The aim of the present study was to identify and describe the factors influencing feeding practices of children aged 6–23 months in Rwanda. This is a cross-sectional descriptive qualitative study. A total of ten focus group discussions were conducted separately with mothers, fathers, grandmothers and community health workers (CHWs) from five different districts in Rwanda. The discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analysed using qualitative data analysis software, Atlas.ti. The study participants were mothers, fathers and grandmothers of children aged 6–23 months and CHWs in charge of child health. Caregivers’ knowledge and beliefs about the benefits of breast-feeding and timely introduction of complementary food were found to be the primary individual factors facilitating good infant and young child feeding practices. The common belief of caregivers that infants should be given liquids (thin gruel, fruit juices and meat broth) as first foods instead of semi-solid foods was a barrier to good feeding practices. The community-based nutrition education and counselling programmes were facilitators of good complementary practices at the group level. At the society level, poverty in rural agrarian households was a barrier to optimal feeding practices. The study shows that there is a need to empower caregivers with more specific guidelines, especially on complementary feeding.