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As refugees and asylum seekers are at high risk of developing mental disorders, we assessed the effectiveness of Self-Help Plus (SH + ), a psychological intervention developed by the World Health Organization, in reducing the risk of developing any mental disorders at 12-month follow-up in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in Western Europe.
Refugees and asylum seekers with psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-12 ⩾ 3) but without a mental disorder according to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) were randomised to either SH + or enhanced treatment as usual (ETAU). The frequency of mental disorders at 12 months was measured with the M.I.N.I., while secondary outcomes included self-identified problems, psychological symptoms and other outcomes.
Of 459 participants randomly assigned to SH + or ETAU, 246 accepted to be interviewed at 12 months. No difference in the frequency of any mental disorders was found (relative risk [RR] = 0.841; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.389–1.819; p-value = 0.659). In the per protocol (PP) population, that is in participants attending at least three group-based sessions, SH + almost halved the frequency of mental disorders at 12 months compared to ETAU, however so few participants and events contributed to this analysis that it yielded a non-significant result (RR = 0.528; 95% CI 0.180–1.544; p-value = 0.230). SH + was associated with improvements at 12 months in psychological distress (p-value = 0.004), depressive symptoms (p-value = 0.011) and wellbeing (p-value = 0.001).
The present study failed to show any long-term preventative effect of SH + in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in Western European countries. Analysis of the PP population and of secondary outcomes provided signals of a potential effect of SH + in the long-term, which would suggest the value of exploring the effects of booster sessions and strategies to increase SH + adherence.
To reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) by employing peer comparison with behavioral feedback in the emergency department (ED).
A controlled before-and-after study.
The study was conducted in 5 adult EDs at teaching and community hospitals in a health system.
Adults presenting to the ED with a respiratory condition diagnosis code. Hospitalized patients and those with a diagnosis code for a non-respiratory condition for which antibiotics are or may be warranted were excluded.
After a baseline period from January 2016 to March 2018, 3 EDs implemented a feedback intervention with peer comparison between April 2018 and December 2019 for attending physicians. Also, 2 EDs in the health system served as controls. Using interrupted time series analysis, the inappropriate ARI prescribing rate was calculated as the proportion of antibiotic-inappropriate ARI encounters with a prescription. Prescribing rates were also evaluated for all ARIs. Attending physicians at intervention sites received biannual e-mails with their inappropriate prescribing rate and had access to a dashboard that was updated daily showing their performance relative to their peers.
Among 28,544 ARI encounters, the inappropriate prescribing rate remained stable at the control EDs between the 2 periods (23.0% and 23.8%). At the intervention sites, the inappropriate prescribing rate decreased significantly from 22.0% to 15.2%. Between periods, the overall ARI prescribing rate was 38.1% and 40.6% in the control group and 35.9% and 30.6% in the intervention group.
Behavioral feedback with peer comparison can be implemented effectively in the ED to reduce inappropriate prescribing for ARIs.
Alcohol relapse is often occurring to regulate negative affect during withdrawal. On the neurobiological level, alcoholism is associated with gray matter (GM) abnormalities in regions that regulate emotional experience such as the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). However, no study to our knowledge has investigated the neurobiological unpinning of affect in alcoholism at early withdrawal and the associations of OFC volume with long-term relapse risk.
One hundred and eighty-two participants were included, 95 recently detoxified alcohol dependent patients (ADP) and 87 healthy controls (HC). We measured affective states using the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS). We collected T1-weighted brain structural images and performed Voxel-based morphometry (VBM).
Findings revealed GM volume decrease in alcoholics in the prefrontal cortex (including medial OFC), anterior cingulate gyrus, and insula. GM volume in the medial OFC was positively associated with NA in the ADP group. Cox regression analysis predicted that risk to heavy relapse at 6 months increases with decreased GM volume in the medial OFC.
Negative affect during alcohol withdrawal was positively associated with OFC volume. What is more, increased GM volume in the OFC also moderated risk to heavy relapse at 6 months. Reduced GM in the OFC poses as risk to recovery from alcohol dependence and provides valuable insights into transient negative affect states during withdrawal that can trigger relapse. Implications exist for therapeutic interventions signifying the OFC as a neurobiological marker to relapse and could explain the inability of ADP to regulate internal negative affective states.
Targeted screening for carbapenem-resistant organisms (CROs), including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs), remains limited; recent data suggest that existing policies miss many carriers.
Our objective was to measure the prevalence of CRO and CPO perirectal colonization at hospital unit admission and to use machine learning methods to predict probability of CRO and/or CPO carriage.
We performed an observational cohort study of all patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) or solid organ transplant (SOT) unit at The Johns Hopkins Hospital between July 1, 2016 and July 1, 2017. Admission perirectal swabs were screened for CROs and CPOs. More than 125 variables capturing preadmission clinical and demographic characteristics were collected from the electronic medical record (EMR) system. We developed models to predict colonization probabilities using decision tree learning.
Evaluating 2,878 admission swabs from 2,165 patients, we found that 7.5% and 1.3% of swabs were CRO and CPO positive, respectively. Organism and carbapenemase diversity among CPO isolates was high. Despite including many characteristics commonly associated with CRO/CPO carriage or infection, overall, decision tree models poorly predicted CRO and CPO colonization (C statistics, 0.57 and 0.58, respectively). In subgroup analyses, however, models did accurately identify patients with recent CRO-positive cultures who use proton-pump inhibitors as having a high likelihood of CRO colonization.
In this inpatient population, CRO carriage was infrequent but was higher than previously published estimates. Despite including many variables associated with CRO/CPO carriage, models poorly predicted colonization status, likely due to significant host and organism heterogeneity.
Inadvertent hyperthermia during anaesthesia is a rare but life-threatening complication. We have encountered several cases of severe hyperthermia in paediatric patients undergoing anaesthesia for cochlear implantation.
This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of children who developed hyperthermia while undergoing cochlear implantation, and to explore possible mechanisms and predisposing factors. The anaesthetic charts of all patients aged under 18 years who underwent cochlear implantation, or mastoid or ophthalmic surgery, between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2009, at Soroka Medical Center in Beer Sheva, Israel, were reviewed. Patients undergoing mastoid and ophthalmic surgical procedures were used as controls.
A larger percentage of patients who underwent cochlear implant surgery (10 per cent) developed hyperthermia compared to controls (0.7 per cent, p < 0.05). In five of the seven cases, hyperthermia appeared in combination with tachycardia and hypercapnia, adhering to the clinical triad of malignant hyperthermia.
Patients undergoing cochlear implantation are susceptible to developing intra-operative hyperthermia. This article describes the hyperthermic events that occur during paediatric cochlear implantation, and attempts to identify potential triggers of hyperthermia.
We present preliminary results from a number of deep radio polarization surveys being made of the Magellanic Clouds at 2.3 GHz, 4.75 GHz and 8.55 GHz. Extended and linearly polarized radio emission has been found at 2.3 and 4.75 GHz from both the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). However, as the analysis of these data is not yet complete we present only some of the 4.75 GHz results at this time.
Eleven widely used crop simulation models (APSIM, CERES, CROPSYST, COUP, DAISY, EPIC, FASSET, HERMES, MONICA, STICS and WOFOST) were tested using spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) data set under varying nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates from three experimental years in the boreal climate of Jokioinen, Finland. This is the largest standardized crop model inter-comparison under different levels of N supply to date. The models were calibrated using data from 2002 and 2008, of which 2008 included six N rates ranging from 0 to 150 kg N/ha. Calibration data consisted of weather, soil, phenology, leaf area index (LAI) and yield observations. The models were then tested against new data for 2009 and their performance was assessed and compared with both the two calibration years and the test year. For the calibration period, root mean square error between measurements and simulated grain dry matter yields ranged from 170 to 870 kg/ha. During the test year 2009, most models failed to accurately reproduce the observed low yield without N fertilizer as well as the steep yield response to N applications. The multi-model predictions were closer to observations than most single-model predictions, but multi-model mean could not correct systematic errors in model simulations. Variation in soil N mineralization and LAI development due to differences in weather not captured by the models most likely was the main reason for their unsatisfactory performance. This suggests the need for model improvement in soil N mineralization as a function of soil temperature and moisture. Furthermore, specific weather event impacts such as low temperatures after emergence in 2009, tending to enhance tillering, and a high precipitation event just before harvest in 2008, causing possible yield penalties, were not captured by any of the models compared in the current study.
Since gas exchange is a primordial function of the lungs and the conductive airways, respiratory assessment is of paramount importance. Capnography has been utilized in surgical patients for over three decades to confirm tracheal intubation and assess ventilation. Nitrogen washout provides an estimate of functional residual capacity, total lung volume, deadspace volume, and alveolar volume. Clinicians typically utilize exhaled CO2 concentration against time during a respiratory cycle. A number of applications are available in and out of the operating room. Capnography can be used as a continuous monitor of alveolar ventilation in patients with lung disease or hemodynamic instability. Mainstream capnometry appears to provide more accurate PETCO2 than conventional sidestream capnometry during spontaneous breathing in non-intubated patients. In the opinion of some investigators, the technology should be employed in all cases requiring sedation in or out of the operating room.
The expanded suffocation false alarm theory (SFA) hypothesizes that dysfunction in endogenous opioidergic regulation increases sensitivity to CO2, separation distress and panic attacks. In panic disorder (PD) patients, both spontaneous clinical panics and lactate-induced panics markedly increase tidal volume (TV), whereas normals have a lesser effect, possibly due to their intact endogenous opioid system. We hypothesized that impairing the opioidergic system by naloxone could make normal controls parallel PD patients' response when lactate challenged. Whether actual separations and losses during childhood (childhood parental loss, CPL) affected naloxone-induced respiratory contrasts was explored. Subjective panic-like symptoms were analyzed although pilot work indicated that the subjective aspect of anxious panic was not well modeled by this specific protocol.
Randomized cross-over sequences of intravenous naloxone (2 mg/kg) followed by lactate (10 mg/kg), or saline followed by lactate, were given to 25 volunteers. Respiratory physiology was objectively recorded by the LifeShirt. Subjective symptomatology was also recorded.
Impairment of the endogenous opioid system by naloxone accentuates TV and symptomatic response to lactate. This interaction is substantially lessened by CPL.
Opioidergic dysregulation may underlie respiratory pathophysiology and suffocation sensitivity in PD. Comparing specific anti-panic medications with ineffective anti-panic agents (e.g. propranolol) can test the specificity of the naloxone+lactate model. A screen for putative anti-panic agents and a new pharmacotherapeutic approach are suggested. Heuristically, the experimental unveiling of the endogenous opioid system impairing effects of CPL and separation in normal adults opens a new experimental, investigatory area.