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The main aim of the current study was to present the abilities of widely used crop models to simulate four different field crops (winter wheat, spring barley, silage maize and winter oilseed rape). The 13 models were tested under Central European conditions represented by three locations in the Czech Republic, selected using temperature and precipitation gradients for the target crops in this region. Based on observed crop phenology and yield from 1991 to 2010, performances of individual models and their ensemble were analyzed. Modelling of anthesis and maturity was generally best simulated by the ensemble median (EnsMED) compared to the ensemble mean and individual models. The yield was better simulated by the best models than estimated by an ensemble. Higher accuracy was achieved for spring crops, with the best results for silage maize, while the lowest accuracy was for winter oilseed rape according to the index of agreement (IA). Based on EnsMED, the root mean square errors (RMSEs) for yield was 1365 kg/ha for winter wheat, 1105 kg/ha for spring barley, 1861 kg/ha for silage maize and 969 kg/ha for winter oilseed rape. The AQUACROP and EPIC models performed best in terms of spread around the line of best fit (RMSE, IA). In some cases, the individual models failed. For crop rotation simulations, only models with reasonable accuracy (i.e. without failures) across all included crops within the target environment should be selected. Application crop models ensemble is one way to increase the accuracy of predictions, but lower variability of ensemble outputs was confirmed.
In the era of widespread resistance, there are 2 time points at which most empiric prescription errors occur among hospitalized adults: (1) upon admission (UA) when treating patients at risk of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) and (2) during hospitalization, when treating patients at risk of extensively drug-resistant organisms (XDROs). These errors adversely influence patient outcomes and the hospital’s ecology.
Design and setting:
Retrospective cohort study, Shamir Medical Center, Israel, 2016.
Adult patients (aged >18 years) hospitalized with sepsis.
Logistic regressions were used to develop predictive models for (1) MDRO UA and (2) nosocomial XDRO. Their performances on the derivation data sets, and on 7 other validation data sets, were assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC AUC).
In total, 4,114 patients were included: 2,472 patients with sepsis UA and 1,642 with nosocomial sepsis. The MDRO UA score included 10 parameters, and with a cutoff of ≥22 points, it had an ROC AUC of 0.85. The nosocomial XDRO score included 7 parameters, and with a cutoff of ≥36 points, it had an ROC AUC of 0.87. The range of ROC AUCs for the validation data sets was 0.7–0.88 for the MDRO UA score and was 0.66–0.75 for nosocomial XDRO score. We created a free web calculator (https://assafharofe.azurewebsites.net).
A simple electronic calculator could aid with empiric prescription during an encounter with a septic patient. Future implementation studies are needed to evaluate its utility in improving patient outcomes and in reducing overall resistances.
A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 12 independent loci significantly associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Polygenic risk scores (PRS), derived from the GWAS, can be used to assess genetic overlap between ADHD and other traits. Using ADHD samples from several international sites, we derived PRS for ADHD from the recent GWAS to test whether genetic variants that contribute to ADHD also influence two cognitive functions that show strong association with ADHD: attention regulation and response inhibition, captured by reaction time variability (RTV) and commission errors (CE).
The discovery GWAS included 19 099 ADHD cases and 34 194 control participants. The combined target sample included 845 people with ADHD (age: 8–40 years). RTV and CE were available from reaction time and response inhibition tasks. ADHD PRS were calculated from the GWAS using a leave-one-study-out approach. Regression analyses were run to investigate whether ADHD PRS were associated with CE and RTV. Results across sites were combined via random effect meta-analyses.
When combining the studies in meta-analyses, results were significant for RTV (R2 = 0.011, β = 0.088, p = 0.02) but not for CE (R2 = 0.011, β = 0.013, p = 0.732). No significant association was found between ADHD PRS and RTV or CE in any sample individually (p > 0.10).
We detected a significant association between PRS for ADHD and RTV (but not CE) in individuals with ADHD, suggesting that common genetic risk variants for ADHD influence attention regulation.
Recent reports on the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the USA indicate that despite significant declines in CVD mortality in the late 20th century, this decline is now decelerating and may be worsened by inequalities in health care. Social factors contribute to most of the cardiovascular health disparities documented to date. Hispanics/Latinos and African-Americans share a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and experience higher rates of poverty and social stressors than non-Hispanic Whites. We propose that the use of social and behavioral data beyond basic and sometimes loose identifiers of race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and occupation would inform clinical practice and greatly facilitate the provision of adequate guidance and support to patients regarding continuity of care, adherence to medications and treatment plans, and engagement of participants in future research. This perspective briefly highlights factors deemed to be critical for the advancement of Hispanic/Latino health and delineates pathways toward future applications.
Compare the efficacy of two interventions addressing emotional and existential well-being in early life-limiting illness.
Primary trial analysis (n = 135) included patients with advanced cancer, congestive heart failure, or end-stage renal disease; Arm 1 received the Outlook intervention, addressing issues of life completion and preparation, and Arm 2 received relaxation meditation (RM). Primary outcomes at five weeks (primary endpoint) and seven weeks (secondary): completion and preparation (QUAL-E); secondary outcomes: anxiety (POMS) quality of life (FACT-G) and spiritual well-being (FACIT-Sp) subscales of faith, meaning, and peace.
Average age was 62; 56% were post-high school-educated, 54% were married, 52% white, 44% female, and 70% had a cancer diagnosis. At baseline, participants demonstrated low levels of anxiety (<5 on POMS subscale) and depression (<10 on CESD) relative to population norms. Results of the primary analysis revealed no significant differences in mean Preparation by treatment arm at five weeks (14.4 Outlook vs. 14.8 RM; between-group difference −0.4 [95% CI, −1.6, 0.8], p = 0.49) or seven weeks (15.2 vs.15.4; between-group difference −0.2 [95% CI, −1.5, 1.0], p = 0.73). There were also no significant differences in mean Life Completion by treatment arm between five weeks (26.6 Outlook vs. 26.3 RM; between-group difference 0.2 [95% CI, −1.2, 1.7], p = 0.76) or seven weeks (26.5 vs. 27.5; between-group difference −1.0 [95% CI, −2.7, 0.7], p = 0.23). Compared to RM, Outlook participants did not have significant differences over time in the secondary outcomes of overall quality of life, anxiety, depression, FACT-G subscales, and FACIT-Sp subscales.
In early-stage life-limiting illness, Outlook did not demonstrate a significant difference in primary or secondary outcomes relative to RM. Results underscore the importance of pre-screening for distress. Qualitatively, Outlook participants were able to express suppressed emotions, place illness context, reflect on adaptations, and strengthen identity. Screening for distress and identifying specified measures of distress, beyond anxiety and depression, is essential in our ability to adequately assess the multi-dimensional mechanisms that decrease existential suffering.
The co-infection between visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has increased in several countries in the world. The current serological tests are not suitable since they present low sensitivity to detect the most of VL/HIV cases, and a more precise diagnosis should be performed. In this context, in the present study, an immunoproteomics approach was performed using Leishmania infantum antigenic extracts and VL, HIV and VL/HIV patients sera, besides healthy subjects samples; aiming to identify antigenic markers for these clinical conditions. Results showed that 43 spots were recognized by antibodies in VL and VL/HIV sera, and 26 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Between them, β-tubulin was expressed, purified and tested in ELISA experiments as a proof of concept for validation of our immunoproteomics findings and results showed high sensitivity and specificity values to detect VL and VL/HIV patients. In conclusion, the identified proteins in the present work could be considered as candidates for future studies aiming to improvement of the diagnosis of VL and VL/HIV co-infection.
In our work we propose to use the adult developmental eye movement test (A-DEM) of Gene Sampedro et al, for the study of saccadic movements in schizophrenia.
To study the importance of saccades and attention in a sample of institutionalized patients with schizophrenia in a Unit of Psychosocial Rehabilitation.
Sample formed by 30 people.15 patients and 15 controls. 15 patients were corresponding to all the schizophrenic patients admitted in January, 2009 in a Unit of Psycosocial Rehabilitation of Conxo's Psychiatric Hospital. The 15 of the group control were selected of random form between sanitary personnel without psychiatric pathology, homogenizing the variables chronological age and sex with regard to the group of investigation.
The A-DEM vertical half to 44.37 seconds in the control group versus 59.54 seconds in the sample of patients. Regarding the results of the horizontal A-DEM obtained an average score of 47.07 seconds compared to control group obtained 60.68 seconds in the group of patients. The schizophrenic patients are characterized for having an attention diminished in 87 %, opposite to 47 % of the group control that they have a normal attention and 40 % increased. These differences of saccadic movements and of the attention are statistically significant.
Schizophrenic patients have few saccades both horizontally and vertically slower than normal people.
Schizophrenic patients show a marked deficit of attention to the normal population.
To explore the relationship between symptomatic and functional outcomes in adults (age 18-65 years) with ADHD during open label treatment with PR OROS MPH.
Post hoc analyses of a 7-week open-label extension (OLE) (N=370) of a 5 week, placebo controlled double-blind study (DB) which explored safety, efficacy, functional and quality of life outcomes in subjects with a diagnosis of ADHD (DSM-IV). Medication was flexibly dosed (18-90 mg/day) and adjusted individually to best effect during OLE. Regression analyses were performed on the change from DB baseline at OL endpoint in functionality and quality of life as measured by the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and Quality of Life (Q-LES-Q). Baseline score, country, randomization group, sex, change from baseline in CAARS Hyperactivity / Impulsivity, CAARS Inattention and CGI-S at DB endpoint were included as covariates in the analyses.
337 / 370 patients completed the 7-week open label treatment. Improvement on CAARS Hyperactivity / Impulsivity at DB endpoint was significantly related with improvement in SDS “work”, “social life”, “family life” (at least p< 0.005) and “total score” as well as quality of life (p< 0.05) at the end of open label treatment. Change in CGI-S and CAARS Inattention at DB endpoint vs. DB baseline were not related with improvements in any of the functional or quality of life scales at OL endpoint (p>0.05).
These results indicate that improvement in daily functioning and QOL under active treatment may be particularly related to improvement in hyperactivity symptoms.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is characterized by severe fatigue associated with pain, sleep disturbance, attentional impairment and headaches. Evidence points towards a prominent role for Central Nervous System in its pathogenesis, and alterations in serotoninergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission have been described.
Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) courses with inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. It affects children and persists into adulthood in 50% of patients. Dopamine transporter abnormalities lead to impaired neurotransmission of catecholaminergic frontal-subcortical-cerebellar circuits.
To describe the prevalence of ADHD in a sample of CFS patients, and the clinical implications of the association.
To study the relationship between CFS and ADHD.
The initial sample consisted of 142 patients, of whom 9 were excluded because of severe psychopathology or incomplete evaluation. All the patients (age 49 ± 87; 94,7 women) received CFS diagnoses according to Fukuda criteria. ADHD was assessed with a diagnostic interview (CAADID), ADHD Rating Scale and the scale WURS, for childhood diagnose. The scales FIS-40, HAD, STAI and Pluthik Risk of Suicide (RS) were administrated.
38 patients (28,8%) were diagnosed of childhood ADHD (4 combined, 22 hyperactive-impulsive, 12 inattentive) and persisted into adulthood in 28 (21,1%; 5 combined, 4 hyperactive-impulsive, 19 inattentive). There were no differences in Fukuda criteria profile and FIS-40 between groups. ADHD patients scored higher in HAD-Anxiety (9,88 ± 4,82 vs. 12,57 ± 3,49; p = 0,007), HAD-Depression (9,69 ± 4,84 vs. 12,04 ± 4,53; p = 0,023), STAI-E (30,55 ± 14,53 vs. 38,41 ± 11,35; p = 0,012), and RS (6,13 ± 3,48 vs. 8,49 ± 3,07; p = 0,002).
ADHD is frequent in CFS patients and it is associated with more severe clinical profile.
Immigration to Spain is a recent but rapidly growing fenomena. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the immigrants relative to natives is an inconclusive theme, given that several studies have found contradictory results.
This study presents sociodemographic characteristics and the prevalence of mood disorders (detected with MINI) of 842 adults (411 Latinos and 431 Natives), attending primary care in the greater Barcelona metropolitan area.
Most of the sample was female (n=591; 70.2%), the mean age was 34.7 (±9.8) years, range 18-65. Significant (p< 0,001) differences were found between the two groups in: scholarization, housing, work status, income and percived social network.
The prevalence of actual major depresssive disorder (MDD) was 12.7% in the total sample, with a higer prevalence in the Latinos (n=68; 16.5%) than Natives (n=39; 9.0%); p=0.001 X2=10.57.There was no difference in total prevalences of other mood disorders between the two groups. Analysis -through logistic regression- of only those patients with complete data, (n=613; 307 Latinos and 306 Natives) showed that the probability of MDD was higer in Latinos than in Native patients (OR= 2.4; 95% CI= 1.5-4.0). After adjusting for gender and all the significantly different variables, the higer risk of MDD in Latinos disappeared (OR= 1.3; 95% CI= 0.7-2.4).
From these data we can conlude that the relation between immigrant status and depression is not direct but rather mediated by disadvantaged social conditions. In further similar studies social variables should be considered.
Known by many different names-culture broker, community interpreter, medical interpreter, and communication facilitator-the intercultural mediator has as a primary task the facilitation of communication and the therapeutic relationship in the presence of linguistic and/or cultural difference. The Immigration Plan of “la Caixa” Social and Cultural Outreach Projects has undertaken an ambitious project to train all of the cultural mediators in Spain, including both those currently working and those newly entering the field, to meet existing needs. In the first phase of the project, the training was developed in Catalunya, in collaboration with the the Catalan Department of Health, executed by the Psychiatry Department of the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Autonomous University of Barcelona) and certified by the Health Studies Institute of the Department of Health. Drawing from the four years experience of the NGO SURT and the Department of Psychiatry of the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, the program provides 200 hours of theoretical and 1200 hours of practical training. 50 currently employed intercultural mediators and 30 novices are being trained. In subsequent phases the training will be adapted to needs of other autonomous regions of Spain. Modules include medical anthropology, Western biomedicine, community health, linguistic interpretation, cultural competence, professional identity, and ethics. Small group supervision provides a supportive environment to facilitate the application of theory to practice. Finally, high quality training materials were developed specifically for the course. Preliminary evaluations of the project are positive despite some unanticipated complications.
In the past few decades, new and more efficient techniques to help solve fertility problems have become widely available throughout the developed world. The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences on psychopathology factors between women who had conceived after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and women who had conceived naturally.
The sample was composed of 41 pregnant women of whom 28 women had conceived through assisted reproductive technology (IVF) and 13 had conceived naturally. Women were evaluated by week 20 of pregnancy at the Infanta Cristina University Hospital Obstetrics and Gynecology Service, in Badajoz. Women consented to complete the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R).
IVF women were characterized by higher scores on Anxiety Scale (t = 3.90; p = 0.045) and lower scores on Hostility Scale (t = 4.35; p = 0.041) than women who had conceived naturally. There were no differences in the others scales.
IVF women appear to present a temperamental profile characterized by a tendency to anxiety. Further research is needed to firstly, confirm these preliminary findings, and secondly, to longitudinally explore its impact on pregnancy outcome and mother-infant attachment.
Once daily (q.d.) osmotic release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate has demonstrated to be as efficacious as three times a day (t.i.d.) immediate release (IR) methylphenidate in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but with superior adherence. However, although ADHD continues into adulthood, data in adults are lacking. Effectiveness, adherence to treatment and patient's satisfaction were studied in adults with ADHD before and after switching from methylphenidate IR to OROS presentation.
Seventy newly diagnosed adults with ADHD were treated with t.i.d. methylphenidate IR and, after 3 months, were switched to q.d. OROS formulation and were followed up during 3 additional months. Effectiveness was evaluated with the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) and the Clinical Global Impression Improvement (CGI-I) Scale, adherence to treatment with the Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire (SMAQ) and patient satisfaction with the treatment. Effectiveness, adherence and satisfaction were compared before and after treatment switch.
ADHD-RS score changed from 34.6 (10.9) at baseline to 25.1 (9.1) while receiving IR methylphenidate and to 15.1 (7.2) while on OROS formulation. Furthermore, methylphenidate switch was associated with an increase of the rate of patients repondents to treatment, from 28.6% to 91.4%. The administration of methylphenidate OROS was associated with better scores in all items of the SMAQ. Methylphenidate OROS was preferred by 97% of patients. All differences were statistically significant. In conclusion, switch from t.i.d. IR to q.d. OROS methylphenidate was associated with an improvement in adherence, patient's satisfaction, and effectiveness.
Verbal working memory span is decreased in patients with schizophrenia, and this might contribute to impairment in higher cognitive functions as well as to the formation of certain clinical symptoms. Processing speed has been identified as a crucial factor in cognitive efficiency in this population. We tested the hypothesis that decreased processing speed underlies the verbal working memory deficit in patients and mediates the associations between working memory span and clinical symptoms.
Forty-nine schizophrenia inpatients recruited from units for chronic and acute patients, and forty-five healthy participants, were involved in the study. Verbal working memory span was assessed by means of the letter-number span. The Digit Copy test was used to assess motor speed, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test to assess cognitive speed.
The working memory span was significantly impaired in patients (F(1,90) = 4.6, P < 0.05). However, the group difference was eliminated when either the motor or the cognitive speed measure was controlled (F(1,89) = 0.03, P = 0.86, and F(1,89) = 0.03, P = 0.88). In the patient group, working memory span was significantly correlated with negative symptoms (r = –0.52, P < 0.0001) and thought disorganisation (r = –0.34, P < 0.025) scores. Regression analyses showed that the association with negative symptoms was no longer significant when the motor speed measure was controlled (β = –0.12, P = 0.20), while the association with thought disorganisation was no longer significant when the cognitive speed measure was controlled (β = –0.10, P = 0.26).
Decrement in motor and cognitive speed plays a significant role in both the verbal working memory impairment observed in patients and the associations between verbal working memory impairment and clinical symptoms.
Non-specific chronic low back pain is one of common causes of disability and a recurrent medical complaint with high costs. From rehabilitative medicine, physiotherapy programs and general postural recommendations are offered. Although this treatment is aimed to reduce disability, severity of pain and anxiety-depressive symptoms, many patients report partial improvements and recurrence of pain. Therefore, a new approach to treat this pathology with a broaden focus on psychososocial issues that might modulate pain and its evolution is required.
Aims and hypothesis
To assess the effectiveness of two complementary interventions to physiotherapy, such as relaxation techniques (specifically, sophrology) and cognitive behavioral intervention. It is hypothesized that intervention groups will significantly improve their adherence to physiotherapy and will gain control over their pain. Ultimately, this will foster better quality of life.
Longitudinal design with pre-post intervention measures and follow-up appointments (at 6 and 12 months) carried out in a sample of 66 participants. The sample will be divided into three groups: control (physiotherapy), intervention group 1 (physiotherapy & sophrology) and intervention group 2 (physiotherapy & cognitive behavioral intervention). In all groups biomedical aspects regarding type, evolution and characterization of pain as well as several psychosocial factors will be assessed.
Preliminary results are expected by December 2013.
If hypotheses are confirmed, we will be able to provide empirical evidences to justify a multidisciplinary care model for chronic low back pain, which will favor a significant cost reduction in terms of health care and human suffering.
The self-medication hypothesis suggests that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia might smoke as an attempt to self-medicate theirsymptoms. As a consequence, smoking cessation could worsen their clinical status.
To assess the clinical changes associated with tobacco cessation in a sample of smoking outpatients with schizophrenia.
Sample: 63 smoking outpatients with DSM-IV Schizophrenia from three Mental Health Centers located in Northern Spain [77.0% males; mean age (SD) = 43.90 (8.72); average daily cigarette use (SD) = 27.99 (12.55)]. Instruments: (1) Clinical symptoms: Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI). (2) Pattern of tobacco use: n° cigarettes/day; Expired carbon monoxide (CO ppm). Design: A quasi-experimental design with two groups was implemented: control group (GC − 18 patients not willing to stop smoking), and treatment group [TG − 45 patients in smoking cessation supported by nicotine patches or vareniclina (12 weeks)]. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at week 11 (end of program). Paired sample t-test was used to detect changes in clinical symptoms from baseline to follow-up.
23.1% stopped smoking (from TG). No significant differences were found between baseline and follow-up scores (p>.05) among smokers and abstinent in PANSS subscales, HDRS and CGI.
Tobacco cessation did not have a significant effect on the clinical symptoms of this group of patients. Further studies should analyze the stability of these outcomes at longer follow-ups to confirm our results.
The conceptual revisión of paraphrenia and the defenceof its clinical distinctive features with respect to other psychotic disorders(Schizofrenia or Delusional disorder
A case report: The patient is a 52 years old male who is referred to the Acute Mental Health Unit, by his primary care physician, regarding an infection caused by the Devil, who takes the form of a micro-organism.
The patient shows a long term psychotic psychopathology, based on a chronic delusion of Mystical and Esoteric nature. He describes the origins of the Universe, and explains the formation of different Civilizations throughout History, originated by the interaction of Gravity forces, Alien intelligence and the Elder Gods, in the end creating what he calls ‘The Pangea” All these powers converge in Morocco, leading the patient to believe himself to be the epicenter of the eternal fight between good and evil. He also has coenesthetic hallucinations which are secondary to those delusionas and, therefore, reinforce them.
The patient speaks with an affective indifference towards this matter, and had a superior tone of voice. He shows no awareness of the disease. He has always been socially well-adjusted, with a normal family and workinf life. He shows no processual impairment.
In this clinical case it is difficult to make an accurate diagnosis, according to the current guides for psychotic disorders. Nor does it fit the paranoid Schizophrenic disorder criteria neither the Delusional disorder criteria.
We consider that, in this case, the diagnosis does not suit he criteria for a Paranoid Schizophrenia or a delusional disorder. Even though some guides, such as the CIE 10, include the paraphrenia as part of the Delusional Disorder Spectrum, we believe it should be considered as a distinct disorder with possible intermediate traits from both. While it is true that the new diagnostic guides have given us an advantageous classification of all the mental disorders, we should not dismiss the current uselfulness of the classical studies of psychopathology regarding diagnosis.
The self-medication hypothesis proposes that schizophrenia patients may smoke as an attempt to reduce their cognitive deficits, their symptoms or the antipsychotic side-effects.
to identify the relationship between the smoking topography and psychopathology among outpatients with DSM-IV schizophrenia.
The sample included 26 smoking outpatients with DSM-IV schizophrenia from a Mental Health Center sited in the North of Spain [65.5% males; mean age (SD) = 44.66 (7.83)]. Instruments: (1) Psychopathology: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scales (PANSS); Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S); n° antipsychotic. (2) Pattern of tobacco use: n° cigarettes/day; Fargerstrom test for nicotine physical dependence; Glover-Nilsson test for nicotine psychological dependence; Expired carbon monoxide (CO ppm).
prevalence was 59.3% for non-heavy smokers [<30 cigarettes/day; Mean CO (SD)= 24 ppm (9.70)] and 40.7% for heavy smokers [≥30 cigarettes/day; Mean CO (SD) = 36 ppm (16.06)]. PANSS mean score (SD) = 54.07 (12.45); CGI-G mean score (SD) = 3.50 (1.17); Mean number of antipsychotic (SD) = 1.79 (0.88). No significant differences were found between the severity of the psychopatology (PANSS, CGI-S, n° antipsychotic) and all the variables of the pattern of tobacco use (n° cigarettes/day; expired carbon monoxide; Fargerstrom; Glover-Nilsson).
In this sample of schizophrenia patients, there is no relation between the severity of psychopathology and the dependence of nicotine. However, the sample of this study is small.