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To examine the association between sleep duration in different stages of life and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI).
Design, setting, and participants:
A total of 2472 healthy elderly and 505 patients with aMCI in China were included in this study. The study analyzed the association between aMCI and sleep duration in different stages of life.
We compared sleep duration in different stages of life and analyzed the association between Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores and sleep duration by curve estimation. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between aMCI and sleep duration.
In the analysis, there were no results proving that sleep duration in youth (P = 0.719, sleep duration < 10 hours; P = 0.999, sleep duration ≥ 10 hours) or midlife (P = 0.898, sleep duration < 9 hours; P = 0.504, sleep duration ≥ 9 hours) had a significant association with aMCI. In the group sleeping less than 7 hours in late life, each hour more of sleep duration was associated with approximately 0.80 of the original risk of aMCI (P = 0.011, odds ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval = 0.68–0.95).
Among the elderly sleeping less than 7 hours, there is a decreased risk of aMCI for every additional hour of sleep.
Efficient photosynthesis requires a balance of ATP and NADPH production/consumption in chloroplasts, and the exportation of reducing equivalents from chloroplasts is important for balancing stromal ATP/NADPH ratio. Here, we showed that the overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 on the outer membranes of chloroplasts and mitochondria can streamline the production and consumption of reducing equivalents in these two organelles, respectively. A higher capacity of consumption of reducing equivalents in mitochondria can indirectly help chloroplasts to balance the ATP/NADPH ratio in stroma and recycle NADP+, the electron acceptors of the linear electron flow (LEF). A higher rate of ATP and NADPH production from the LEF, a higher capacity of carbon fixation by the Calvin–Benson–Bassham (CBB) cycle and a greater consumption of NADH in mitochondria enhance photosynthesis in the chloroplasts, ATP production in the mitochondria and sucrose synthesis in the cytosol and eventually boost plant growth and seed yields in the overexpression lines.
OBJECTIVE: Since December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has been discovered in Wuhan and spread rapidly across China and worldwide. Characteristics of infected patients are needed to get insight into the full spectrum of the disease.
METHODS: Epidemiological and clinical information of 1738 diagnosed patients during February 7-26, 2020 in Wuhan Dongxihu Fangcang Hospital were analyzed. 709 patients were followed up on symptom, mental health, isolation site, and medication after discharge.
RESULTS: There were 852 males and 886 females in the cohort. The average age of the patients was 48.8 years. 79.98% of the patients were from Wuhan, Hubei province. The most common initial symptoms were fever, cough and shortness of breath. Among all the patients, 1463 had complications, with respiratory distress as the most common complication. The average duration of hospitalization was 15.95±14.69 days. The most common post-discharge symptom is cough. After discharge, most patients were full of energy, and chose hotel as their self-isolation site. COVID-19 Chinese medicine No.2 prescription is the medication used most commonly by the patients after discharge.
CONCLUSIONS: The population is generally susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. After receiving aggressive treatment of combined Chinese and Western medicine, most patients had a good prognosis and mental health after discharge.
The relationship between exposure to famine in early life and the risk of ascending aorta dilatation (AAD) in adulthood is still unclear; therefore, we aimed to examine the association in the Chinese population. We investigated the data of 2598 adults who were born between 1952 and 1964 in Guangdong, China. All enrolled subjects were categorised into five groups: not exposed to famine, exposed during fetal period, and exposed during early, mid or late childhood. AAD was assessed by cardiac ultrasound. Multivariate logistic regression and interaction tests were performed to estimate the OR and CI on the association between famine exposure and AAD. There were 2598 (943 male, mean age 58·3 ± 3·68 years) participants were enrolled, and 270 (10·4 %) subjects with AAD. We found that famine exposure (OR = 2·266, 95 % CI 1·477, 3·477, P = 0·013) was associated with elevated AAD after adjusting for multiple confounders. In addition, compared with the non-exposed group, the adjusted OR for famine exposure during fetal period, early, mid or late childhood were 1·374 (95 % CI 0·794, 2·364, P = 0·251), 1·976 (95 % CI 1·243, 3·181, P = 0·004), 1·929 (95 % CI 1·237, 3·058, P = 0·004) and 2·227 (95 % CI 1·433, 3·524, P < 0·001), respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that the effect of famine exposure on the association with AAD was more pronounced in female, current smokers, people with BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 and hypertensive patients. We observed that exposure to famine during early life was linked to AAD in adulthood.
Salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone, has been considered to be a key regulator mediating plant defence against pathogens. It is still vague how SA activates plant defence against herbivores such as chewing and sucking pests. Here, we used an aphid-susceptible wheat variety to investigate Sitobion avenae response to SA-induced wheat plants, and the effects of exogenous SA on some defence enzymes and phenolics in the plant immune system. In SA-treated wheat seedlings, intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm), fecundity and apterous rate of S. avenae were 0.25, 31.4 nymphs/female and 64.4%, respectively, and significantly lower than that in the controls (P < 0.05). Moreover, the increased activities of phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase in the SA-induced seedlings obviously depended on the sampling time, whereas activities of catalase and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase were suppressed significantly at 24, 48 and 72 h in comparison with the control. Dynamic levels of p-coumaric acid at 96 h, caffeic acid at 24 and 72 h and chlorogenic acid at 24, 48 and 96 h in wheat plants were significantly upregulated by exogenous SA application. Nevertheless, only caffeic acid content was positively correlated with PPO activity in SA-treated wheat seedlings (P = 0.031). These findings indicate that exogenous SA significantly enhanced the defence of aphid-susceptible wheat variety against aphids by regulating the plant immune system, and may prove a potential application of SA in aphid control.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension symptoms in systemic lupus erythematosus patients are non-specific and early diagnosis and intervention are challenging. It remains essential to explore risk factors for pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic lupus erythematosus patients to identify high risk patients and allow intensive monitoring.
From January 2010 to December 2018, 84 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and pulmonary arterial hypertension and 160 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus but without pulmonary arterial hypertension were enrolled. Clinical manifestations and laboratory test results were compared between the two groups to identify predictors of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Candidate pulmonary arterial hypertension risk factors were further compared among systemic lupus erythematosus-pulmonary arterial hypertension patients with different characteristics.
Among collected patient characteristics, Raynaud’s phenomenon (OR 2.32, 95% CI: 1.17–4.61), digital vasculitis (OR 4.12, 95% CI: 1.48–11.49), pericardial effusion, pulmonary interstitial lesions, positive anti-u1 ribonucleoprotein antibodies, and positive anticardiolipin antibodies immunoglobulin G were associated with significantly higher risk of pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Among these candidate risk factors, positive anti-u1 ribonucleoprotein antibody was independently associated with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension and more active disease. Digital vasculitis was independently associated with systemic lupus erythematosus alleviation, while pericardial effusion was associated with systemic lupus erythematosus deterioration. Pericardial effusion was associated with longer pulmonary arterial hypertension duration.
The significant association between studied clinical and laboratory indicators and risk of pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary arterial hypertension and systemic lupus erythematosus characteristics suggested that these factors can be used to identify patients at higher risk of pulmonary arterial hypertension and adverse outcomes. Close monitoring may be indicated in patients with these risk factors, especially with more than one risk factor.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Novel adipokines like tetranectin help explain why some people progress from obesity to diseases like diabetes, atherosclerosis, and dislipidemia OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Obesity has an established association with diabetes, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. Preventing progression from obesity to insulin resistance requires understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the loss of insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue is well known to function as an endocrine organ that produces many kinds of adipokines. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Blood sample analysis from human patients and mice was used to determine associations between tetranectin and obesity. Samples were tested with a monoclonal anti-tetranectin antibody for detection with western blot. A tetranectin mutant knock out mouse line was compared to wild type littermates on high fat diet for 4 months. Insulin tolerance tests and glucose tolerance were used to determine progression to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Histological analysis of metabolic tissue was used to demonstrate adipocyte hypertrophy and liver steatosis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In the current study, we report the identification and initial characterization of a novel adipokine tetranectin. Tetranectin, which is coded by the C-type lectin domain family 3 member B (CLEC3B) gene, is ubiquitously expressed in various mouse tissues, whereas it is highly enriched in white adipose tissue. We found that the serum level of tetranectin was much higher in both obese and diabetic patients. Knocking out the tetranectin gene in mice protected against glucose intolerance in males but reduced insulin and glucose tolerance in females, without effects on food intake and body weight for either sex. Mechanistically, tetranectin targets liver tissues and its deficiency increases lipid accumulation in hepatocytes in females. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: We have identified a novel adipokine which mediates a different metabolic crosstalk among tissues to maintain systemic glucose and lipid metabolism in different genders. Further investigation of tetranectin’s function could yield a new target for precise therapeutic treatment for obesity and its associated metabolic diseases in different genders
The current study evaluated the associations between different forms and sources of Fe and breast cancer risk in Southern Chinese women.
Case–control study. We collected data on the consumption of Fe from different forms and food sources by using a validated FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression and restricted cubic spline (RCS) analysis was used to reveal potential associations between Fe intake and breast cancer risk.
A case-control study of women at three major hospitals in Guangzhou, China.
From June 2007 to March 2019, 1591 breast cancer cases and 1622 age-matched controls were recruited.
In quartile analyses, Fe from plants and Fe from white meat intake were inversely associated with breast cancer risk, with OR of 0·65 (95 % CI 0·47, 0·89, Ptrend = 0·006) and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·61, 0·96, Ptrend = 0·014), respectively, comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. No associations were observed between total dietary Fe, heme or non-heme Fe, Fe from meat or red meat and breast cancer risk. RCS analysis demonstrated J-shaped associations between total dietary Fe, non-heme Fe and breast cancer, and reverse L-shaped associations between heme Fe, Fe from meat and Fe from red meat and breast cancer.
Fe from plants and white meat were inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Significant non-linear J-shaped associations were found between total dietary Fe, non-heme Fe and breast cancer risk, and reverse L-shaped associations were found between heme Fe, Fe from meat or red meat and breast cancer risk.
In this article, the electron trapping and acceleration in the wake field driven by an ultrarelativistic hollow electron beam is studied. When the hollow driver injects into plasma, there is a doughnut-shaped electron bubble formed because of the existence of a special ‘backflow’ beam in the centre of the electron bubble. At the same time, there is a transverse convergence of the hollow driver, which leads to the weakening of the backflow beam. This results in a local electron density transition at the rear of the bubble. During this process, there is an expansion of the longitudinal electron bubble size, and a bunch of background electrons is trapped by the wake field at the rear of the bubble. The tracks for the trapped electrons show that there are two sources: one is from the bubble sheath and the other is from the unique backflow beam. In the particle-in-cell simulation where the driving beam has initial energy of $1.0$ GeV per particle, the trapped beam can be accelerated to energy of more than $1.5$ GeV per particle and the corresponding transformer ratio is $1.5$. With the increase of driving beam energy up to $40.0$ GeV, a transformer ratio of $1.4$ still can be achieved. By adjusting the hollow beam density, it is possible to control the trapped beam charge value and beam quality, such as its energy spread and transverse emittance.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between daily Se intake and postpartum weight retention (PPWR) among Chinese lactating women, and the impact of their Se nutritional status on infants’ physical development. Se contents in breast milk and plasma collected from 264 lactating Chinese women at the 42nd day postpartum were analysed with inductively coupled plasma MS. Daily Se intake was calculated based on plasma Se concentration. The dietary data of 24-h records on three consecutive days were collected. Infant growth status was evaluated with WHO standards by Z-scores. Linear regression analyses and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to examine the impact of Se disequilibrium (including other factors) on PPWR and growth of infants, respectively. The results indicated that: (1) the daily Se intake of the subjects was negatively associated with their PPWR (B = −0·002, 95 % CI − 0·003, 0·000, P = 0·039); (2) both insufficient Se daily intake (B = −0·001, OR 0·999, 95 % CI 0·998, 1·000, P = 0·014) and low level of Se in milk (B = −0·025, OR 0·975, 95 % CI 0·951, 0·999, P = 0·021) had potential associations with their infants’ wasting, and low level of Se in milk (B = −0·159, OR 0·853, 95 % CI 0·743, 0·980, P = 0·024) had a significant association with their infants’ overweight. In conclusion, the insufficient Se nutritional status of lactating Chinese women was first found as one possible influencing factor of their PPWR as well as low physical development of their offspring.
In this paper, we report the study of degradation for a kind of ideal mandrel material called poly-α-methylstyrene based on theoretical and experimental methods. First-principles calculations reveal two types of process: depolymerization and hydrogen-transfer-induced chain scission. The energy barrier for the former (0.68–0.82 eV) is smaller than that for most of the latter (1.39–4.23 eV). More importantly, reaction rates suggest that the former is fast whereas the latter is mostly slow, which can result in a difference of 5–31 orders of magnitude at 550 K. Furthermore, a thermogravimetric experiment shows that the activation energy of 2.53 eV for degradation is between those of fast and slow processes, corresponding to the theoretical average value of multiple reaction paths. Thus, a mandrel degradation model combining fast and slow processes is established at the atomic level. Our work provides a direction for research into the key technology of target fabrication in inertial confinement fusion.
This study aimed to explore the impacts of COVID-19 outbreak on mental health status in general population in different affected areas in China.
This was a comparative study including two groups of participants: (1) general population in an online survey in Ya'an and Jingzhou cities during the COVID-19 outbreak from 10–20 February 2020; and (2) matching general population selected from the mental health survey in Ya'an in 2019 (from January to May 2019). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used.
There were 1775 participants (Ya'an in 2019 and 2020: 537 respectively; Jingzhou in 2020: 701). Participants in Ya'an had a significantly higher rate of general health problems (GHQ scores ⩾3) in 2020 (14.7%) than in 2019 (5.2%) (p < 0.001). Compared with Ya'an (8.0%), participants in Jingzhou in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of anxiety (SAS scores ⩾50, 24.1%) (p < 0.001). Participants in Ya'an in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of depression (SDS scores ⩾53, 55.3%) than in Jingzhou (16.3%) (p < 0.001). The risk factors of anxiety symptoms included female, number of family members (⩾6 persons), and frequent outdoor activities. The risk factors of depression symptoms included participants in Ya'an and uptake self-protective measures.
The prevalence of psychological symptoms has increased sharply in general population during the COVID-19 outbreak. People in COVID-19 severely affected areas may have higher scores of GHQ and anxiety symptoms. Culture-specific and individual-based psychosocial interventions should be developed for those in need during the COVID-19 outbreak.
The neuropeptide oxytocin is proposed as a promising therapy for social dysfunction by modulating amygdala-mediated social-emotional behavior. Although clinical trials report some benefits of chronic treatment, it is unclear whether efficacy may be influenced by dose frequency or genotype.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmaco-functional magnetic resonance imaging trial (150 male subjects), we investigated acute and different chronic (every day or on alternate days for 5 days) intranasal oxytocin (24 international units) effects and oxytocin receptor genotype-mediated treatment sensitivity on amygdala responses to face emotions. We also investigated similar effects on resting-state functional connectivity between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex.
A single dose of oxytocin-reduced amygdala responses to all face emotions but for threatening (fear and anger) and happy faces, this effect was abolished after daily doses for 5 days but maintained by doses given every other day. The latter dose regime also enhanced associated anxious-arousal attenuation for fear faces. Oxytocin effects on reducing amygdala responses to face emotions only occurred in AA homozygotes of rs53576 and A carriers of rs2254298. The effects of oxytocin on resting-state functional connectivity were not influenced by either dose-frequency or receptor genotype.
Infrequent chronic oxytocin administration may be therapeutically most efficient and its anxiolytic neural and behavioral actions are highly genotype-dependent in males.
The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with a nano chitosan–zinc complex (CP–Zn, 100 mg/kg Zn) could alleviate weaning stress in piglets challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 by improving growth performance and intestinal antioxidant capacity. The in vivo effects of CP–Zn on growth performance variables (including gastrointestinal digestion and absorption functions and the levels of key proteins related to muscle growth) and the antioxidant capacity of the small intestine (SI) were evaluated in seventy-two weaned piglets. The porcine jejunal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 was used to further investigate the antioxidant mechanism of CP–Zn in vitro. The results showed that CP–Zn supplementation increased the jejunal villus height and decreased the diarrhoea rate in weaned piglets. CP–Zn supplementation also improved growth performance (average daily gain and average daily feed intake), increased the activity of carbohydrate digestion-related enzymes (amylase, maltase, sucrase and lactase) and the mRNA expression levels of nutrient transporters (Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1, glucose transporter type 2, peptide transporter 1 and excitatory amino acid carrier 1) in the jejunum and up-regulated the expression levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway-related proteins (insulin receptor substrate 1, phospho-mTOR and phospho-p70S6K) in muscle. In addition, CP–Zn supplementation increased glutathione content, enhanced total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) activity, and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the jejunum. Furthermore, CP–Zn decreased the content of MDA and reactive oxygen species, enhanced the activity of T-SOD and GSH-px and up-regulated the expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway-related proteins (Nrf2, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 and haeme oxygenase 1) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IPEC-J2 cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that CP–Zn supplementation can improve growth performance and the antioxidant capacity of the SI in piglets, thus alleviating weaning stress.
In this paper, the generation of relativistic electron mirrors (REMs) and the reflection of an ultra-short laser off this mirrors are discussed, applying two-dimensional particle-in-cell (2D-PIC) simulations. REMs with ultra-high acceleration and expanding velocity can be produced from a solid nanofoil illuminated normally by an ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulse with a sharp rising edge. Chirped attosecond pulse can be produced through the reflection of a counter-propagating probe laser off the accelerating REM. In the electron moving frame, the plasma frequency of the REM keeps decreasing due to its rapidly expanding. The laser frequency, on the contrary, keeps increasing due to the acceleration of REM and the relativistic Doppler shift from the lab frame to the electron moving frame. Within an ultra-short time interval, the two frequencies will be equal in the electron moving frame, which leads the resonance between laser and REM. The reflected radiation near this interval and the corresponding spectra will be amplified due to the resonance. Through adjusting the arriving time of the probe laser, certain part of the reflected field could be selectively amplified or depressed, leading to the selectively adjusting of the corresponding spectra.
Achieving sub-picometer precision measurements of atomic column positions in high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope images using nonrigid registration (NRR) and averaging of image series requires careful optimization of experimental conditions and the parameters of the registration algorithm. On experimental data from SrTiO3 , sub-pm precision requires alignment of the sample to the zone axis to within 1 mrad tilt and sample drift of less than 1 nm/min. At fixed total electron dose for the series, precision in the fast scan direction improves with shorter pixel dwell time to the limit of our microscope hardware, but the best precision along the slow scan direction occurs at 6 μs/px dwell time. Within the NRR algorithm, the “smoothness factor” that penalizes large estimated shifts is the most important parameter for sub-pm precision, but in general, the precision of NRR images is robust over a wide range of parameters.
The disease burden of infectious diarrhea cannot be underestimated. Its seasonal patterns indicate that weather patterns may play an important role and have an important effect on it. The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between temperature and infectious diarrhea, and diarrhea-like illness.
Distributed lag non-linear model, which was based on the definition of a cross-basis, was used to examine the effect.
Viral diarrhea usually had high incidence in autumn-winter and spring with a peak at -6°C; Norovirus circulated throughout the year with an insignificant peak at 8°C, while related bacteria usually tested positive in summer and peaked at 22°C. The lag-response curve of the proportion of diarrhea-like cases in outpatient and emergency cases revealed that at -6°C, with the lag days increasing, the proportion increased. Similar phenomena were observed at the beginning of the curves of virus and bacterial positive rate, showing that the risk increased as the lag days increased, peaking on days 16 and 9, respectively. The shape of lag-response curve of norovirus positive rate was different from others, presenting m-type, with 2 peaks on day 3 and day 18.
Weather patterns should be taken into account when developing surveillance programs and formulating relevant public health intervention strategies.
Continuous hBN films have been grown by means of a radio-frequency-sputtering technology, and their material properties have been investigated. The prepared hBN films can achieve good smoothness in a large area. The surface morphologies and compositions of the hBN films on Si substrate and Al film have been characterized, indicating that there is no difference. The 101-phase peak of hBN film is the strongest, and the optical band gap of the fabricated film is 5.84 eV. An attempt on the fabrication of the hBN based resistive switching (RS) device has been made by using an Ag/hBN/Al structure, leading to the observation of a clear and stable RS behavior. The device exhibits a resistance window (high-resistivity state/low-resistivity state) of around 102, and the RS behaviors of hBN film prepared by sputtering were first observed. It has been found that the opening voltage for the device is changed when a different cycle voltage is applied because of the built-in electric field increasing with the increase of applied cycle voltage. The mechanism of the RS behavior has been analyzed, which lay a foundation for the application of hBN as RS material in resistive random access memory to improve the storage density.
Sugarcane brown rust, caused by Puccinia melanocephala, is one of the main diseases of sugarcane in China. The identification and discovery of new resistance genes have important theoretical and practical significance for preventing outbreaks of brown rust and ensuring the sustainable production of sugarcane. To screen for polymorphic simple-sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers for localization of brown rust resistance genes, we used two populations that are suitable for genetic linkage map construction and mapping of new resistance genes to construct resistant and susceptible genetic pools. We then screened 449 pairs of primers to identify polymorphic SSR markers in the parental lines and the resistant/susceptible genetic pools. The results showed that 25 pairs of primers directed amplification of polymorphic DNA fragments between the parents of the cross combination ‘Yuetang 03-393’ × ‘ROC 24’, and 16 pairs of primers amplified polymorphic fragments between the parents of the cross combination ‘Liucheng 03-1137’ × ‘Dezhe 93-88’. Four pairs of primers (SMC236CG, SCESSR0928, SCESSR0636 and SCESSR2551) amplified polymorphic DNA fragments between the parental lines and the resistant/susceptible genetic pools in ‘Yuetang 03-393’ × ‘ROC 24’. The results of this study will establish a solid foundation for the mapping of new brown rust resistance genes, genetic linkage map construction and the development of closely-associated molecular markers in sugarcane.
Reward dysfunction is a major dimension of depressive symptomatology, but it remains obscure if that dysfunction varies across different reward types. In this study, we focus on the abnormalities in anticipatory/consummatory processing of monetary and social reward associated with depressive symptoms.
Forty participants with depressive symptoms and forty normal controls completed the monetary incentive delay (MID) and social incentive delay (SID) tasks with event-related potential (ERP) recording.
In the SID but not the MID task, both the behavioral hit rate and the ERP component contingent negative variation (CNV; indicating reward anticipation) were sensitive to the interaction between the grouping factor and reward magnitude; that is, the depressive group showed a lower hit rate and a smaller CNV to large-magnitude (but not small-magnitude) social reward cues compared to the control group. Further, these two indexes were correlated with each other. Meanwhile, the ERP components feedback-related negativity and P3 (indicating reward consumption) were sensitive to the main effect of depression across the MID and SID tasks, though this effect was more prominent in the SID task.
Overall, we suggest that depressive symptoms are associated with deficits in both the reward anticipation and reward consumption stages, particularly for social rewards. These findings have a potential to characterize the profile of functional impairment that comprises and maintains depression.