the usual controls. None had hematological adverse effects or other serious adverse effects.
Clozapine can be an effective and safe therapeutic alternative in the treatment of BD in intellectual disabled patients which do not respond to other treatments. The clinical benefits of clozapine treatment seem to outweigh the potential risks associated with the treatment. However, more studies are needed to evaluate the effects of clozapine in patients with intellectual disabilities.
Central nervous system (CNS) tumours are the most common type of solid tumour in the paediatric population. Although advances in treatment have improved survival rates, there is a substantial body of literature documenting the potential long-term effects such as psychological, neurocognitive and health-related sequelae experienced by survivors of paediatric brain tumours. TMS is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that uses electrical stimuli applied to the cranial surface to restore neuronal connections damaged because of CNS disruption (Burke et. al., 2019).
To test the efficacy of TMS in a patient diagnosed with a CNS tumour who reported pain and suffered severe cognitive-behavioural alterations refractory to other pharmacological treatments.
Case Presentation. A 12-year-old boy diagnosed with a hypothalamic-pituitary tumour at the age of 9, having received surgical treatment, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. He suffered loss of vision, cognitive-behavioural and emotional sequelae, and pain, for which he received various pharmacological treatments without benefit. Treatment. The patient underwent a total of 25 sessions where each session took 20 minutes to complete for 3 sessions per week. TMS intervention consisted of 1200 inhibitory magnetic pulses with a frequency of 1hz on right DLPFC at an intensity of 110% of resting motor threshold. Stimulations were carried out using a Magventure MagPro X100 equipment with a double-cone coil. The clinical assessment included The Silhouettes Fatigue Scale (PHQ-9), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) and Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), verbal subtests of the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-V), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children, SDSC
In the post-treatment clinical interview with the family, qualitative changes included a decrease in subjective complaints of pain and fatigue. The family reported that the child stopped sleeping tied up after the intervention and a significant change in slowness was observed, which was accompanied by a higher level of awareness and consequently a slight improvement at the behavioural level, which at the present time does allow for psychological intervention. The psychometric results were clinically improved for psychomotor activity, sleep, emotional alterations, and all cognitive domains.
25 sessions of TMS in the right DLPFC could show beneficial effects on pain, fatigue, cognition, health and sleep variables in patients with drug-resistant sequelae derived from CNS tumours. Longitudinal studies with larger sample sizes are needed to determine whether the effects observed after TMS intervention in paediatric patients with CNS diseases are significant.
Substance use disorders(SUDs) are a major health concern and current treatment interventions have proven only limited success. Despite increasing effectiveness, still about 50–60% relapse within 6–12 months after treatment [Cornelius et al., Addict Behav. 2003;28 381-386]. SUDs are defined as chronic disorders of brain reward system, motivation, and memory processes that have gone awry. Medication reducing craving and substance use is mainly available for alcohol dependence and to a lesser extent for other substances.
Hallucinogens may represent a group of agents with potential anti-craving properties subsequently reducing substance use in SUD patients. For instance, lysergic acid diethylamide(LSD) and psilocybin have previously been shown to effectively alleviate symptoms of alcohol and nicotine dependence.
New treatments preferably focusing on reducing craving and subsequent substance use are therefore urgently needed. The hallucinogen psilocybin may provide a new treatment option for SUD patients, given the beneficial results observed in recent studies
Systematic revision of literature.
In the 1950s, a group of drugs with potential to alter consciousness were discovered (hallucinogens). Several studies suggested their anti-SUD potential, improving self-acceptance and interpersonal relationships, reducing craving and alcohol use. As a result of its recreational popularity during the 1960s, they were banned in 1967, greatly hampering scientific research in this field. Recently, psilocybin, an hallucinogenic substance in psilocybin-containing mushrooms has gained popularity in neuropsychological research, showing to increase trait openness, cognitive and behavioral flexibility, and ratings of positive attitude, mood, social effects, and behavior and even reported persistent positive changes in attitude and behavior. These findings might suggest a valuable compound for the treatment of psychiatric conditions with several additional studies providing supportive evidence for the therapeutic potential of psilocybin for SUD treatment and relapse prevention.
With the reported limited amount of side effects and potential beneficial effects of psilocybin in SUD, there are valid reasons to further investigate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of psilocybin as a potential SUD treatment. On the one hand, psilocybin may exert its anti-addictive properties by beneficial effects on negative emotional states and stress. On the other hand, psilocybin may improve cognitive inflexibility and compulsivity. Research on the efficacy of psilocybin on SUD is still limited to a handful of published studies to date. As a result, many important questions related to the use of psilocybin as a complement to current treatment of SUD and its working mechanisms remain unanswered. Before psilocybin can be implemented as a treatment option for SUD, more extensive research is needed.
The prevalence of mental illness has increased worldwide over the past few years. At the same time, and even in the sense, there is also an increase in suicide rates with special incidence in certain risk groups, among which health professionals stand out.
In this particular group, physicians seem to represent a class particularly vulnerable by the stress and demand associated with it, but also by access and knowledge about potentially lethal means.
For this very part, they have a higher risk of suicide than the general population.
This paper aims to better understand the phenomenon of suicide among physicians and identify which medical specialties are most vulnerable.
Bibliographic research in the Pubmed® database using the terms “suicide and physicians”.
The data obtained from the scientific literature consulted indicate that physicians have a higher risk of suicide than the general population, with greater emphasis on females who have higher rates compared to males.
Work factors that translate into higher levels of demand and stress combined with easy access and knowledge about the use of potentially lethal means seem to contribute very significantly to this phenomenon. Perfectionist personality traits with a high sense of responsibility and duty are also important characteristics that place these professionals in a position of greater vulnerability.
With regard to the different medical specialties, anesthesiology, psychiatry and general and family medicine are the ones with higher suicide rates among the medical class.
The risk of suicide, although admittedly high in the medical class, is not homogeneous among different countries, being naturally influenced by the satisfaction/gratification obtained in the performance of their profession. In this sense, countries such as Switzerland and Canada show higher levels of professional satisfaction. In the opposite direction, dissatisfaction in the exercise of clinical activity is associated with higher levels of fatigue and burnout.
Medical women, due to the need to combine the responsibility of family tasks with professional responsibility, are at greater risk.
In this sense, it is necessary to develop strategies that are more appropriate for the prevention and early identification of suicide risk situations that can be experienced not only by improving working conditions but also by better addressing professionals suffering from mental disorders.
In spite of the progress observed in the last decade particularly in the field of the neurosciences, areas of controversy and incomplete concepts still remain in psychiatry. One relates to the study the heterogeneous group of schizophrenic spectrum functional psychosis that arise along the neurophysiological aging process. Kraepelin first used the term paraphrenia in 1912, to describe a psychotic disorder with much lighter impairment of emotion and volition, minimal to no cognitive deterioration (dementia) and personality preservation compared to dementia praecox. However, since its first descriptions, late-onset psychoses have received different descriptions and definitions.
Brief review of the evolution of paraphrenia concept, focusing not only on pioneering currents, but also articulating it with recent conclusions on late-onset psychoses.
Systematic revision of literature.
After Kreapelin pioneerism, Bleuler and Mayer-Gross would contribute to the weakening and disruption of the Kraepelinian concept of paraphrenia. In the first half of the 20th century, psychiatry was moving towards the dissolution of this concept. British psychiatrists would later rehabilitate the concept of paraphrenia but to designate a very late-onset variant of schizophrenia - late paraphrenia. This influenced the International Diseases Classifications (ICD), and the 8th edition was the first to consider paraphrenia as a subtype of paranoid schizophrenia.
By the end of the 20th century, both ICD-10 and various editions of DSM since DSM-III-TR (inclusive) omitted the category of paraphrenia, allowing the super-inclusiveness of the schizophrenia category and discouraging research on the theme.
In the late 20th century, late paraphrenia was conceived as a group of heterogeneous disorders that included paranoid and organic psychosis. To date, the term very late onset schizophrenia-like psychosis is the term used to replace late paraphrenia.
The nosological consecration of paraphrenia suffered several misfortunes over the last century. The schizophrenic psychosis “black-hole” conceived at the same time contributed to this concealment. In addition, modern pharmacology also allowed the neuroleptization and homogenization of disorders with psychotic symptoms which led to the devaluation of some diagnostic possibilities in the “neighborhood” of schizophrenia.
We propose a nosological frame composed of two distinct entities: one based on a neurodevelopment disorder - schizophrenia - with insidious onset at a younger age, with a hereditary background and greater global deterioration, an the other, with a neurodegenerative basis - paraphrenia - with an abrupt and later onset, less contribution of genetic factors, greater preservation and lower probability of dementia development.
Psychosis is a frequent complication in patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Characterized mainly by visual hallucinations and paranoid delusions, it occurs most frequently, but not exclusively, as an adverse effect of antiparkinson medications. Nevertheless, cognitive impairment and dementia, as a frequent feature of PD, needs to be considered for differential diagnosis.
Our main objective is to report a case of PD Psychosis, its diagnosis and management and complement it with a non-systematic review of literature.
Patient file consultation and an additional research, based on the key words “Psychosis” and “Parkinson’s Disease”, using Pubmed as database.
A 53-year-old female, diagnosed with Juvenile Parkinson’s Disease since age 45 and, as expected, polimedicated with antiparkinson medication. Without any relevant psychiatric background, she was admitted to the emergency department for disorganized behaviour, with 2 weeks of evolution. There, it was also possible to determine the presence of auditive hallucinations and persecutory delusions, associated with marked anguish.
After exclusion of any underlying cause for this symptomatology, inpatient treatment was proposed and accepted by the patient. In collaboration with the Neurology Department, a gradual reduction and optimization of antiparkinson drugs was conducted, associated with introduction of low doses of antipsychotic drugs, in this case Olanzapine. With this medication adjustments, clinical improvement was accomplished, with eventual fading and cessation of psychotic symptoms. Additionally, an irregularly intake of antiparkinson drugs was considered the most probably cause of this clinical decompensation.
As present in literature, due to the chronicity and complexity of PD, stopping all antiparkinson drugs is not an option, even when psychotic symptoms, that could be a consequence of these drugs, are present. Therefore, a rigorous evaluation and management are mandatory, including the exclusion of other underlying causes and a careful therapeutic adjustment, with gradual reduction of antiparkinson drugs, addressing an eventual temporal relationship between the beginning of a specific drug and the onset of symptoms, and verification of therapeutic compliance, including an involuntary overdose. In cases of refractory symptoms, and after a risk-benefit assessment, pharmacologic treatment directed at these symptoms, low doses of anti-psychotics, may be necessary.
Several factors related to the risk of requiring psychiatric hospitalization have been described in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia treated with methods other than home treatment. With regard to the symptoms, high global illness severity and positive symptoms of schizophrenia have been most frequently related to the risk of hospitalization in patients with schizophrenia. However, there are no studies describing which clinical factors increase the likelihood of being hospitalized while undergoing home follow-up.
To determine which of the clinical factors assessed in the PANSS predict the risk of hospitalization in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia following a home treatment program.
All patients with schizophrenia who were visited by a home treatment team in Barcelona between January 2017 and December 2021 were included in the study. A comparative, bivariate analysis of each item of the PANSS and of the global results of each category was conducted on those who were hospitalized and those who were not hospitalized. Finally, a logistic regression of each category of the PANSS was done on both groups, controlling for other socio-demographic and clinical factors.
A total of 1045 patients with schizophrenia were evaluated in this study. PANSS positive symptom subscale (PANSS-S), PANSS General Psychopathology, PANSS Excited Component and PANSS Global Score scored higher in patients who were finally hospitalized in a conventional acute treatment unit. Regarding the PANSS negative symptom subscale, no significant differences were found between the two groups.
In patients who required hospitalization, the scores of all the PANSS positive symptom subscale (PANSS-P) items and all items on the PANSS excited component (excitement, tension, hostility, uncooperativeness and poor impulse control) were significantly higher. Some items regarding general psychopathology (Somatic concern, anxiety, guilt feelings, tension, and mannerisms) were also significantly higher in the hospitalization group. Only 3 items—blunted affect, guilt feelings and motor retardation—scored significantly higher in patients who did not require hospitalization. In the logistic regression, only the global score of the PANSS-P reached statistical significance (P = 0.001).
Positive symptoms scored in the PANSS seem to be the most predictive factors of hospitalization regarding clinical symptoms in patients with Schizophrenia following home treatment. Other items regarding exciting symptoms and general psychopathology also showed as relevant regarding the risk of conventional hospitalization in those patients.
Pregnancy and childbirth are moments of great vulnerability in a woman’s life, which can predispose her to the development of psychopathology, ranging from transient depressive symptoms (“baby blues”) to psychotic symptoms. Postpartum delirium is the psychiatric syndrome that some authors refer to as puerperal psychosis par excellence. It was first described in the 18th century and were thought to be associated with painful delivery, then became rare after the introduction of effective analgesia.
The objective of this work is to contribute to a better understanding of this condition, through a literature review.
Bibliographic research using Pubmed® and the keywords: postpartum delirium.
Clinical presentation of postpartum delirium includes: constantly varying degrees of consciousness; perplexity; hallucinations or pseudo-hallucinations of one or more organs of sense; delusions or delusive-type thoughts; great motoric unrest and considerable motoric and verbal abandon; and acute aggressive discharges can also occur. It is thought to be due to organic complications, such as infectious disease, abnormal loss of blood, thrombosis, neurological disease, obstetric disease, vitamin deficiencies, hormonal changes. An article from 1975 mentions how difficult was to treat postpartum delirium despite the development of psychopharmaceutical therapy. The patients remained psychotic for long periods and had many relapses. They mention a comparative study that found that the symptomatic treatment of this syndrome with a combination of perfenazine and lithium carbonate produced relatively favorable results. For that reason, at that time, it was the medication of choice. Nowadays the psychopharmacological treatment of puerperal psychosis, in general, still consists of the combination of lithium and an antipsychotic, such as haloperidol, and possibly a benzodiazepine, such as lorazepam.
Postpartum delirium is rarely mentioned in the literature and just a few cases have been described. It is considered a rare postpartum psychotic condition but would perhaps be less rare if its existence were recognized. On this note, it is important for clinical practice to research on the psychoses of pregnancy and not just the most common.
Anaemia is characterised by low hemoglobin (Hb) concentration. Despite being a public health concern in Ethiopia, the role of micronutrients and non-nutritional factors as a determinant of Hb concentrations has been inadequately explored. This study focused on the assessment of serum micronutrient and Hb concentrations and a range of non-nutritional factors, to evaluate their associations with the risk of anaemia among the Ethiopian population (n 2046). It also explored the mediation effect of Zn on the relation between se and Hb. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the relationship between serum micronutrients concentration, inflammation biomarkers, nutritional status, presence of parasitic infection and socio-demographic factors with Hb concentration (n 2046). Sobel–Goodman test was applied to investigate the mediation of Zn on relations between serum se and Hb. In total, 18·6 % of participants were anaemic, 5·8 % had iron deficiency (ID), 2·6 % had ID anaemia and 0·6 % had tissue ID. Younger age, household head illiteracy and low serum concentrations of ferritin, Co, Cu and folate were associated with anaemia. Serum se had an indirect effect that was mediated by Zn, with a significant effect of se on Zn (P < 0·001) and Zn on Hb (P < 0·001). The findings of this study suggest the need for designing a multi-sectorial intervention to address anaemia based on demographic group.
Background: SMA affects individuals with a broad age range and spectrum of disease severity. Risdiplam (EVRYSDI®) is a centrally and peripherally distributed, oral SMN2 pre-mRNA splicing modifier. Methods: SUNFISH is a multicenter, two-part, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in patients with Types 2/3 SMA. Part 1 assessed the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of different risdiplam dose levels in patients with Types 2/3 SMA. Part 2 assessed the efficacy and safety of the selected dose of risdiplam versus placebo in Type 2 and non-ambulant Type 3 SMA. In Part 2, participants were treated with risdiplam or placebo for 12 months, then received risdiplam in a blinded manner until month 24. At month 24, patients were offered the opportunity to enter the open-label extension phase. Results: Change from baseline in MFM32 total score (Part 2- primary endpoint) in patients treated with risdiplam versus placebo was met at month 12. These increases in motor function were sustained in the second and third year after risdiplam treatment. Here we present 4-year efficacy and safety data from SUNFISH. Conclusions: SUNFISH is ongoing and will provide further long-term efficacy and safety data of risdiplam in a broad population of individuals with SMA.