To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Seasonal climate variability is an important component of Earth's climate system, and has a significant impact on ecosystems and social systems. However, the temporal resolution of most proxy-based paleoclimate records is limiting to fully understand the past seasonal changes. Here, we used high-precision monthly resolution Sr/Ca records of three Tridacna squamosa specimens from the northern South China Sea (SCS) to reconstruct the sea surface temperature (SST) seasonality during three time periods from the middle Holocene. The results suggested that SST seasonality in the northern SCS during the middle Holocene (3.21 ± 0.98°C) was smaller than that for recent decades (AD 1994–2004, 4.32 ± 0.59°C). Analysis of modern instrumental data showed that the SST seasonality in the northern SCS was dominated by the winter SST, which was deeply influenced by the intensity of East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). A strong EAWM usually resulted in cooler winter SST and a larger SST seasonality in the northern SCS. The reconstructed Holocene EAWM records showed that the EAWM strengthened from the middle to late Holocene, which was seen in our reconstruction of less SST seasonality changes during the middle Holocene in the northern SCS. This study highlighted that the Sr/Ca ratios from Tridacna shells can be used as a potential high-resolution indicator of past seasonal climate changes.
We aim to examine the relation of several folate forms (5-methyltetrahydrofolate [5-mTHF], unmetabolized folic acid [UMFA], and MeFox) with kidney function and albuminuria, which remained uncertain. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 18,757 participants from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2018. The kidney outcomes were reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2), microalbuminuria (albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 30-299 mg/g), and macroalbuminuria (albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 300 mg/g).Overall, there were significant inverse associations between serum 5-mTHF and kidney outcomes with significant lower prevalence of reduced eGFR (OR, 0.71; 95%CI: 0.57-0.87) and macroalbuminuria (OR, 0.65; 95%CI: 0.46-0.91) in participants in quartile 3-4 (vs. quartile 1-2; ≥34.0 vs. <34.0nmol/L; both P for trend across quartiles <0.05). In contrast, there were significant positive relationship between serum UMFA and kidney outcomes with significant higher prevalence of reduced eGFR in participants in quartile 2-4 (vs. quartile 1; ≥0.5 vs. <0.5nmol/L; OR, 2.12; 95%CI: 1.45-3.12; P for trend <0.001) and higher prevalence of macroalbuminuria in participants in quartile 4 (vs. quartile 1-3; ≥ 1.0 vs. <1.0 nmol/L; OR, 1.46; 95%CI: 1.06-2.01; P for trend <0.001). However, there was no significant associations of 5-mTHF and UMFA with microalbuminuria. In addition, there were significant positive relationships of serum MeFox with reduced eGFR, microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria (all P for trend <0.01). In conclusion, higher 5-mTHF level, along with lower UMFA and MeFox level, were associated with lower prevalence of kidney outcomes, which may help counsel future clinical trials and nutritional guidelines regarding the folate supplement.
A 3-RRPRR variable spherical symmetrical parallel mechanism (PM) with arc-shaped sliding pairs and no parasitic motion is presented, exhibiting two rotational and one translational (2R1T) degrees of freedom. Three limbs are symmetrically distributed between the base and end-effector; upper and lower parts of each limb are mirror symmetrical around the middle. The geometry, mobility, forward/inverse kinematics, workspace, and parasitic motion of the mechanism are analyzed, showing its ability to achieve large rotations around a continuous rotation axis. Finally, a structure synthesis strategy for variable spherical symmetrical PM is proposed, and several limb types meeting the conditions are obtained.
Chest tube drainage placement, a standard procedure in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, was reported to cause perioperative complications like pain and increased risk of infection. The present study was designed to evaluate the necessity of chest tube drainage inpaediatric thoracoscopic surgery.
Thirty children admitted to our hospital from April 2018 to April 2020 were included in the current study and were grouped as the tube group (children receiving video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery with chest tube drainage) and the non-tube group (children receiving video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery without chest tube drainage). Laboratory hemogram index, length of hospitalisation, post-operative performance of involved children, and psychological acceptance of indicated therapy by guardians of the involved children were investigated.
Laboratory examination revealed that the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in the non-tube group was significantly higher than that in the tube group on post-operative day 1 (p < 0.05). Children in the non-tube group had a shorter length of hospitalisation (7–9 days) than that of patients from the tube group. Additionally, the frequency of crying of children was decreased and psychological acceptance by patients’ guardians was improved in the non-tube group when compared with the tube group.
This study showed that chest tube drainage placement may not be necessary in several cases of paediatric video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Rapid recovery with decreased perioperative complications in children operated by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery without tube placement could also reduce the burden of the family and society both economically and psychologically.
A deep ice core was drilled at Dome A, Antarctic Plateau, East Antarctica, which started with the installation of a casing in January 2012 and reached 800.8 m in January 2017. To date, a total of 337 successful ice-core drilling runs have been conducted, including 118 runs to drill the pilot hole. The total drilling time was 52 days, of which eight days were required for drilling down and reaming the pilot hole, and 44 days for deep ice coring. The average penetration depths of individual runs were 1 and 3.1 m for the pilot hole drilling and deep ice coring, respectively. The quality of the ice cores was imperfect in the brittle zone (650−800 m). Some of the troubles encountered are discussed for reference, such as armoured cable knotting, screws falling into the hole bottom, and damaged parts, among others.
Diverse and abundant fossil taxa have been described in the lower Cambrian Shipai Formation in the Three Gorges area of Hubei Province, South China, but the taxonomy and diversity of the co-occurring brachiopod fauna are still far from clear. Here we describe the brachiopod fauna recovered from the Shipai Formation in the Three Gorges area of South China, including representatives of the subphylum Linguliformea: linguloids (Lingulellotreta ergalievi, Eoobolus malongensis, and Neobolidae gen. indet. sp. indet.), and an acrotretoid (Linnarssonia sapushanensis); and representatives from the subphylum Rhynchonelliformea: the calcareous-shelled Kutorginates (Kutorgina sinensis, Kutorgina sp., and Nisusia liantuoensis). This brachiopod assemblage and the first occurrence of Linnarssonia sapushanensis shell beds permit correlation of the Shipai Formation in the Three Gorges area of Hubei Province with the Stage 4 Wulongqing Formation in the Wuding area of eastern Yunnan. This correlation is further strengthened by the first appearance datum (FAD) of the rhynchonelliform brachiopod Nisusia in the upper silty mudstone of both the Shipai and Wulongqing formations. The new well-preserved material, derived from siliciclastic rocks, also gives critical new insights into the fine shell structure of L. sapushanensis. Microstructural studies on micromorphic acrotretoids (like Linnarssonia) have previously been restricted to fossils that were acid-etched from limestones. This is the first study to carry out detailed comparative ultrastructural studies on acrotretoid shells preserved in siliciclastic rocks. This work reveals a hollow tube and solid column microstructure in the acrotretoid shells from the Shipai Formation, which is likely to be equivalent of traditional column and central canal observed in shells dissolved from limestones.
Epidemiological studies have focused on the effects of iodine intake on the risk of thyroid cancer. However, their relationship is still obscure. The objective of the present study was to examine the association in the Chinese population. A new ecological study which combined the Data of Annual Report of Cancer, the Survey of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) surveillance and the Water Iodine Survey was conducted to analyse the relationship between iodine intake and the thyroid cancer incidence in China. In total, 281 counties were included. Thyroid cancer incidence was negatively correlated with the consumption rate of qualified iodised salt (CRQIS) and positively correlated with goiter prevalence (GP) of children aged 8–10 years, residents’ annual income and coastal status. Areas with a low CRQIS and areas with a high GP had a relatively high incidence of thyroid cancer. Regression models showed that a low CRQIS and a high GP in children aged 8–10 years (both reflecting iodine deficiency status) play a substantial role in thyroid cancer incidence in both males and females. Additionally, living in coastal areas and having a high annual income may also increase the risk of thyroid cancer. These findings suggest that mild iodine deficiency may contribute to the exceptionally high incidence of thyroid cancer in some areas in China. Maintaining appropriate iodine nutrition not only helps to eliminate IDD but also may help to reduce the occurrence of thyroid cancer.
In this article, the electron trapping and acceleration in the wake field driven by an ultrarelativistic hollow electron beam is studied. When the hollow driver injects into plasma, there is a doughnut-shaped electron bubble formed because of the existence of a special ‘backflow’ beam in the centre of the electron bubble. At the same time, there is a transverse convergence of the hollow driver, which leads to the weakening of the backflow beam. This results in a local electron density transition at the rear of the bubble. During this process, there is an expansion of the longitudinal electron bubble size, and a bunch of background electrons is trapped by the wake field at the rear of the bubble. The tracks for the trapped electrons show that there are two sources: one is from the bubble sheath and the other is from the unique backflow beam. In the particle-in-cell simulation where the driving beam has initial energy of $1.0$ GeV per particle, the trapped beam can be accelerated to energy of more than $1.5$ GeV per particle and the corresponding transformer ratio is $1.5$. With the increase of driving beam energy up to $40.0$ GeV, a transformer ratio of $1.4$ still can be achieved. By adjusting the hollow beam density, it is possible to control the trapped beam charge value and beam quality, such as its energy spread and transverse emittance.
We theoretically and experimentally investigate the mechanism underlying the generation of upstream-propagating waves induced by a steady current over a horizontal bottom with a patch of sinusoidal ripples. By considering the triad resonant wave–ripple interactions involving two unsteady wave components (which have the same frequency but different wavenumbers) and one bottom ripple component in the presence of a steady uniform current, we derive the general condition under which unsteady upstream- and/or downstream-propagating waves can be induced. The frequency and wavenumbers of the induced propagating waves are given by the triad resonance condition in terms of current speed, water depth and bottom ripple wavenumber. By means of a multiple-scale perturbation analysis, we obtain the nonlinear amplitude evolution equations governing the spatio-temporal evolution of resonance-generated waves. Based on these equations, we find that the amplitude of the generated upstream-propagating waves is dramatically amplified when the associated triad resonance occurs in the neighbourhood of the critical current speed/frequency (corresponding to zero group velocity of unsteady waves in the presence of a current). A series of laboratory experiments in a long wave flume with wide ranges of current speeds and water depths are conducted to verify the theory. The experiments confirm the observation of the phenomenon of upstream-propagating wave generation in a steady flow over a rippled bottom. In particular, the experimental measurements of the kinematics of upstream-propagating waves as well as the critical flow condition for the observation of such wave generation compare well with the theoretical prediction.
Since December 2019, a new coronavirus viral was initially detected in Wuhan, China. Population migration increases the risk of epidemic transmission. Here, the objective of study is to estimate the output risk quantitatively and evaluate the effectiveness of travel restrictions of Wuhan city.
We proposed a modified susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) dynamics model to predict the number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in Wuhan. And, subsequently, we estimated the export risk of COVID-19 epidemic from Wuhan to other provinces in China. Finally, we estimated the effectiveness of travel restrictions of Wuhan city quantitatively by the export risk on the assumption that the measure was postponed.
The export risks of COVID-19 varied from Wuhan to other provinces of China. The peak of export risk was January 21-23, 2020. With the travel restrictions of Wuhan delayed by 3, 5, and 7 d, the export risk indexes will increase by 38.50%, 55.89%, and 65.63%, respectively.
The results indicate that the travel restrictions of Wuhan reduced the export risk and delayed the overall epidemic progression of the COVID-19 epidemic in China. The travel restrictions of Wuhan city may provide a reference for the control of the COVID-19 epidemic all over the world.
Previous studies have revealed associations of meteorological factors with tuberculosis (TB) cases. However, few studies have examined their lag effects on TB cases. This study was aimed to analyse nonlinear lag effects of meteorological factors on the number of TB notifications in Hong Kong. Using a 22-year consecutive surveillance data in Hong Kong, we examined the association of monthly average temperature and relative humidity with temporal dynamics of the monthly number of TB notifications using a distributed lag nonlinear models combined with a Poisson regression. The relative risks (RRs) of TB notifications were >1.15 as monthly average temperatures were between 16.3 and 17.3 °C at lagged 13–15 months, reaching the peak risk of 1.18 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.35) when it was 16.8 °C at lagged 14 months. The RRs of TB notifications were >1.05 as relative humidities of 60.0–63.6% at lagged 9–11 months expanded to 68.0–71.0% at lagged 12–17 months, reaching the highest risk of 1.06 (95% CI 1.01–1.11) when it was 69.0% at lagged 13 months. The nonlinear and delayed effects of average temperature and relative humidity on TB epidemic were identified, which may provide a practical reference for improving the TB warning system.
We aimed to examine whether baseline neutrophil counts affected the risk of new-onset proteinuria in hypertensive patients, and, if so, whether folic acid treatment is particularly effective in proteinuria prevention in such a setting. A total of 8208 eligible participants without proteinuria at baseline were analysed from the renal substudy of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. Participants were randomised to receive a double-blind daily treatment of 10 mg of enalapril and 0·8 mg of folic acid (n 4101) or 10 mg of enalapril only (n 4107). The primary outcome was new-onset proteinuria, defined as a urine dipstick reading of ≥1+ at the exit visit. The mean age of the participants was 59·5 (sd, 7·4) years, 3088 (37·6 %) of the participants were male. The median treatment duration was 4·4 years. In the enalapril-only group, a significantly higher risk of new-onset proteinuria was found among participants with higher neutrophil counts (quintile 5; ≥4·8 × 109/l, OR 1·44; 95 % CI 1·00, 2·06), compared with those in quintiles 1–4. For those with enalapril and folic acid treatment, compared with the enalapril-only group, the new-onset proteinuria risk was reduced from 5·2 to 2·8 % (OR 0·49; 95 % CI 0·29, 0·82) among participants with higher neutrophil counts (≥4·8 × 109/l), whereas there was no significant effect among those with neutrophil counts <4·8 × 109/l. In summary, among hypertensive patients, those with higher neutrophil counts had increased risk of new-onset proteinuria, and this risk was reduced by 51 % with folic acid treatment.
The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in China and had spread rapidly to many other countries. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with delayed negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients. In this retrospective single-centre study, we included 169 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from 15th January to 2nd March. The cases were divided into two groups according to the median time of SARS-CoV-2 negative conversion. The differences between groups were compared. In total, 169 patients had a median virus negative conversion time of 18 days (interquartile range: 11–25) from symptom onset. Compared with the patients with short-term negative conversion, those with long-term conversion had an older age, higher incidence of comorbidities, chief complaints of cough and chest distress/breath shortness and severer illness on admission, higher level of leucocytes, neutrophils, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), lower level of CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes and albumin and more likely to receive mechanical ventilation. In multivariate analysis, cough, leucocytes, neutrophils and ESR were positively correlated with delayed virus negative conversion, and CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes were negatively correlated. The integrated indicator of leucocytes, neutrophils and CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes showed a good performance in predicting the negative conversion within 2 weeks (area under ROC curve (AUC) = 0.815), 3 weeks (AUC = 0.804), 4 weeks (AUC = 0.812) and 5 weeks (AUC = 0.786). In conclusion, longer quarantine periods might be more justified for COVID-19 patients with cough, higher levels of leucocytes, neutrophils and ESR and lower levels of CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes.
According to the World Health Organization, there were approximately 0.5 million new cases of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis in 2018, of which 78 percent were multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and China has one of the largest shares of the global burden (14%). In recent years, the Chinese government has made progress in TB control and prevention, but for MDR-TB, treatment options are still limited and expensive, and novel drugs are not always available. This research aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding bedaquiline to a background regimen (BR) of drugs for MDR-TB treatment in China, and to provide evidence for government to improve public health policies.
A cohort-based Markov model was developed to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of bedaquiline plus BR (BBR) versus BR alone in MDR-TB treatment, over a 10-year time horizon. Data were sourced from a phase II clinical trial, real-world data in China, published literature, and expert opinion. Outcomes were evaluated in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and life-years gained (LYG). The discount rate was 3.5%. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were conducted.
The discounted costs per person for BBR was CNY 135,706 [USD 19,172], compared with CNY 92,465 [USD 13,063] for BR. The discounted utility per person for BBR was also higher than that for BR (3.943 QALYs versus 3.193 QALYs). The ICER of BBR was CNY 58,096 [USD 8,208]/QALY, which was lower than the willingness-to-pay threshold of CNY 212,676 [USD 30,046] (three-times the gross domestic product per capita). Therefore, BBR was considered to be cost-effective. The sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the results. BBR remained cost-effective in the sensitivity analysis, with a 77.2 percent probability of being cost-effective versus BR.
In China, bedaquiline is not included in the National Reimbursement Medicine List, which results in a heavy financial burden for MDR-TB patients. From this study, BBR was cost-effective by significantly reducing time to sputum culture conversion and increasing QALYs and LYGs, which offset the higher drug costs.
China bears a considerably high burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Second-line anti-TB drugs are urgently needed yet domestic MDR-TB drugs are expensive and lack policy support. Patients’ living conditions are closely related to the drug affordability. The national TB prevention programs should play a critical role. The purpose of this study is to measure the cost of treating MDR-TB patients under different treatment schemes and price sources. The results of this study are expected to inform the relevant drug protection policies and provide inputs for further cost-effectiveness analyses.
Based on the treatment plan of China's Multidrug-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis Clinical Path (2012 edition) and the World Health Organization (WHO) Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment Guide (2018 edition), the treatment costs of MDR-TB were measured under different scenarios. Catastrophic health expenditure was then calculated if the treatment cost exceeds 40 percent of the household's non-subsistence income. National, rural and disposable income per capita in 2018, were used to represent Chinese patients’ affordability.
Under varied treatment schemes and market price sources in China, the total costs for MDR-TB patients range from 19,401 to 126,703 CNY [2,853 to 18,633 USD] per person. Under current prices, all treatment schemes recommended by the WHO will incur catastrophic costs for Chinese MDR-TB patients. Significant differences were found between rural and urban areas as 52.8 percent of the treatment listed in the 2012 China Guideline would lead to catastrophic cost for rural patients but not urban ones.
Our study concludes that the domestic drugs are more expensive than the international purchase price and the treatment of MDR-TB imposes substantial economic burden on patients, especially in the rural areas. The results of the study also indicate that it is urgent for the state to emphasize government responsibility and initiate centralized procurement for price negotiations to reduce the market price of MDR-TB drugs. The urban-rural gap should also be addressed in the design of future policies to ensure the drug affordability for all patients in need.
Malignant tumors have become a major public health problem and their treatment cost is increasing rapidly in China, but treatment aimed at healing diseases or extending patients’ life. There is little empirical research on utilization of healthcare resources of terminally ill cancer patients. In order to explore the optimal treatment decision for patients and provide information for relevant decision makers, this study analyzed the consumption status of medical resources in patients with cancer during the whole treatment period, and the current medical resource utilization efficiency in different levels of hospital for end-stage cancer patients.
This study was based on the clinical treatment and payment data of 2,536 cases of patients with lung cancer from the medical insurance database during the period of 2007 to 2014 in Hubei province. We retrospectively analyzed patients’ medical expenditure and utilization of different medical resources during their whole treatment period as well as at the end stage.
The per capita inpatient expenditures of patients under 50 years old was 193,000 CNY (27,451 USD), while that of the patients over 70 years were 80,000–90,000 CNY (11,379–12,802 USD). Secondly, the medical expenditures spent during the last 6 months of life accounted for 66.1 percent of the total expenditures. Lastly, the medical expenditure spent in tertiary hospitals accounted for 95.3 percent of the total expenditure, and the expenditure was 14,200 ± 17,030 CNY (2,019.82 ± 2,422.36 USD) per visit.
Population aging is not the only factor causing the rise of medical expenditure. The unclear objectives of treatment and the reverse of medical resource allocation are also important factors to boost the growth of medical expenditure. It is necessary to improve the healthcare insurance payment system, strengthen the capacity of primary medical institutions, and develop the palliative care system in China.
Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), remarkable achievements have been made in poverty alleviation. Over the past five years, the population of people living in poverty had decreased by 68.53million, fallen from 98.99 million in 2012 to 30.46 million at the end of 2017. As an impoverished province, Hebei province has been implementing the CPC Central Committee's guidance in the battle against poverty. In 2016, the government released the Implementation Scheme Plan for Improving the Level of Medical Security and Assistance. The plan introduces multi-layer medical security and assistance mechanisms which covers basic medical insurance, major disease insurance and medical assistance. In 2017, the government formulated the Implementation Plan for the Three-Batch Action Plan on the Health Care Program for Poverty Alleviation in Hebei Province, for people with major disease. Hebei Province has carried out many explorations on the health care program for poverty alleviation, and its effectiveness is a problem worthy of attention.
Based on data including basic medical insurance, major illness insurance, medical assistance, and other related information, we used descriptive statistics and quantitative methods to evaluate the overall expenditure of the poverty alleviation for Hebei province and the areas under its jurisdiction. Additionally, the expenditure of different levels of medical security system, the medical burden for people facing poverty and the distribution of disease in the population with assistance were evaluated.
The out-of-pocket payment per capita has decreased year by year, and it has dropped to 3% of catastrophic medical expenditure and 20% below the poverty line by June 2018. An imbalanced situation occurred with the implementation, with the more impoverished areas having greater the pressure on medical care and poverty alleviation. For people with medical assistance, diseases with higher population and overall expenditure are cerebrovascular disease, malignant tumor, diabetes and some other chronic diseases.
The health policies for poverty alleviation in Hebei province has achieved a remarkable success, and the medical burden of the poor has been significantly reduced. However, the implementation of the policies in various cities has shown an imbalanced situation, and the poverty alleviation policies need to be further improved.
China is one of the twenty-seven countries with a high burden of Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the world. Of the new TB patients in China in 2017, about 63,000 are MDR-TB patients, accounting for one-third of the number of new MDR-TB patients worldwide.
In the latest “China's 13th Five-Year Plan” national TB prevention and control plan promulgated in 2017, it is clearly emphasized that all regions should gradually incorporate TB into the payment catalogue of special outpatient medical insurance, according to local conditions. However, for this special group of MDR-TB patients, there is no specialized prevention and control policy at the national level, and there are also blind spots in the medical security policy.
Responding to the drug needs of MDR-TB patients, it is necessary to provide patients with stable and affordable second-line anti-TB drugs. It is also necessary to understand the overall drug demand for second-line drugs nationwide to guide further policy formulation and budget research.
Through semi-structured group interviews and key informant interviews, five provinces and cities were investigated. Qualitative analysis was conducted based on stakeholder theory selected doctors and staff from Centers for Disease Control.
Through investigations in this study, problems like low purchasing price, insufficient purchasing volume, low drug supply efficiency, and monopoly producers were found. Through the analysis of roles and relationships among the major stakeholders in the second-line drug supply system, together with the motivation and resistance factors, it was found that all stakeholders have the motivation to solve the problem and face their dilemmas and obstacles at the same time.
Patients with MDR-TB still have difficulties in obtaining medicines. The interests of various stakeholders need to be balanced to improve drug accessibility and affordability. It is recommended to take advantage of the country's centralized procurement, encourage the development and listing of new anti-tuberculosis drugs and generic drugs, and improve the supervision system to ensure the supply of drugs to benefit more patients with tuberculosis.
Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of over 200 disorders with defects in the function and/or development of the immune system. Although early screening is imperative for improving therapeutic efficiency and preventing disease-associated morbidity, its widespread use has been limited, owing to the low incidence of PIDs. It is particularly important to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of PIDs screening for newborns. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the existing cost-effectiveness evidence on newborn screening of PIDs and to provide reference for decision-makers in China and other developing countries.
We conducted a systematic review using three electronic databases (PubMed, CNKI, and CSPD) of cost and cost-effectiveness studies of PIDs screening published during 2000–2019. Two reviewers independently searched databases and screened titles, abstracts and full texts; a third reviewer resolved disputes when necessary. The initial search returned 124 references, of which 10 full articles were included in the review. Five of the studies conducted analyses using model-based techniques.
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was the predominantly studied condition (80%). Most studies (70%) examined the T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay. A healthcare system's perspective was commonly used (50%) for cost calculations, and most studies (50%) were US-based. The majority (67%) of the studies found the TREC assay an effective screening tool for SCID, but the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) varied across screening test specificity and disease incidence.
Evidence from the published literature demonstrated that newborn screening for PIDs generally appeared to be cost-effective, and most importantly, it is lifesaving and allows children with PIDs an opportunity to live a healthier life. However, the type of PIDs included in this study were limited and most studies were done in developed countries whose health systems are different from low-/middle-income countries (LMIC). Further research is required to identify the cost-effectiveness of PIDs screening both in developed and developing countries.