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Self-harm and eating disorders are often comorbid in clinical samples but their co-occurrence in the general population is unclear. Given that only a small proportion of individuals who self-harm or have disordered eating present to clinical services, and that both self-harm and eating disorders are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, we aimed to study these behaviours at a population level.
We assessed the co-occurrence of self-harm and disordered eating behaviours in 3384 females and 2326 males from a UK population-based cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Participants reported on their self-harm and disordered eating behaviours (fasting, purging, binge-eating and excessive exercise) in the last year via questionnaire at 16 and 24 years. At each age we assessed how many individuals who self-harm also reported disordered eating, and how many individuals with disordered eating also reported self-harm.
We found high comorbidity of self-harm and disordered eating. Almost two-thirds of 16-year-old females, and two-in-five 24-year-old males who self-harmed also reported some form of disordered eating. Young people with disordered eating reported higher levels of self-harm at both ages compared to those without disordered eating.
As self-harm and disordered eating commonly co-occur in young people in the general population, it is important to screen for both sets of difficulties to provide appropriate treatment.
Research suggests that an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy
(MBCT) course may be effective for generalised anxiety disorder
To compare changes in anxiety levels among participants with GAD randomly
assigned to MBCT, cognitive–behavioural therapy-based psychoeducation and
In total, 182 participants with GAD were recruited (trial registration
number: CUHK_CCT00267) and assigned to the three groups and followed for
5 months after baseline assessment with the two intervention groups
followed for an additional 6 months. Primary outcomes were anxiety and
Linear mixed models demonstrated significant group × time interaction
(F(4,148) = 5.10, P = 0.001) effects
for decreased anxiety for both the intervention groups relative to usual
care. Significant group × time interaction effects were observed for
worry and depressive symptoms and mental health-related quality of life
for the psychoeducation group only.
These results suggest that both of the interventions appear to be
superior to usual care for the reduction of anxiety symptoms.
A unique data set of 160 MHz solar noise storm positions and polarizations covering a complete sunspot cycle interval from the Skylab period of 1973 through the Solar Maximum intervals of 1980 and 1984 is presented in the form of 27.28-day synoptic plots.
Medieval Europe was characterized by a sophisticated market for the production, exchange and sale of written texts. This volume brings together papers on a range of topics, centred on manuscript studies and textual criticism, which explore these issues from a pan-European perspective. They examine the prolonged and varied processes through which Europe's different parts entered into modern reading, writing and communicative practices, drawing on a range of approaches and perspectives; they consider material culture, multilingualism in texts and books, book history, readers, audience and scribes across the Middle Ages.
Dr Aidan Conti teaches in the Department of Linguistic, Literary and Aesthetic Studies, University of Bergen; Dr Orietta Da Rold teaches in the Faculty of English, University of Cambridge; Dr Philip Shaw teaches at the School of English, University of Leicester.
Contributors: Rolf H. Bremmer Jr, Stewart Brookes, Aidan Conti, Orietta Da Rold, Helen Fulton, Marilena Maniaci, Debora Matos, Annina Seiler, Peter A. Stokes, Nadia Togni, Svetlana Tsonkova, Matilda Watson, George Younge.
Background: Self-esteem is an important factor in the development and maintenance of good psychological health. Low self-esteem can be a consequence of mental health disorders (such as depression, anxiety and panic) or it can be a vulnerability factor for the development of such problems. Aims and method: The current study reports pilot findings from a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) group intervention for 37 adult women with low self-esteem, based on Fennell's Overcoming Low Self-Esteem Self-Help Course. Results: Findings suggest that the group is (statistically and clinically) effective at increasing levels of self-esteem and at reducing levels of depression and anxiety. Conclusions: Together, results suggest that the group provides an efficient and therapeutically beneficial service. However, since these findings are limited by the lack of control or follow-up data, they warrant further investigation.
This chapter focuses on the second critical factor for success of deep brain stimulation (DBS), namely the placement of the DBS lead. DBS implantation is a team-based neurosurgical procedure, led by a neurosurgeon who should be trained in functional, stereotactic neurosurgery. Intraoperative microelectrode recording (MER) does not cause morbidity but improves bradykinesia before placement of the DBS lead. Once the DBS lead has been placed at the target depth, intraoperative macro-stimulation using the DBS lead is performed to test for optimal placement. The goal of intraoperative DBS test stimulation is to assess the efficacy of placement and the therapeutic window of stimulation. A map should be made of the position of the DBS lead in the nucleus of choice, as this helps the clinician who ultimately performs the programming of the DBS system. Poor placement can result from lack of use of intraoperative physiological mapping techniques.