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An acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreak caused by a norovirus occurred at a hospital in Shanghai, China, was studied for molecular epidemiology, host susceptibility and serological roles. Rectal and environmental swabs, paired serum samples and saliva specimens were collected. Pathogens were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) phenotypes of saliva samples and their binding to norovirus protruding proteins were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The HBGA-binding interfaces and the surrounding region were analysed by the MegAlign program of DNAstar 7.1. Twenty-seven individuals in two care units were attacked with AGE at attack rates of 9.02 and 11.68%. Eighteen (78.2%) symptomatic and five (38.4%) asymptomatic individuals were GII.6/b norovirus positive. Saliva-based HBGA phenotyping showed that all symptomatic and asymptomatic cases belonged to A, B, AB or O secretors. Only four (16.7%) out of the 24 tested serum samples showed low blockade activity against HBGA-norovirus binding at the acute phase, whereas 11 (45.8%) samples at the convalescence stage showed seroconversion of such blockade. Specific blockade antibody in the population played an essential role in this norovirus epidemic. A wide HBGA-binding spectrum of GII.6 supports a need for continuous health attention and surveillance in different settings.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with abnormal functional connectivity (FC) of amygdala and decreased function of cortico-limibic circuit, which play important roles in the pathogenesis of MDD. However, little is known about the connectivity alterations in late-onset depression (LOD), and whether such disrupted function is correlated with cognitive impairment is unclear.
A total of twenty-three LOD patients and thirty-seven controls underwent neuropsychological tests and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and FC of bilateral amygdala seed were used to analyze blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI data between groups.
Compared to controls, LOD groups showed weaker functional activity in bilateral middle frontal gyrus and left medial orbitofrontal gyrus, moreover, the decreased ReHo was positively correlated with Trail making test-B score (TMTB, r= 0.462,P= 0.04). In aspects of FC, left amygdala has reduced FC with right fusiform gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus and right putamen, while right amygdala has reduced FC with left cerebellum. Further correlative analysis found that the decreased FC between amygdala and right putamen was positively correlated with Verbal fluency test-verb score (VFT-verb, r= 0.513,P= 0.021) and the decreased FC between amygdala and superior temporal gyrus was positively correlated with Auditory Verbal Memory Test-delayed recall score (AVLT-delayed recall, r= 0.446,P= 0.049).
Our finding of reduced activation of prefrontal gyrus as well as decreased connection of bilateral amygdala may be key factors of impaired cognitive function in LOD patients and these changes could be early indicator for cognitive deficits.
Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for depression, anxiety and suicide. The estimated prevalence of these problems is essential to guide public health policy, but published results vary. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and suicide among Chinese MSM.
Systematic searches of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, CNKI and Wanfang databases with languages restricted to Chinese and English for studies published before 10 September 2019 on the prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, suicidal ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts among Chinese MSM. Studies that were published in the peer-reviewed journals and used validated instruments to assess depression and anxiety were included. The characteristics of studies and the prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms, suicidal ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts were independently extracted by authors. Random-effects modelling was used to estimate the pooled rates. Subgroup analysis and univariate meta-regression were conducted to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. This study followed the PRISMA and MOOSE.
Sixty-seven studies were included. Fifty-two studies reported the prevalence of depressive symptoms, with a combined sample of 37 376 people, of whom 12 887 [43.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 38.9–47.5] reported depressive symptoms. Twenty-seven studies reported the prevalence of anxiety symptoms, with a combined sample of 10 531 people, of whom 3187 (32.2%; 95% CI, 28.3–36.6) reported anxiety symptoms. Twenty-three studies reported the prevalence of suicidal ideation, with a combined sample of 15 034 people, of whom 3416 (21.2%; 95% CI, 18.3–24.5) had suicidal ideation. Nine studies reported the prevalence of suicide plans, with a combined sample of 5271 people, of whom 401 (6.2%; 95% CI, 3.9–8.6) had suicide plans. Finally, 19 studies reported the prevalence of suicide attempts, with a combined sample of 27 936 people, of whom 1829 (7.3%; 95% CI, 5.6–9.0) had attempted suicide.
The mental health of Chinese MSM is poor compared with the general population. Efforts are warranted to develop interventions to prevent and alleviate mental health problems among this vulnerable population.
This study assessed the relationships between different perpetrator-victim roles in intimate partner violence (IPV), emotion regulation (ER) and mental health problems among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China.
From April to June 2019, 1233 participants were approached via gay-friendly non-governmental organisations in 15 cities across mainland China.
Of the total, 578 eligible participants completed an anonymous online survey. All participants provided informed consent and information about their violent perpetrator-victim role and mental health status. The results revealed a high prevalence of IPV in this study sample, with 32.7% of participants reporting IPV victimisation and 32.5% of participants reporting IPV perpetration during their lifetime. A total of 81 (14.0%) participants were suicidal, 309 (53.5%) participants reported poor general mental health and 208 (36.0%) had significant depressive symptoms. Adjusted logistic regression models revealed that both physical victimisation (adjusted odds ratio [ORa] = 3.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11–9.32) and sexual victimisation (ORa = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.39–6.05) had positive associations with suicidality, and unidirectional and bidirectional psychological perpetration were associated with poor general mental health and significant depressive symptoms. Although high cognitive reappraisal showed a negative association with poor general mental health (ORa = 0.89，95% CI = 0.86–0.92), the correlation with victims of IPV was weaker than it was with non-victims.
This study revealed that different perpetrator-victim roles in different IPV situations should be considered comprehensively in research, prevention and intervention. ER is not enough to buffer the effects of IPV on the mental health of MSM victims.
The development and subsistence strategies adopted in ancient settlements are crucial to the understanding of long-term human–environmental interaction in the past. Here, we reassess the chronology of the ancient walled settlement of Sanjiao in the Hexi Corridor in northwestern China through accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14C) dating and explore the subsistence of the settlers inside through the identification of carbonized seeds and charcoal. In addition, high-resolution paleoclimate records in the Hexi Corridor and nearby regions are employed to explore the reason for the construction of Sanjiao. Our results show that Sanjiao was built around 828 cal BC and remained inhabited through 384–116 cal BC. This indicates Sanjiao is the earliest known walled settlement in the Hexi Corridor. Ancient people at Sanjiao consumed crops such as barley, broomcorn millet, and foxtail millet, and used wood from Tamarix chinensis, Tamarix, Salix, Picea, Hippophae, Betulaceae, and Poaceae as fuel. The construction date of Sanjiao correlates with climate deterioration and social upheavals in the Hexi Corridor, potentially suggesting a defensive purpose for the site.
In this study, the biomass of winter wheat was estimated by using hyperspectral data obtained from a hyperspectral camera on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Every two bands from the hyperspectral data were selected to calculate two kinds of vegetation indexes: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI). Linear models were established between winter wheat biomass and those indexes, and coefficient of determination R2 was used to draw the two-dimensional distribution of R2 values. The comparison between NDVI and RVI for pixel covered by soil and wheat showed that RVI is more efficient to mask the influence from soil than NDVI. For calculating the NDVI, optimal bands are located mainly around 820 nm and 725 nm to 750 nm. For assessing RVI, the wavelength range from 820 to 832 nm, 794 to 808 nm, 770 to 788 nm, 725 nm to 750 nm and 890 nm for RVI are most suitable. Those optimal bands can achieve a coefficient of determination R2 higher than 0.88 by using the linear regression model in the study.
Vector-borne diseases are one of the world's major public health threats and annually responsible for 30–50% of deaths reported to the national notifiable disease system in China. To control vector-borne diseases, a unified, effective and economic surveillance system is urgently needed; all of the current surveillance systems in China waste resources and/or information. Here, we review some current surveillance systems and present a concept for an integrated surveillance system combining existing vector and vector-borne disease monitoring systems. The integrated surveillance system has been tested in pilot programmes in China and led to a 21·6% cost saving in rodent-borne disease surveillance. We share some experiences gained from these programmes.
We compiled a sample of 57 galaxies with spectroscopically confirmed redshifts and SPIRE detections in all three bands at z = 2.5-6.4, and compared their SPIRE colors with SED templates from local and high-z libraries. We find that local calibrations are inconsistent with high-z observations. For high-z libraries, the templates with an evolution from z = 0 to 3 can describe the average colors of the observations at high redshift well. Based on the templates, we defined color cuts to divide the SPIRE color-color diagram into different regions with different mean redshifts. We tested this method and two other color cut methods using a larger sample (783 galaxies) with photometric redshifts. We find that these color cuts can separate the sample into subsamples with different mean redshifts, but the dispersion of redshifts in each subsample is considerably large. Additional information is needed for better sampling.
ZnO nanorods were synthesized by recrystallization of ZnO thin films during multiannealing process. It was found that the obtained ZnO nanorods showed well-controlled grown direction. The periodical oxygen introducing between reducing annealing processes was effective to help on the oxidization reaction, result in the ZnO nanorods growth significantly. With controlling the annealing parameters, the morphologies of ZnO nanorods could be also controlled. The low-temperature (less than 420°C) initial reducing annealing process contributed to control the density of ZnO nanorods. The multi-annealing processes could reduce the ZnO thin film to produce ZnO nanorods efficiently. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the ZnO nanorods were investigated. Finally, the obtained ZnO nanorods used as photoelectrodes demonstrated in a dye-sensitized solar cell, the overall conversion efficiency of 3.65% was achieved.
Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley (Lepidoptera: Gracilariidae) is one of the major fruit borer pests of litchi and longan in Southern China. Although chemical control is effective, alternative, biorational strategies are preferable, and should be developed. Predators play an important role in the biological control of agricultural pests, but an accurate method for the evaluation of predation in agriculture has not yet been developed. Here, we report a new, specific primer pair to amplify a C. sinensis cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequence fragment that can be used to detect consumption of C. sinensis by its predators. C. sinensis DNA was found in several arthropods collected in the field, including the important C. sinensis predators Menochilus sexmaculata (Coccinellidae), Leucauge magnifica (Tetragnathidae), Propylea japonica (Coccinellidae), and Oxyopes sertatus (Oxyopidae). The detection rates of C. sinensis COI DNA in these predators were 39.3, 36.4, 27.3, and 27.2%, respectively. Laboratory consumption and hunting capacity analysis of M. sexmaculata and P. japonica adults indicated that they exhibit a Holling type II functional response on C. sinensis eggs under field temperatures. A polymerase chain reaction digestion analysis of M. sexmaculata and P. japonica adults after consumption of a single C. sinensis egg indicated that positive detection decreased with the extension of digestion time, and estimated prey DNA half-lives were 16.3 h in M. sexmaculata and 6.0 h in P. japonica. These data serve to characterize two major predators of C. sinensis with potential for biological control of C. sinensis in litchi orchards.
Ferromagnetic metal CoNi-based nano-objects have been synthesized in a polyol media within different elaboration conditions in order to drive their morphology (i.e. enhancing their length-to-diameter ratio ﴾d/L﴿, and changing the diameter d ratio over edge T width ﴾d/L﴿). Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies revealed unexpected effects on the Co80Ni20 nano-objects arising from the magnetic field assisted synthesis. This gave us the opportunity to compare this latter to coming from the variation of Ruthenium (III) chloride hydrate nucleating agent concentration. A Co80Ni20 anisotropic particles elaboration was successfully achieved under zero magnetic field assisted synthesis, while an important percentage of isotropic nanoparticles appeared immediately under the application of a small magnetic field (i.e. H > 500 Oe). In the first case we were able to sharply drive both the aspect ratio and head morphology of nanowires (T and ﴾d/T﴿). The good crystallinity and structures symmetry of all our samples have been proved by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis. Magnetic static properties showed a ferromagnetic standard behavior with a coercive field efficiency which was strongly dependent on shape parameters. The magnetic static behavior was studied within a standard Stoner-Wohlfart model as a function of the observed morphologies. Our observations are fully consistent with a shape anisotropy origin behavior of the enhanced coercivity measured as function of the decreasing ﴾d/L﴿ ratio. However, they revealed the presence of contributions to the global effective anisotropy coming from other complex terms then the shape one (i.e. conic head impressiveness, dipolar interactions and magnetocrystalline anisotropy).
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of isoflavone (ISO) against zearalenone (ZEA) residues in the muscle and liver tissues of prepubertal gilts. Seventy 75-day-old, prepubertal, female pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire, 26.5 ± 0.60 kg) were allocated randomly to seven diet treatments for 21days as follows: one control group (fed the basal diet) and six groups fed the basal diet with the addition of either 0.5 or 2.0 mg/kg ZEA plus either 0, 300 or 600 mg/kg ISO. The results showed that the diet with 2.0 mg/kg ZEA added caused an increase of ZEA residue level in muscle tissue (P < 0.05), and that the addition of both 0.5 and 2.0 mg/kg ZEA increased the residue level of ZEA in the liver of prepubertal gilts (P < 0.05). Addition of 600 mg/kg ISO to 2.0 mg/kg ZEA-contaminated diet decreased the ZEA residue level in liver tissue (P < 0.05), and the addition of 300 or 600 mg/kg ISO to the 2.0 mg/kg ZEA-contaminated diet decreased the residue levels of ZEA in muscle tissue (P < 0.05). Western blot analysis demonstrated that feeding ZEA to prepubertal gilts increased their protein expression of 3α/3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD; P < 0.05), and that the addition of 300 or 600 mg/kg ISO to the 2.0 mg/kg ZEA-contaminated diet decreased the protein expression of 3α/3β-HSD (P < 0.05), compared with the addition of 2.0 mg/kg ZEA alone. The results demonstrated that muscle and liver tissues retain residual ZEA when pigs are fed a diet contaminated with high concentrations of ZEA, and that the concentration of ZEA in muscle and liver tissues increased with increased amounts of ZEA in the feed. In diets contaminated with high levels of ZEA, the addition of ISO may accelerate the biotransformation and degradation of ZEA and its metabolites, and reduce the residues of ZEA in liver and muscle tissues of prepubertal gilts.
The development of infrared observational facilities has revealed a number of massive stars in obscured environments throughout the Milky Way and beyond. The determination of their stellar and wind properties from infrared diagnostics is thus required to take full advantage of the wealth of observations available in the near and mid infrared. However, the task is challenging. This session addressed some of the problems encountered and showed the limitations and successes of infrared studies of massive stars.
A simulated grazing system was set up in Huanxian County, Gansu province, on the Loess Plateau of Northwest China, involving the purchase of 18-month-old wether lambs in June of each year at c. 20 kg body weight (BW) and sale 6 months later at c. 35 kg BW. Three stocking rate (SR) treatments of 2·7, 5·3 and 8·7 wether lambs/ha were evaluated on geographically separated warm season (WS) and cold season (CS) paddocks c. 1 km apart; 3 years' data are reported (2004–2006). The metabolizable energy (ME) yield of the grazing system, calculated from the weight of animals fed and their weight gain, averaged 1·7, 3·3 and 4·7 GJ/ha/year for 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively, in the WS and 0·9, 1·9, and 2·7 GJ/ha/year, respectively, in the CS for SR of 2·7, 5·3 and 8·7 animals/ha. Detailed grazing behaviour records were kept in order to elucidate intake dynamics. In these grazing systems, bite weight was typically c. 0·04 g/bite, lower than for temperate grazing systems at comparable herbage mass. A hypothesis for further study is proposed that this may relate to the distribution of a similar herbage mass over a greater sward height range in steppe vegetation than in temperate grass pasture. Sheep increased their bite rate (bites/min) and the number of steps/min at higher SR to compensate, such that intake/animal was reduced by not more than 10% with a threefold increase in SR. At higher SR, herbage ground cover on grazed plots was still lower than on ungrazed plots, 1 year after a 90-day summer grazing period or a 48-day winter grazing period. The significance of the findings for management of these systems is briefly discussed.
Saunders's Gull Larus saundersi is a breeding endemic of Common Seepweed Suaeda glauca habitats on the east coast of China and south-west coast of South Korea. Much of this habitat has been lost and degraded due to human land use and expansion of the introduced Smooth Cordgrass Spartina alterniflora. Yancheng National Nature Reserve (NNR) is one of three breeding and wintering areas in China. We used satellite images from 1992 to 2007 and visual interpretation combined with ground truthing to classify the land cover and quantify changes in land use and land cover (LULC) in areas of Yancheng NNR used by Saunders's Gull. The Common Seepweed habitat, in which this species nests, decreased in area by 79.1% (27,358 ha) over 15 years, predominantly as a result of conversion to aquaculture ponds (18,929 ha), and is now centred in the south-east of Yancheng NNR. The total population size of Saunders's Gull was maintained at over 900 individuals from 1999 to 2006 in Yancheng NNR, but was only 575 in 2007, and the number of breeding sites decreased from eight in 1992 and 1994 to a single site in 2000–2006 and two sites in 2007. From 1999 to 2007, the breeding population in the core area of Yancheng NNR accounted for 94.93% of the total population, and its nest-site spatial turnover rate was 0.84 ± 0.08 (n = 7 years), but it tended to decrease by about 40% in 2007 because of degradation of the Common Seepweed community. The conversion of Common Seepweed habitats to other habitat types and expansion of introduced Smooth Cordgrass were the major and direct reasons for the loss and degradation of breeding habitats of Saunders's Gull. Smooth Cordgrass habitats increased in area by 321.9% (11,057 ha) during this period and centred on the east, gradually occupying the mudflats, except the beach from Liangduo River to the south of Yancheng NNR, where potential breeding sites for the Saunders's Gull could be located. We discuss the implications of our results for the conservation this species and management of its habitats.
The present study was conducted to determine the effects of a polysaccharide of Atractylodes macrophala Koidz (PAM) as a dietary additive on growth performance, immunoglobulin concentration and IL-1β expression in weaned piglets. One hundred and twenty Landrace×Yorkshire piglets weaned at 28 days old (body weight 7·5±0·07 kg) were assigned to five treatment groups (three pens/group, eight piglets/pen) fed maize/soybean-based diets supplemented with 0, 3, 6 or 9 g of PAM/kg diet or antibiotics (0·4 g flavomycin/kg+0·13 g olaquindox/kg). The experimental period was 28 days. With increasing PAM supplementation levels, average daily gain was greater (quadratic, P<0·05) and the ratio of amount fed to live weight (LW) gain (feed/gain) improved (quadratic, P<0·05) during days 14–28 and overall, and diarrhoea incidence decreased (linear, P<0·05) during days 14–28. Supplementation of PAM also increased (quadratic, P<0·05) serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-6 on day 14, and increased (quadratic, P<0·05) IL-1β expression in jejunal mucosa and lymph nodes. Concentrations of PAM between 6 and 9 g/kg presented the strongest bioactivity compared to the control group or antibiotic-fed group. These findings indicate that PAM is effective in improving growth performance and cytokine response, which suggests that PAM can be used as a diet additive for weanling piglets.
A microfabricated amorphous silicon photodiode is used to detect chemiluminescent and colorimetric horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzymatic reactions. Detections limits of 1 nM and 1 pM of HRP are obtained for chemiluminescent and colorimetric measurements, respectively, with the reactions carried out in solution volume of 50 μL in polystyrene microwells. Surface-adsorbed HRP can be detected with a limit of 1 fmol.cm-2 by both detection methods. Immunoassays were performed using HRP-labeled antibodies and the detection of specific antibody-antigen molecular recognition is demonstrated both in the plastic well and inside a microfluidic channel. The application of the a-Si:H/HRP system is extended by coupling HRP with oxidase enzyme systems for glucose detection and a sensitivity of 0.1 mmol/L was achieved.
To date, there has been no large-scale survey of geriatric depression (GD) involving both rural and urban areas in China using standardized assessment tools and diagnostic criteria. This study aimed to determine the 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of GD and sociodemographic correlates in urban and rural regions of Beijing, China.
A total of 1601 elderly patients (aged ⩾60 years) were randomly selected and interviewed in Beijing using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 1.0). Basic sociodemographic and clinical data were also collected during the interviews.
The overall 12-month prevalence of GD was 4.33%, and the 12-month prevalence rates for men and women were 2.65% and 5.83% respectively. The overall lifetime prevalence of GD was 7.83%, and lifetime prevalence rates for men and women were 4.65% and 10.66% respectively. Female sex, lower educational level, monthly income, rural abode, and the presence of one or more major medical conditions were associated with increased risk of GD. Of the GD subjects interviewed, 25.2% were receiving some type of treatment, with only 4.7% preferring to seek treatment from mental health professionals.
Although still relatively low by international standards, there is an increasing trend in the prevalence of GD in China. The low percentage of subjects treated for GD is a major public health concern that should be addressed urgently.
Low energy (55 KeV) Osmium ( Os− ) negative ion beam was used to implant (5×1016 atoms/cm2 ) into p-type-Si (100). The implantation was performed with the ion source of a National Electrostatic Corp. 3 MV Tandem accelerator. The implanted sample was subsequently annealed at 650 °C in a gas mixture that was 4% H2 + 96% Ar. Rutherford Backscattering spectrometry (RBS) analysis with 1.5 MeV Alpha particles was used to monitor the precipitate formation. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements were also performed to study possible applications of silicides in light emission. Cross-sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy (X-SEM) was performed for topographic image of the implanted region. RBS along with PL measurements indicate that the presence of osmium silicide (Os2Si3) phase for light emission in the implanted region of the sample.
Excessive iodine induces thyroid dysfunction. However, the effect of excessive iodine exposure on maternal–fetal thyroid hormone metabolism and on the expression of genes involved in differentiation, growth and development is poorly understood. Since a thyroid hormone receptor response element was found in the Hoxc8 promoter region, Hoxc8 expression possibly regulated by excessive iodine exposure was firstly investigated. In the present study, Balb/C mice were given different doses of iodine in the form of potassium iodate (KIO3) at the levels of 0 (sterile water), 1·5, 3·0, 6·0, 12·0 and 24·0 μg/ml in drinking water for 4 months, then were mated. On 12·5 d postcoitum, placental type 2 and type 3 deiodinase activities and fetal Hoxc8 expression were determined. The results showed that excessive iodine exposure above 1·5 μg/ml resulted in an increase of total thyroxine and a decrease of total triiodothyronine in the serum of maternal mice, which was mainly associated with the inhibition of type 1 deiodinase activity in liver and kidney. Placental type 2 deiodinase activity decreased, showing an inverse relationship with maternal thyroxine level. Hoxc8 mRNA and protein expression at 12·5 d postcoitum embryos were down regulated. Because Hoxc8 plays an important role in normal skeletal development, this finding provides a possible explanation for the skeletal malformation induced by excessive iodine exposure and also provides a new clue to study the relationship between iodine or thyroid hormones and Hox gene expression pattern.