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It is thought that protoplanets formed in protoplanetary disks excite the orbital motion of the surrounding planetesimals, and the bow shocks caused by the highly excited planetesimals heat their icy component evaporating into gas. We have performed model calculations to study the evolution of molecular abundances of the evaporated icy component, which suggests sulfur-bearing molecules can be good tracers of icy planetesimal evaporation. Here we report the result of our ALMA observations of sulfur-bearing molecules towards protoplanetary disks. The lines were undetected but the obtained upper limits of the line fluxes and our model calculations give upper limits of the fractional abundances of x(H2S) < 10−11 and x(SO) < 10−10 in the outer disk. These results are consistent with the molecular abundances in comets in our Solar system.
Infratemporal fossa abscess following odontogenic infection is not rare, and usually occurs as a sequela of dental disease. Infratemporal fossa abscess was previously treated with the combination of buccal incision and temporal incision, or via a transoral approach.
This paper reports a case of infratemporal fossa abscess in a 51-year-old female.
The abscess was drained transnasally via an endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy approach, preserving the inferior turbinate and nasolacrimal duct. The pain remitted the next day and trismus had diminished in one week.
The transnasal approach with endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy is a direct, minimally invasive method that provides a direct field of view for drainage of infratemporal fossa abscess. This approach is recommended for infratemporal fossa abscess.
We synthesized viscous precursors to indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) using three kinds of alcoholamines, ethanolamine (EA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA), by a simple process. The viscous precursors are obtained just by vigorous stirring of alcoholamine and urea in an aqueous solution containing the metal nitrates during heating at 150-160 °C. The precursor containing EA (EA-precursor) is a pale-orange suspension containing aggregates of the metal hydroxides and shows pseudoplastic flow. The precursors containing DEA (DEA-precursor) and TEA (TEA-precursor) are transparent pale-yellow and dark-orange sols, respectively. They give Newtonian flow in the lower shear rate and pseudoplastic flow in the higher shear rate. Higher concentration of metal salts leads to higher viscosity of the precursors. According to thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) for the EA- and DEA-precursors, evaporation of alcoholamine occurs at around each boiling point and subsequently formation of metal oxides occur at around 300 °C. In the case of the TEA-precursor, formation of metal oxides occurs before pyrolysis of TEA attributed to the higher boiling point of TEA. The thin IGZO film, which is prepared by spin-coating of the diluted DEA-precursor and subsequent sintering at 450 °C for 30 min, shows 0.02 cm2 ·V-1s-1 of the mobility and 10-5 of the on/off ratio. The highly viscous DEA-precursor containing high concentration of metal ions allows patterning in an area of 100 cm2 onto a surface of a silicon wafer with screen printing.
Infrared water line emission from protoplanetary disks, recently observed by the Spitzer and Herschel space telescopes, is thought to trace the surface layer of the inner to outer regions of the disks. We have modelled the water abundance profile and line emission, especially focusing on the effects of dust size growth and turbulent mixing. Comparison between model calculations and observations suggests a small grain model with turbulent mixing is preferred.
We present the initial results of a spectral line survey of L1157 B1 with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. So far, we have covered the frequencey range of 13.7 GHz (82.0–94.5 GHz and 96.3–97.5 GHz), and have detected 22 species including CH3CHO, HCOOH, HCOOCH3, HNCO, NH2CHO, CH3CN, and CCS. We have also detected the line of CH2DOH. These results demonstrate rich chemistry in this shocked region, which would mainly originate from evaporation of ice mantles by means of shocks.
Hot core chemistry, characterized by the evaporation of icy mantle molecules from dust grains and subsequent gas-phase chemistry, seems ubiquitous in hot, dense clouds. Hot core molecules have been observed, not only in high-mass star-forming regions, but also in protoplanetary disks, shocks in young stellar outflows, and so on. Here, we study grain-surface chemistry and chemistry in hot gas in disks and outflows. Our results suggest that observations of molecular lines by the forthcoming ALMA and other facilities will give us information on, for example, grain-surface chemistry in the outer disk, turbulent mixing in the inner disk, and the physical and chemical conditions at the launching points of outflows.
Only a few benign tumours of the middle ear have been reported to lead to the development of facial palsy. Here, we describe a patient with middle-ear cavernous lymphangioma and facial palsy.
Single case study.
A 61-year-old man presented with left-sided hearing impairment and incomplete left facial palsy. A tumour was confirmed to be occupying the epi- to mesotympanum and to be joined to the facial nerve. The tumour was removed along with facial nerve tissue, which was resected at its horizontal portion, and the remaining facial nerve was fixed by end-to-end anastomosis. Complete facial paralysis occurred after the operation, but the patient's House–Brackmann grade gradually improved to grade III. Post-operative histopathological examination revealed infiltration of the lymphangioma into the facial nerve tissue, together with mild neural atrophy of the facial nerve.
These findings suggested that tumour invasion was the cause of facial palsy in this patient.
We have studied the effect of the gas accretion flow on the distribution
of molecules in hot inner regions of young circumstellar disks.
The gas-phase reactions initiated by evaporation of icy mantle on
dust grains are calculated along the accretion flow, and
the molecular line emission is simulated using the obtained
Our results have shown that some evaporated molecules keep high
abundances and emit strong transition lines only when the accretion
velocity is high enough.
We have modelled a detailed physical structure of protoplanetary disks, taking into account X-ray and UV irradiation from a central star, as well as dust size growth and settling towards the disk midplane. In addition, we have calculated the level populations and line emission of molecular hydrogen in the disks. As a result, we reproduce the observed strong H2 line flux if the disks are influenced by strong UV and X-ray irradiation. Also, the dust evolution changes the physical properties of the disk, and thus the H2 line ratios.
The Josephson map describes the nonlinear dynamics of systems characterized by the standard map with a uniform external bias superposed. The intricate structures of the phase-space portrait of the Josephson map are examined here on the basis of the associated tangent map. A numerical investigation of stochastic diffusion in the Josephson map is compared with the renormalized diffusion coefficient calculated using the characteristic function. The global stochasticity of the Josephson map occurs at far smaller values of the stochastic parameter than is the case of the standard map.
In order to compare the bubble dynamics of various quantum liquids, we performed the visual observation of a sound-induced bubble in a normal liquid 4He, pure superfluid 4He, and superfluid 3He–4He liquid mixtures of saturated and unsaturated 3He concentrations. When an acoustic wave pulse was applied to these liquids under saturated vapour pressure, a macroscopic bubble was generated on the surface of a piezoelectric transducer. For all liquids, the size of the bubble increased, as a higher voltage was applied to the transducer at a fixed temperature. In the normal 4He we observed a primary bubble surrounded with many small bubbles which ascended upward together. In contrast to normal phase, only one bubble was generated in the superfluid 4He, and its shape proved to be highly irregular with an ill-defined surface. In the 3He saturated superfluid mixture, we also observed a solitary bubble but with a nearly perfect spherical shape. The bubble in this mixture expanded on the transducer surface, grew to a maximum size of the order of 1 mm and then started shrinking. As the bubble detached from the transducer with shrinking, we clearly detected an origination of the upward jet flow which penetrated the bubble. The jet velocity in the liquid mixture was approximately 102–103 times smaller than in water. At the final stage of the process we could sometimes observe a vortex ring generation. It is interesting that, though the bubble size and time scale of the phenomenon differ from those in water, the behaviour in the collapsing process had much in common with the simulation study of the vortex ring generation in water. In addition, for the mixture with the unsaturated 3He concentration of about 25% at 600 mK, the shape of the upward jet was observed distinctly, using more precise measurement with shadowgraph method.
Ultrasonic spray-assisted mist deposition techniques have been developed as a cost-effective and environmental friendly deposition method for oxide and organic thin films. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of a variety of oxide thin films having unique functions, such as Cr2O3, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and Al2O3 thin films, has been demonstrated as well as high-quality ZnO and Ga2O3 films ever reported. In addition to the films deposition by the CVD process, the deposition of organic material thin films from the source solution has also been achieved; as examples we have shown the patterned deposition of water-soluble fluorescent polymers with a metal mask. This may substitute the spin-coating technique and contribute to increase the source consumption efficiency in the thin film deposition. We appeal that the mist deposition is a unique and promising technique as a green chemical route for film deposition.
To identify risk factors for infection and severe illness due to Chlamydia pneumoniae.
To identify risk factors for infection, we conducted a case-control study among nursing home residents who had onset of symptoms during December 1, 1999, to February 20, 2000. To identify risk factors for severe illness among nursing home residents, we conducted a retrospective cohort study.
A nursing home providing long-term and day care services for elderly patients in Japan.
Fifty-nine residents and 41 staff members of a nursing home.
The attack rates for respiratory illness were 53% (31 of 59) among residents and 22% (9 of 41) among staff. Infection was confirmed in 15 resident and 2 staff case patients by isolation of C. pneumoniae from nasal swab specimens. Fifteen resident case patients developed severe illness (ie, bronchitis, pneumonia, and hypoxia); one case patient died. The median age of resident case patients was 87 years. We could identify neither the source of the outbreak nor significant risk factors for infection and severe illness in residents. However, residents with a higher level of physical activity were more likely to become infected, whereas older residents (aged more than 85 years) and those with a lower level of physical activity were more likely to develop severe illness (P>.05). Contact with residents was a risk factor for infection in staff (relative risk, undefined; P = .04).
C. pneumoniae can cause large outbreaks of infection and severe illness among elderly persons, and its transmission is likely to be enhanced by close contacts among people in nursing homes. Therefore, early detection of an outbreak by means of better surveillance, and subsequent isolation of patients, may be effective control measures.
We have made a detailed model of the physical structure of protoplanetary disks, taking into account X-ray and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation from a central star, as well as dust size growth and settling towards the disk midplane. Also, we calculate the level populations and line emission of molecular hydrogen from the disks, which shows that the dust evolution changes the physical properties of the disk, and then the line ratios of the molecular hydrogen emission.
We construct a model of the physical structure of photoevaporating protoplanetary disks, and numerically calculate the coagulation and settling/evaporating process of dust particles in the disks. Our result show that (sub)micron-sized-dust-particles could evaporate with the gas, which leads to dispersal of infrared excess radiation from the disks.
Li-doped NiO epitaxial films with high electrical conductivity and atomically flat stepped surfaces were fabricated by a combined technique of pulsed laser deposition and subsequent annealing. It was determined that subsequently annealing at temperatures as low as 600 °C significantly decreased electrical conductivity due to Li evaporation when the film surface was not protected from Li evaporation. To suppress Li evaporation, a yttria-stabilized-zironia plate was used to cover the film surface, which raised the annealing temperature up to 1300 °C while maintaining a high Li concentration and electrical conductivity. Thermally annealing at this temperature also improved crystal quality and formed epitaxial films with atomically flat stepped surfaces. The films were single crystalline at least in observation areas, 10 μm × 10 μm. A reasonably large Hall mobility approximately 0.05 cm2/Vs similar to that reported for bulk single-crystal NiO and a visible-light transmission in excess of 75% were obtained on 120-nm-thick films. Although annealing at higher temperatures such as 1400 °C can further improve the structural and optical properties, the Li concentration in the films was decreased to <3% of the as-deposited film.
Carrier transport properties and electronic structure of an n-type transparent oxide semiconductor, InGaO3(ZnO)5, were investigated using single-crystalline thin films. Room-temperature Hall mobility strongly depends on carrier concentration, and rapidly increased from ∼ 2 cm2(Vs)-1 to > 10 cm2(Vs)-1 around the carrier concentration (Nth ∼3 × 1018 cm−3. This change is associatedwith insulator-metal transition. These results are explained by a model similar to Anderson localization, in which shallow semi-localized states are formed originating from random distribution of Ga3+ and Zn2+ ions in the intrinsic crystal structure of InGaO3(ZnO)5. The present conclusion suggests that electron densities larger than Nth are necessary to attain high performances in drift carrier devices fabricated using InGaO3(ZnO)5. It was demonstrated that transparent filed-effect transistors exhibited good performances such as a “normally-offcharacteristics”, an on/off current ratios as large as 105 and a field-effect mobility ∼80 cm2(Vs)-1when high-k material, amorphous HfOx, was used as a gate insulator.
We have developed a novel growth method for single-crystalline film of natural superlattice oxides and named the method “Reactive Solid-Phase Epitaxy (R-SPE).” Single-crystalline thin films of homologous series In-GaO3(ZnO)m (m=integer) are fabricated by the R-SPE method and its growth mechanism, especially a role of ZnO epitaxial layer, is clarified. High-temperature annealing of bi-layer films consisting of an amorphous InGaO3(ZnO)5 layer deposited at room temperature and an epitaxial ZnO layer on YSZ substrate allows for the growth of single-crystalline film with a controlled chemical composition. The ZnO layer plays an essential role in determining the crystallographic orientation, while the thickness ratio between the two layers controls the film composition.
Transparent metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) were fabricated using a single-crystalline thin film of an n-type transparent oxide semiconductor, a homologous compound InGaO3(ZnO)5, grown by a reactive solid phase epitaxy method. The transparent MISFET exhibited good performances with “normally-off characteristics”, “an on/off current ratio as large as 105” and “insensitivity to visible light”. Field-effect mobility was about 2 cm2(Vs)-1, which is larger than those reported previously for MISFETs fabricated in transparent oxide semiconductors. These improved performance is thought to result from the low defect density and intrinsic-level carrier concentration of the single-crystalline InGaO3(ZnO)5 film.