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New Zealand has an integrated but differentiated system of tertiary education, and within this, it is the universities that have a long tradition of research and research-informed teaching. The Tertiary Education Strategy emphasizes the role of faculty as researchers, and the need for internships and research of value to employers; in practice it supports a conventional model of students as research apprentices. Universities do not have offices dedicated to undergraduate research, service learning or community engagement to encourage student engagement in research projects shaped by undergraduates rather than their teachers. Nonetheless, good examples of student-driven practices are identified in a range of disciplines, including the humanities, engineering, ecology and geography. Examples are given at assignment, class and curriculum levels. An important component of these in New Zealand is an awareness of and some competency with respect to Māori culture, given the requirement in the national Education Act that institutions acknowledge the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi, which is the country’s foundational constitutional document.
The Passive Surveillance Stroke Severity (PaSSV) Indicator was derived to estimate stroke severity from variables in administrative datasets but has not been externally validated.
We used linked administrative datasets to identify patients with first hospitalization for acute stroke between 2007-2018 in Alberta, Canada. We used the PaSSV indicator to estimate stroke severity. We used Cox proportional hazard models and evaluated the change in hazard ratios and model discrimination for 30-day and 1-year case fatality with and without PaSSV. Similar comparisons were made for 90-day home time thresholds using logistic regression. We also linked with a clinical registry to obtain National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and compared estimates from models without stroke severity, with PaSSV, and with NIHSS.
There were 28,672 patients with acute stroke in the full sample. In comparison to no stroke severity, addition of PaSSV to the 30-day case fatality models resulted in improvement in model discrimination (C-statistic 0.72 [95%CI 0.71–0.73] to 0.80 [0.79–0.80]). After adjustment for PaSSV, admission to a comprehensive stroke center was associated with lower 30-day case fatality (adjusted hazard ratio changed from 1.03 [0.96–1.10] to 0.72 [0.67–0.77]). In the registry sample (N = 1328), model discrimination for 30-day case fatality improved with the inclusion of stroke severity. Results were similar for 1-year case fatality and home time outcomes.
Addition of PaSSV improved model discrimination for case fatality and home time outcomes. The validity of PASSV in two Canadian provinces suggests that it is a useful tool for baseline risk adjustment in acute stroke.
Few investigations have evaluated the validity of current body composition technology among racially and ethnically diverse populations. This study assessed the validity of common body composition methods in a multi-ethnic sample stratified by race and ethnicity. One hundred and ten individuals (55 % female, age: 26·5 (sd 6·9) years) identifying as Asian, African American/Black, Caucasian/White, Hispanic, Multi-racial and Native American were enrolled. Seven body composition models (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), two bioelectrical impedance devices (BIS, IB) and three multi-compartment models) were evaluated against a four-compartment criterion model by assessing total error (TE) and standard error of the estimate. For the total sample, measures of % fat and fat-free mass (FFM) from multi-compartment models were all excellent to ideal (% fat: TE = 0·94–2·37 %; FFM: TE = 0·72–1·78 kg) compared with the criterion. % fat measures were very good to excellent for DXA, ADP and IB (TE = 2·52–2·89 %) and fairly good for BIS (TE = 4·12 %). For FFM, single device estimates were good (BIS; TE = 3·12 kg) to ideal (DXA, ADP, IB; TE = 1·21–2·15 kg). Results did not vary meaningfully between each race and ethnicity, except BIS was not valid for African American/Black, Caucasian/White and Multi-racial participants for % fat (TE = 4·3–4·9 %). The multi-compartment models evaluated can be utilised in a multi-ethnic sample and in each individual race and ethnicity to obtain highly valid results for % fat and FFM. Estimates from DXA, ADP and IB were also valid. The BIS may demonstrate greater TE for all racial and ethnic cohorts and results should be interpreted cautiously.
Excess sleep is associated with higher risk of stroke, but whether the risk is modified by age and if it remains elevated after accounting for the competing risk of death is not well understood.
We used nine years of the Canadian Community Health Survey between 2000 to 2016 to obtain self-reported sleep duration and created a cohort of individuals without prior stroke, heart disease, or cancer. We linked to hospital records to determine subsequent admissions or emergency department visits for acute stroke until December 31, 2017. We used Cox proportional hazard models to determine the association between sleep duration and risk of stroke, assessing for modification by age and sex and adjusting for demographic, vascular, and social factors. We obtained cumulative incidence of stroke accounting for the competing risk of death.
There were 82,795 individuals in our cohort who met inclusion criteria and had self-reported sleep duration, with 1705 stroke events in follow-up. There was an association between excess sleep (≥10 h/night) and risk of stroke in those <70 years (fully adjusted hazard ratio 2.29, 95% CI 1.04–5.06), but not ≥70 years of age, with a similar association after accounting for the competing risk of death.
Sleep duration ≥10 h/night is associated with increased risk of stroke in those <70 years of age. The findings support current guidelines for 7–9 h of sleep per night. Further research is needed to elucidate the relationship between sleep and cerebrovascular disease.
Understanding the effects of acute feeding on body composition and metabolic measures is essential to the translational component and practical application of measurement and clinical use. To investigate the influence of acute feeding on the validity of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), a four-compartment model (4C) and indirect calorimetry metabolic outcomes, thirty-nine healthy young adults (n 19 females; age: 21·8 (sd 3·1) years, weight; 71·5 (sd 10·0) kg) participated in a randomised cross-over study. Subjects were provided one of four randomised meals on separate occasions (high carbohydrate, high protein, ad libitum or fasted baseline) prior to body composition and metabolic assessments. Regardless of macronutrient content, acute feeding increased DXA percent body fat (%fat) for the total sample and females (average constant error (CE):–0·30 %; total error (TE): 2·34 %), although not significant (P = 0·062); the error in males was minimal (CE: 0·11 %; TE: 0·86 %). DXA fat mass (CE: 0·26 kg; TE: 0·75 kg) and lean mass (LM) (CE: 0·83 kg; TE: 1·23 kg) were not altered beyond measurement error for the total sample. 4C %fat was significantly impacted from all acute feedings (avg CE: 0·46 %; TE: 3·7 %). 4C fat mass (CE: 0·71 kg; TE: 3·38 kg) and fat-free mass (CE: 0·55 kg; TE: 3·05 kg) exceeded measurement error for the total sample. RMR was increased for each feeding condition (TE: 1666·9 kJ/d; 398 kcal/d). Standard pre-testing fasting guidelines may be important when evaluating DXA and 4C %fat, whereas additional DXA variables (fat mass and LM) may not be significantly impacted by an acute meal. Measuring body composition via DXA under less stringent pre-testing guidelines may be valid and increase feasibility of testing in clinical settings.
Evidence of the health and environmental harms of red meat is growing, yet little is known about which harms may be most impactful to include in meat reduction messages. This study examined which harms consumers are most aware of and which most discourage them from wanting to eat red meat.
Within-subjects randomised experiment. Participants responded to questions about their awareness of, and perceived discouragement in response to, eight health and eight environmental harms of red meat presented in random order. Discouragement was assessed on a 1-to-5 Likert-type scale.
544 US parents.
A minority of participants reported awareness that red meat contributes to health harms (ranging from 8 % awareness for prostate cancer to 28 % for heart disease) or environmental harms (ranging from 13 % for water shortages and deforestation to 22 % for climate change). Among specific harms, heart disease elicited the most discouragement (mean = 2·82 out of 5), followed by early death (mean = 2·79) and plants and animals going extinct (mean = 2·75), though most harms elicited similar discouragement (range of means, 2·60–2·82). In multivariable analyses, participants who were younger, identified as Black, identified as politically liberal, had higher general perceptions that red meat is bad for health and had higher usual red meat consumption reported being more discouraged from wanting to eat red meat in response to health and environmental harms (all P < 0·05).
Messages about a variety of health and environmental harms of red meat could inform consumers and motivate reductions in red meat consumption.
The 2020 update of the Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations (CSBPR) for the Secondary Prevention of Stroke includes current evidence-based recommendations and expert opinions intended for use by clinicians across a broad range of settings. They provide guidance for the prevention of ischemic stroke recurrence through the identification and management of modifiable vascular risk factors. Recommendations address triage, diagnostic testing, lifestyle behaviors, vaping, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, other cardiac conditions, antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies, and carotid and vertebral artery disease. This update of the previous 2017 guideline contains several new or revised recommendations. Recommendations regarding triage and initial assessment of acute transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor stroke have been simplified, and selected aspects of the etiological stroke workup are revised. Updated treatment recommendations based on new evidence have been made for dual antiplatelet therapy for TIA and minor stroke; anticoagulant therapy for atrial fibrillation; embolic strokes of undetermined source; low-density lipoprotein lowering; hypertriglyceridemia; diabetes treatment; and patent foramen ovale management. A new section has been added to provide practical guidance regarding temporary interruption of antithrombotic therapy for surgical procedures. Cancer-associated ischemic stroke is addressed. A section on virtual care delivery of secondary stroke prevention services in included to highlight a shifting paradigm of care delivery made more urgent by the global pandemic. In addition, where appropriate, sex differences as they pertain to treatments have been addressed. The CSBPR include supporting materials such as implementation resources to facilitate the adoption of evidence into practice and performance measures to enable monitoring of uptake and effectiveness of recommendations.
Health utility instruments are increasingly being used to measure impairment in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after stroke. Population-based studies of HRQoL after stroke and assessment of differences by age and functional domain are needed.
We used the Canadian Community Health Survey linked with administrative databases to determine HRQoL using the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) among those with prior hospitalization or emergency department visit for stroke and compared to controls without stroke. We used multivariable linear regression to determine the difference in HUI3 between those with stroke and controls for the global index and individual attributes, with assessment for modification by age (<60, 60–74, and 75+ years) and sex, and we combined estimates across survey years using random effects meta-analysis.
Our cohort contained 1240 stroke survivors and 123,765 controls and was weighted to be representative of the Canadian household population. Mean health utility was 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58, 0.68) for those with stroke and 0.83 (95% CI 0.82, 0.84) for controls. There was significant modification by age, but not sex, with the greatest adjusted reduction in HUI3 among stroke respondents aged 60–74 years. Individual HUI3 attributes with the largest reductions in utility among stroke survivors compared to controls were mobility, cognition, emotion, and pain.
In this population-based study, the reduction in HUI3 among stroke survivors compared to controls was greatest among respondents aged 60–74, and in attributes of mobility, cognition, emotion, and pain. These results highlight the persistent impairment of HRQoL in the chronic phase of stroke and potential targets for community support.
Disasters have many deleterious effects and are becoming more frequent. From a health-care perspective, disasters may cause periods of stress for hospitals and health-care systems. Telemedicine is a rapidly growing technology that has been used to improve access to health-care during disasters. Telemedicine applied in disasters is referred to as disaster telemedicine. Our objective was to conduct a scoping literature review on current use of disaster telemedicine to develop recommendations addressing the most common barriers to implementation of a telemedicine system for regional disaster health response in the United States. Publications on telemedicine in disasters were collected from online databases. This included both publications in English and those translated into English. Predesigned inclusion/exclusion criteria and a PRISMA flow diagram were applied. The PRISMA flow diagram was used on the basis that it would help streamline the available literature. Literature that met the criteria was scored by 2 reviewers who rated relevance to commonly identified disaster telemedicine implementation barriers, as well as how disaster telemedicine systems were implemented. We also identified other frequently mentioned themes and briefly summarized recommendations for those topics. Literature scoring resulted in the following topics: telemedicine usage (42 publications), system design and operating models (43 publications), as well as difficulties with credentialing (5 publications), licensure (6 publications), liability (4 publications), reimbursement (5 publications), and technology (24 publications). Recommendations from each category were qualitatively summarized.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Urine tumor DNA non-invasively detects minimal residual disease and infers tumor mutational burden in locally advanced bladder cancer prior to radical cystectomy, which may potentially enable the selection of patients for bladder-sparing treatment or facilitate personalized adjuvant immunotherapy. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Standard-of-care treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is radical cystectomy. The inability to assess minimal residual disease (MRD) non-invasively limits our ability to offer bladder-sparing treatment. We sought to develop a liquid biopsy solution via urine tumor DNA (utDNA) analysis. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We applied uCAPP-Seq, a targeted sequencing method for detecting utDNA, to urine cell-free DNA samples acquired on the day of radical cystectomy from 42 patients with bladder cancer. utDNA variant-calling was performed non-invasively without prior tumor mutational knowledge. The overall utDNA level for each patient was represented by the non-silent mutation with the highest variant allele fraction after removing germline variants. Urine was similarly analyzed from 15 healthy adults. Tumor mutational burden (TMB) was inferred from the number of non-silent mutations detected in urine cell-free DNA by applying a linear relationship derived from TCGA whole exome sequencing of 409 MIBC tumors. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: utDNA levels were significantly higher in patients with residual disease detected in their surgical pathology compared to those who achieved a pathologic complete response (P = 0.002). Using an optimal utDNA threshold to define MRD detection, positive utDNA MRD significantly predicted the absence of pathologic complete response with a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 81%. Positive utDNA MRD also portended significantly worse progression-free survival (HR = 7.4; P = 0.03) compared to negative utDNA MRD. Furthermore, we applied a linear relationship (Pearson r = 0.84; P < 0.0001) to identify patients with high inferred TMB who may have been candidates for early immune checkpoint blockade. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: utDNA MRD analysis prior to surgery correlated significantly with pathologic response and progression-free survival, which may help select patients for bladder-sparing treatment. utDNA can also non-invasively infer TMB, which could facilitate personalized adjuvant therapy for patients in the future.
To describe the neuroimaging and other methods for assessing vascular contributions to neurodegeneration in the Comprehensive Assessment of Neurodegeneration and Dementia (COMPASS-ND) study, a Canadian multi-center, prospective longitudinal cohort study, including reliability and feasibility in the first 200 participants.
COMPASS-ND includes persons with Alzheimer’s disease (AD; n = 150), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Lewy body dementias (LBDs) (200), mixed dementia (200), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; 400), subcortical ischemic vascular MCI (V-MCI; 200), subjective cognitive impairment (SCI; 300), and cognitively intact elderly controls (660). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was acquired according to the validated Canadian Dementia Imaging Protocol and visually reviewed by either of two experienced readers blinded to clinical characteristics. Other relevant assessments include history of vascular disease and risk factors, blood pressure, height and weight, cholesterol, glucose, and hemoglobin A1c.
Analyzable data were obtained in 197/200 of whom 18 of whom were clinically diagnosed with V-MCI or mixed dementia. The overall prevalence of infarcts was 24.9%, microbleeds was 24.6%, and high white matter hyperintensity (WMH) was 31.0%. MRI evidence of a potential vascular contribution to neurodegeneration was seen in 12.9%–40.0% of participants clinically diagnosed with another condition such as AD. Inter-rater reliability was good to excellent.
COMPASS-ND will be a useful platform to study vascular brain injury and its association with risk factors, biomarkers, and cognitive and functional decline across multiple age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Initial findings show that MRI-defined vascular brain injury is common in all cognitive syndromes and is under-recognized clinically.
During the Randomized Assessment of Rapid Endovascular Treatment (EVT) of Ischemic Stroke (ESCAPE) trial, patient-level micro-costing data were collected. We report a cost-effectiveness analysis of EVT, using ESCAPE trial data and Markov simulation, from a universal, single-payer system using a societal perspective over a patient’s lifetime.
Primary data collection alongside the ESCAPE trial provided a 3-month trial-specific, non-model, based cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). A Markov model utilizing ongoing lifetime costs and life expectancy from the literature was built to simulate the cost per QALY adopting a lifetime horizon. Health states were defined using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores. Uncertainty was explored using scenario analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis.
The 3-month trial-based analysis resulted in a cost per QALY of $201,243 of EVT compared to the best standard of care. In the model-based analysis, using a societal perspective and a lifetime horizon, EVT dominated the standard of care; EVT was both more effective and less costly than the standard of care (−$91). When the time horizon was shortened to 1 year, EVT remains cost savings compared to standard of care (∼$15,376 per QALY gained with EVT). However, if the estimate of clinical effectiveness is 4% less than that demonstrated in ESCAPE, EVT is no longer cost savings compared to standard of care.
Results support the adoption of EVT as a treatment option for acute ischemic stroke, as the increase in costs associated with caring for EVT patients was recouped within the first year of stroke, and continued to provide cost savings over a patient’s lifetime.
Contemporary data on temporal trends in acute stroke incidence, specific to stroke type and age, are lacking. We sought to evaluate temporal trends in incidence of ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage over 15 years in a large population.
We used linked administrative data to identify all emergency department visits and hospital admissions for first-ever ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage in Ontario, Canada from 2003–2017. We evaluated annual age-/sex-standardized incidence per 100,000 person-years for ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage across the study period. We used negative binomial regression to determine incidence rate ratios for each year compared to 2003, with assessment of modification by age, sex, or stroke type.
Our cohort had 163,574 people with stroke (88% ischemic stroke). For ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage combined, age-/sex-standardized incidence decreased between 2003 and 2011 (standardized rate 109.4 to 85.8 per 100,000; 22%), then increased until 2017 (standardized rate 96.8 per 100,000; 13%). The pattern of change was similar for ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage, and for men and women, but was modified by age. For those aged 60 and above, adjusted incidence rate ratios decreased from 2003 to 2011 then subsequently increased, whereas for those aged <60 years incidence rate ratios increased throughout the entire study time period, particularly after 2011.
Acute stroke incidence decreased from 2003 to 2011 but subsequently increased until 2017. Among those aged <60, incidence increased continuously from 2003 to 2017 but especially after 2011. The underlying reasons for these changes should be determined.
Background: Chlorhexidine bathing reduces bacterial skin colonization and prevents infections in specific patient populations. As chlorhexidine use becomes more widespread, concerns about bacterial tolerance to chlorhexidine have increased; however, testing for chlorhexidine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) is challenging. We adapted a broth microdilution (BMD) method to determine whether chlorhexidine MICs changed over time among 4 important healthcare-associated pathogens. Methods: Antibiotic-resistant bacterial isolates (Staphylococcus aureus from 2005 to 2019 and Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae complex from 2011 to 2019) were collected through Emerging Infections Program surveillance in 2 sites (Georgia and Tennessee) or through public health reporting in 1 site (Orange County, California). A convenience sample of isolates were collected from facilities with varying amounts of chlorhexidine use. We performed BMD testing using laboratory-developed panels with chlorhexidine digluconate concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 64 μg/mL. After successfully establishing reproducibility with quality control organisms, 3 laboratories performed MIC testing. For each organism, epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) were established using ECOFFinder. Results: Among 538 isolates tested (129 S. aureus, 158 E. coli, 142 K. pneumoniae, and 109 E. cloacae complex), S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and E. cloacae complex ECVs were 8, 4, 64, and 64 µg/mL, respectively (Table 1). Moreover, 14 isolates had an MIC above the ECV (12 E. coli and 2 E. cloacae complex). The MIC50 of each species is reported over time (Table 2). Conclusions: Using an adapted BMD method, we found that chlorhexidine MICs did not increase over time among a limited sample of S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and E. cloacae complex isolates. Although these results are reassuring, continued surveillance for elevated chlorhexidine MICs in isolates from patients with well-characterized chlorhexidine exposure is needed as chlorhexidine use increases.
Head impact exposure (HIE) in youth football is a public health concern. The objective of this study was to determine if one season of HIE in youth football was related to cognitive changes.
Over 200 participants (ages 9–13) wore instrumented helmets for practices and games to measure the amount of HIE sustained over one season. Pre- and post-season neuropsychological tests were completed. Test score changes were calculated adjusting for practice effects and regression to the mean and used as the dependent variables. Regression models were calculated with HIE variables predicting neuropsychological test score changes.
For the full sample, a small effect was found with season average rotational values predicting changes in list-learning such that HIE was related to negative score change: standardized beta (β) = -.147, t(205) = -2.12, and p = .035. When analyzed by age clusters (9–10, 11–13) and adding participant weight to models, the R2 values increased. Splitting groups by weight (median split), found heavier members of the 9–10 cohort with significantly greater change than lighter members. Additionaly, significantly more participants had clinically meaningful negative changes: X2 = 10.343, p = .001.
These findings suggest that in the 9–10 age cluster, the average seasonal level of HIE had inverse, negative relationships with cognitive change over one season that was not found in the older group. The mediation effects of age and weight have not been explored previously and appear to contribute to the effects of HIE on cognition in youth football players.
To evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a 152-item semi-quantitative FFQ (SFFQ) for estimating flavonoid intakes.
Over a 1-year period, participants completed two SFFQ and two weighed 7-d dietary records (7DDR). Flavonoid intakes from the SFFQ were estimated separately using Harvard (SFFQHarvard) and Phenol-Explorer (SFFQPE) food composition databases. 7DDR flavonoid intakes were derived using the Phenol-Explorer database (7DDRPE). Validity was assessed using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients deattenuated for random measurement error (rs), and reproducibility was assessed using rank intraclass correlation coefficients.
This validation study included primarily participants from two large observational cohort studies.
Six hundred forty-one men and 724 women.
When compared with two 7DDRPE, the validity of total flavonoid intake assessed by SFFQPE was high for both men and women (rs = 0·77 and rs = 0·74, respectively). The rs for flavonoid subclasses ranged from 0·47 for flavones to 0·78 for anthocyanins in men and from 0·46 for flavonols to 0·77 for anthocyanins in women. We observed similarly moderate (0·4–0·7) to high (≥0·7) validity when using SFFQHarvard estimates, except for flavonesHarvard (rs = 0·25 for men and rs = 0·19 for women). The SFFQ demonstrated high reproducibility for total flavonoid and flavonoid subclass intake estimates when using either food composition database. The intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0·69 (flavonolsPE) to 0·80 (proanthocyanidinsPE) in men and from 0·67 (flavonolsPE) to 0·77 (flavan-3-ol monomersHarvard) in women.
SFFQ-derived intakes of total flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses (except for flavones) are valid and reproducible for both men and women.