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There is limited information regarding the nutrition profile and diet quality of meal plans from currently popular weight loss (WL) diets in Australia. This includes the energy content (kilojoules), the macronutrient distribution and the micronutrient composition. Further, these diets have not been compared with current government guidelines and healthy eating principles (HEP) for nutritional adequacy. Popular diets were identified through grey literature, trending searches and relative popularity in Australia. Meal plans for each diet were analysed using Foodworks Dietary Software to determine food group intake, micronutrient and macronutrient distribution. The results indicated that all popular diets assessed deviated from government recommended HEP such as the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating and the Mediterranean diet. In most cases, both popular diets and the HEP had low intakes of multiple food groups, low intakes of essential micronutrients and a distorted macronutrient distribution. Popular diets may not provide adequate nutrition to meet needs, particularly in the long term and potentially resulting in micronutrient deficiency. When energy restricting for WL, meal plans should be highly individualised in conjunction with a qualified nutrition professional to ensure adequate dietary intake.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is often challenging to treat and resistant to psychological interventions and prescribed medications. The adjunctive use of nutraceuticals with potential neuromodulatory effects on underpinning pathways such as the glutamatergic and serotonergic systems is one novel approach.
To assess the effectiveness and safety of a purpose-formulated combination of nutraceuticals in treating OCD: N-acetyl cysteine, L-theanine, zinc, magnesium, pyridoxal-5′ phosphate, and selenium.
A 20-week open label proof-of-concept study was undertaken involving 28 participants with treatment-resistant DSM-5-diagnosed OCD, during 2017 to 2020. The primary outcome measure was the Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), administered every 4 weeks.
An intention-to-treat analysis revealed an estimated mean reduction across time (baseline to week-20) on the YBOCS total score of −7.13 (95% confidence interval = −9.24, −5.01), with a mean reduction of −1.21 points per post-baseline visit (P ≤ .001). At 20-weeks, 23% of the participants were considered “responders” (YBOCS ≥35% reduction and “very much” or “much improved” on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale). Statistically significant improvements were also revealed on all secondary outcomes (eg, mood, anxiety, and quality of life). Notably, treatment response on OCD outcome scales (eg, YBOCS) was greatest in those with lower baseline symptom levels, while response was limited in those with relatively more severe OCD.
While this pilot study lacks placebo-control, the significant time effect in this treatment-resistant OCD population is encouraging and suggests potential utility especially for those with lower symptom levels. Our findings need to be confirmed or refuted via a follow-up placebo-controlled study.
Here we present stringent low-frequency (185 MHz) limits on coherent radio emission associated with a short-duration gamma-ray burst (SGRB). Our observations of the short gamma-ray burst (GRB) 180805A were taken with the upgraded Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) rapid-response system, which triggered within 20s of receiving the transient alert from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope, corresponding to 83.7 s post-burst. The SGRB was observed for a total of 30 min, resulting in a
persistent flux density upper limit of 40.2 mJy beam–1. Transient searches were conducted at the Swift position of this GRB on 0.5 s, 5 s, 30 s and 2 min timescales, resulting in
limits of 570–1 830, 270–630, 200–420, and 100–200 mJy beam–1, respectively. We also performed a dedispersion search for prompt signals at the position of the SGRB with a temporal and spectral resolution of 0.5 s and 1.28 MHz, respectively, resulting in a
fluence upper-limit range from 570 Jy ms at DM
pc cm–3 (
) to 1 750 Jy ms at DM
pc cm–3 (
, corresponding to the known redshift range of SGRBs. We compare the fluence prompt emission limit and the persistent upper limit to SGRB coherent emission models assuming the merger resulted in a stable magnetar remnant. Our observations were not sensitive enough to detect prompt emission associated with the alignment of magnetic fields of a binary neutron star just prior to the merger, from the interaction between the relativistic jet and the interstellar medium (ISM) or persistent pulsar-like emission from the spin-down of the magnetar. However, in the case of a more powerful SGRB (a gamma-ray fluence an order of magnitude higher than GRB 180805A and/or a brighter X-ray counterpart), our MWA observations may be sensitive enough to detect coherent radio emission from the jet-ISM interaction and/or the magnetar remnant. Finally, we demonstrate that of all current low- frequency radio telescopes, only the MWA has the sensitivity and response times capable of probing prompt emission models associated with the initial SGRB merger event.
We describe an adolescent with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis and symptomatic high-grade, second-degree atrioventricular block requiring permanent pacemaker placement. It is difficult to ascertain if these two diagnoses were independent or had a causal relationship though ongoing symptoms were not present prior to the infection. Because of this uncertainty, awareness that rhythm disturbances can be cardiac in origin but also secondary to other aetiologies, such as infection, is warranted.
This study aimed to provide an objective means of identifying patterns in academic publication among ENT trainees during their higher surgical training.
A cross-sectional survey was distributed to ENT higher surgical trainees.
A total of 153 ENT specialty trainees participated, giving a response rate of 46.5 per cent. Across all years of training, the mean number of first author publications was three and the mean number of non-first author publications was two. For trainees at specialty trainee year 8 level, these figures were nine and five, respectively. Participants with doctoral degrees and those in academic programmes published more papers but the mean difference was only significant for the doctoral subgroup (p < 0.0001). Those with additional undergraduate degrees and those in less than full-time training had an overall lower number of publications.
Participants in the current survey achieved a higher average number of academic publications than is presently required to successfully complete higher surgical training in ENT. It is hoped that these results act as a guide for trainees planning the research component of their training to ensure that they remain competitive at consultant interview.
The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) is the first large-area survey to be conducted with the full 36-antenna Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. RACS will provide a shallow model of the ASKAP sky that will aid the calibration of future deep ASKAP surveys. RACS will cover the whole sky visible from the ASKAP site in Western Australia and will cover the full ASKAP band of 700–1800 MHz. The RACS images are generally deeper than the existing NRAO VLA Sky Survey and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey radio surveys and have better spatial resolution. All RACS survey products will be public, including radio images (with
15 arcsec resolution) and catalogues of about three million source components with spectral index and polarisation information. In this paper, we present a description of the RACS survey and the first data release of 903 images covering the sky south of declination
made over a 288-MHz band centred at 887.5 MHz.
Depression is characterised by negative views of the self. Antidepressant treatment may remediate negative self-schema through increasing processing of positive information about the self. Changes in affective processing during social interactions may increase expression of prosocial behaviours, improving interpersonal communications.
To examine whether acute administration of citalopram is associated with an increase in positive affective learning biases about the self and prosocial behaviour.
Healthy volunteers (n = 41) were randomised to either an acute 20 mg dose of citalopram or matched placebo in a between-subjects double-blind design. Participants completed computer-based cognitive tasks designed to measure referential affective processing, social cognition and expression of prosocial behaviours.
Participants administered citalopram made more cooperative choices than those administered placebo in a prisoner's dilemma task (β = 20%, 95% CI: 2%, 37%). Exploratory analyses indicated that participants administered citalopram showed a positive bias when learning social evaluations about a friend (β = 4.06, 95% CI: 0.88, 7.24), but not about the self or a stranger. Similarly, exploratory analyses found evidence of increased recall of positive words and reduced recall of negative words about others (β = 2.41, 95% CI: 0.89, 3.93), but not the self, in the citalopram group.
Participants administered citalopram showed greater prosocial behaviours, increased positive recall and increased positive learning of social evaluations towards others. The increase in positive affective bias and prosocial behaviours towards others may, at least partially, be a mechanism of antidepressant effect. However, we found no evidence that citalopram influenced self-referential processing.
Alexithymia (difficulties in identifying and describing emotion) is a transdiagnostic trait implicated in social–emotional and mental health problems in the general population. Many autistic individuals experience significant social-communication difficulties and elevated anxiety/depression and alexithymia. Nevertheless, the role of alexithymia in explaining individual variability in the quality/severity of social-communication difficulties and/or anxiety and depression symptoms in autism remains poorly understood.
In total, 337 adolescents and adults (autism N = 179) were assessed for alexithymia on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and for social-communication difficulties, anxiety and depression symptoms. A total of 135 individuals (autism N = 76) were followed up 12–24 months later. We used regression models to establish cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between alexithymia, social-communication difficulties, anxiety and depression symptoms.
Autistic individuals reported significantly higher alexithymia than comparison individuals (p < 0.001, r effect size = 0.48), with 47.3% of autistic females and 21.0% of autistic males meeting cut-off for clinically relevant alexithymia (score ⩾61). Difficulties in describing feelings were particularly associated with current self-reported social-communication difficulties [p < 0.001, β = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44–0.67] and predicted later social-communication difficulties (p = 0.02, β = 0.43, 95% CI 0.07–0.82). Difficulties in identifying feelings were particularly associated with current anxiety symptom severity (p < 0.001, β = 0.54, 95% CI 0.41–0.77) and predicted later anxiety (p = 0.01; β = 0.31, 95% CI 0.08–0.62).
Our findings suggest that difficulties in identifying v. describing emotion are associated with differential clinical outcomes in autism. Psychological therapies targeting emotional awareness may improve social-communication and anxiety symptoms in autism, potentially conferring long-term benefits.
As the novel coronavirus disease 2019 changed patient presentation, this study aimed to prospectively identify these changes in a single ENT centre.
A seven-week prospective case series was conducted of urgently referred patients from primary care and accident and emergency department.
There was a total of 133 referrals. Referral rates fell by 93 per cent over seven weeks, from a mean of 5.4 to 0.4 per day. Reductions were seen in referrals from both primary care (89 per cent) and the accident and emergency department (93 per cent). Presentations of otitis externa and epistaxis fell by 83 per cent, and presentations of glandular fever, tonsillitis and peritonsillar abscess fell by 67 per cent.
Coronavirus disease 2019 has greatly reduced the number of referrals into secondary care ENT. The cause for this reduction is likely to be due to patients’ increased perceived risk of the virus presence in a medical setting. The impact of this reduction is yet to be ascertained, but will likely result in a substantial increase in emergency pressures once the lockdown is lifted and the general public's perception of the coronavirus disease 2019 risk reduces.
In 2019, BYK Additives (Widnes, UK; www.byk.com) marked the 55th anniversary of the discovery by Dr Barbara Zsusanna (Susanna) Neumann of the extraordinary product known as Laponite®. The range of Laponite® products developed in the UK during the early 1960s is one of the first examples of truly nanodimensional materials manufactured on an industrial scale, at a time when the field of nanotechnology was only being hinted at (Feynman, 1959). These hectorite-like synthetic nanoclays with very unusual properties have been an enduring commercial success for the UK company that first patented and introduced them to the market, Laporte Industries, which is now a part of the BYK company. The Laponite® brand has proved tremendously popular with academic and industrial scientists worldwide, being cited in >3000 patents and >2500 published academic articles.
A subcommittee of the Hawaii Governor's Joint Task Force on Rat Lungworm Disease developed preliminary guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of neuroangiostrongyliasis (NAS) in 2018 (Guidelines, 2018). This paper reviews the main points of those guidelines and provides updates in areas where our understanding of the disease has increased. The diagnosis of NAS is described, including confirmation of infection by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RTi-PCR) to detect parasite DNA in the central nervous system (CNS). The treatment literature is reviewed with recommendations for the use of corticosteroids and the anthelminthic drug albendazole. Long-term sequelae of NAS are discussed and recommendations for future research are proposed.
Although several initiatives have produced core competency domains for training the translational science workforce, training resources to help clinical research professionals advance these skills reside primarily within local departments or institutions. The Development, Implementation, and AssessMent of Novel Training in Domain (DIAMOND) project was designed to make this training more readily and publicly available. DIAMOND includes a digital portal to catalog publicly available educational resources and an ePortfolio to document professional development. DIAMOND is a nationally crowdsourced, federated, online catalog providing a platform for practitioners to find and share training and assessment materials. Contributors can share their own educational materials using a simple intake form that creates an electronic record; the portal enables users to browse or search this catalog of digital records and access the resources. Since September 2018, the portal has been visited more than 5,700 times and received over 280 contributions from professionals. The portal facilitates opportunities to connect and collaborate regarding future applications of these resources. Consequently, growing the collection and increasing numbers of both contributors and users remains a priority. Results from a small subset of users indicated over half accomplished their purpose for visiting the site, while qualitative results showed that users identified several benefits and helpful features of the ePortfolio.
This study explored family caregivers’ use of technology to care for people with dementia living at home. Three questions were pursued: (1) what are the important, unmet needs of family caregivers, (2) how do they use technologies to assist in care tasks, and (3) what do health care providers know about caregivers’ needs and technology use? Two comprehensive surveys were developed to answer these questions: one for family caregivers (n = 33), and one for health care providers (n = 60). Descriptive and quantitative analyses showed that caregivers’ important, unmet needs were in the domains of information, formal services, and emotional support. Caregivers make limited use of technology but believe in its potential usefulness. Health care providers agree that technology is useful in dementia care; however, they underestimate caregivers’ willingness to adopt technologies to communicate with providers. Findings prove caregiver willingness to use technology to support their care role and provide guidance regarding the caregiver needs that these technologies should address.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Although their 5-year survival >90%, young patients with HL face tradeoffs between near-term disease control and risk of treatment-related adverse effects decades later, so we seek to understand what patients and clinicians value in HL treatment decisions. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Leveraging our access to large cohorts of physicians, HL patients/survivors, and caregivers, we will use adaptive choice-based conjoint analysis (ACBC) to elicit treatment preferences when offered scenarios that incorporate tradeoffs, e.g., would a patient rather live 20 years with 10% risk of second malignancy or live 40 years with 30% of second malignancy. To reduce survey fatigue, prior choice responses limit subsequent scenarios. Through ACBC, we will identify variations in preferences and the importance of disease outcomes, treatment characteristics, and late effects for HL by respondent type. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The goal is a final sample of 200 physicians and 200 patients/caregivers. We will collect demographics from physicians (age, type of physician, years practicing, type of practice, gender, and geography) and patients/caregivers (age at diagnosis, time since treatment, race, gender, smoker, education). We will ask questions about values of disease outcomes, late effects (second cancers, cardiac disease, chronic fatigue and neuropathy), and treatment characteristics (uncertainty of late effects, salvageability). Results will include utilities about participants views on disease-control and late effects. We anticipate participants to value disease control over late effects. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our study will elicit how physicians and patients/caregivers value treatment tradeoffs for HL. In an era of multiple treatment choices with varying short- and long-term benefits and harms, identifying values and preferences become critical for patient-centered treatment decisions.
Forgetting names is a common memory concern for people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and is related to explicit memory deficits and pathological changes in the medial temporal lobes at the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the current experiment, we tested a unique method to improve memory for face–name associations in people with aMCI involving incidental rehearsal of face–name pairs.
Older adults with aMCI and age- and education-matched controls learned 24 face–name pairs and were tested via immediate cued recall with faces as cues for associated names. During a 25- to 30-min retention interval, 10 of the face–name pairs reappeared as a quarter of the items on a seemingly unrelated 1-back task on faces, with the superimposed names irrelevant to the task. After the delay, surprise delayed cued recall and forced-choice associative recognition tests were administered for the face–name pairs.
Both groups showed reduced forgetting of the names that repeated as distraction and enhanced recollection of these pairs.
The results demonstrate that passive methods to prompt automatic retrieval of associations may hold promise as interventions for people with early signs of AD.
In this paper, we characterize a high repetition-rate regenerating plasma mirror produced by the thin film of liquid formed when two laminar streams collide. The use of a flowing liquid film is inexpensive and the interaction surface refreshes automatically, avoiding buildup of on-target debris. The composition of the liquid material and the relative angle of the film-generating nozzles was optimized for this application. Spectra measured in reflection from a water-based plasma mirror showed a blue shift but an optical reflectivity of up to 30%. The thickness of the film was found to be of the order of 2
m, and the stability of the reflected spot was
mrad. The reflected beam profile was highly distorted but stable. Further optimization of the nozzles to affect the fluid flow should enable significant improvements in control of the fluid films and increase in the reflectivity of these mirrors.
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are one of the most versatile and accessible classes of nanomaterials. Their chemical stability, ease of colloidal synthesis, surface functionalization, and plasmonic resonance—tunable from the visible through the near-infrared—have made AuNPs the metal nanoparticle of choice for many applications. This article summarizes the chemical synthesis of AuNPs, particularly gold nanorods, with a focus on recent developments in shape control and surface modifications. Current applications using the photothermal properties of AuNPs, as well as AuNP connections to biology and the environmental sciences, will be discussed.
Many youth with tics experience distress about having tics and how others may perceive them. Such symptoms are often more impairing and distressing than are the tics and negatively impact self-concept, functioning, and quality of life. Although treatments exist that target the frequency and severity of tics, no intervention has been developed that helps youth with tics cope with their condition and limit associated functional impairment and distress. Given this, we developed a cognitive-behaviorally oriented psychotherapy protocol that promotes adaptive coping and resiliency among youth with tics in addressing varied issues commonly experienced by this population. This poster reports data from the Phase I component of this study.
Phase I concentrated on developing the treatment protocol through expert opinion coupled with focus groups with parents and children with a tic disorder. Based on this, we developed a preliminary manual and piloted it in 6 youth with tics who met relevant inclusion/exclusion criteria. Phase II involves a preliminary test of the protocol in that focuses primarily on feasibility issues. All subjects participated in assessments (Screening, Baseline, Post-treatment) conducted by a blinded independent evaluator.
Only Phase I data will be presented as Phase II is ongoing. Descriptive statistics related to improvement rates; tic severity; child self-esteem and self-efficacy; and child internalizing symptoms will be reported. Qualitative data from the focus groups will also be presented regarding domains of impairment for youth with tics.
This treatment shows early promise of helping youth with tics cope with their condition.
Varenicline is an α4β2 partial nicotinic agonist approved for smoking cessation. There have been spontaneous postmarketing reports of neuropsychiatric adverse events (NPAEs) in smokers without a history of psychiatric illness quitting with varenicline.
110 smokers without history of psychiatric illness (screened by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM) were randomized to 12 weeks of varenicline (n=55) (1mg bid) or placebo. Adverse events were solicited systematically. Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, aggression and irritability were measured at baseline and weekly using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression-rating scale (MADRS), the Hamilton Anxiety scale (HAM-A), and the Overt Aggression scale-modified (OAS-m). The Profile of Mood States (POMS) was administered daily. Mixed Model analysis of repeated measures was conducted to compare mean changes in scores between groups across the study period.
Smokers had a mean age of 33; smoked on average 22 cigarettes/day with mean Fagerstrom score for Nicotine Dependence >7 at baseline. Reported NPAEs were similar between groups. No suicidal events were reported. There were no significant differences between groups for the MADRS (treatment difference vs. placebo [TD] = 0.03, 95% CI: -0.68, 0.73; NS), HAM-A (TD = 0.14, 95% CI: -0.62, 0.90; NS), OAS-m irritability subscale (TD = 0.08, 95% CI: -0.17, 0.34; NS), OAS-m aggression subscale (TD = 0.5, 95% CI: -1.18, 2.18, NS) and the POMS total scores (TD = 0.5, 95% CI: -0.52, 1.53; NS).
There were no significant differences between groups on measures of depressive symptoms, anxiety and aggression/hostility. Systematically solicited NPAEs were similar between varenicline and placebo.