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The Revd Dr David Efird passed away at the beginning of 2020. He was 45. David was a much-loved teacher and a leading figure in philosophy of religion in the UK. He was also the co-editor of this journal between 2016 and 2018.
According to Eleonore Stump, God has a morally sufficient reason for allowing evil (or more properly, suffering) if, by allowing it, either the sufferer's permanent separation from God can be prevented or their deeper union with God can be motivated. But if, in the life to come, it is not possible for a person to be united with God, can God have a morally sufficient reason for allowing their suffering? After rejecting Stump's ingenious answer to this question, I argue that God has a morally sufficient reason to allow an inhabitant of even a maximally bad hell to suffer, namely, to prevent their further separation from God, and from themselves, and to motivate their ‘affective’ union with God.
With the application of near-infrared radiation (NIR), TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) on metallic substrates can be sintered in just 12.5 s. The photovoltaic performance of devices made with NIR sintered films match those devices made with conventionally sintered films prepared by heating for 1800 s. Here we characterise the electron transport, electron lifetime and phase-morphological properties of ultrafast NIR sintered films, using impedance spectroscopy, transient photovoltage decay and x-ray diffraction measurements. An important factor in NIR processing of TiO2 films is the peak metal temperature (PMT) and we show that during the 12.5 second heat treatment that a PMT of around 635 °C gives near identical electron transport, electron lifetime and morphological properties, as well comparable photovoltaic performance to a conventionally sintered (500 °C, 30 mins) film. What is perhaps most interesting is that the rapid heating of the TiO2 (to temperatures of up to 785°C) does not lead to a large scale rutile phase transition. As such photovoltaic performance of resultant DSC devices is maintained even though the TiO2 has been at temperatures which traditionally would have reduced cell photocurrents via anatase-to-rutile phase transition.
To examine whether home availability of energy-dense snack foods mediates the association between television (TV) viewing and energy-dense snack consumption among adolescents.
Secondary schools in Victoria, Australia.
Adolescents (n 2984) from Years 7 and 9 of secondary school completed a web-based survey, between September 2004 and July 2005, assessing their energy-dense snack food consumption, school-day and weekend-day TV viewing and home availability of energy-dense snack foods.
School-day and weekend-day TV viewing were positively associated with energy-dense snack consumption among adolescent boys (β = 0·003, P < 0·001) and girls (β = 0·03, P < 0·001). Furthermore, TV viewing (school day and weekend day) were positively associated with home availability of energy-dense snack foods among adolescent boys and girls and home availability of energy-dense snack foods was positively associated with energy-dense snack food consumption among boys (β = 0·26, P < 0·001) and girls (β = 0·28, P < 0·001). Home availability partly mediated the association between TV viewing and energy-dense snack consumption.
The results of the present study suggest that TV viewing has a significant role to play in adolescent unhealthy eating behaviours. Future research should assess the efficacy of methods to reduce adolescent energy-dense snack food consumption by targeting parents to reduce home availability of energy-dense foods and by reducing TV viewing behaviours of adolescents.
A primary challenge to the industrial uptake of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) is the ability to improve manufacturing efficiency. New thinking is required in terms of lowering cost, improving the process steps and increasing throughput. The typical manufacture of a DSC contains a number of long process steps; the sintering and dyeing of the TiO2 are prime examples. The current solution is to batch process on rigid substrates or use long energy intensive convection ovens for flexible metal substrates. Here we present a method for reducing some of the bottlenecks in the manufacturing process using near infra red radiation to speed up the thermal treatment of TiO2 and silver inks reducing their processing times to 12 and 2 seconds from normal process times of 30 and 10 minutes respectively.
UV exposure of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) results in a loss of triiodide from the electrolyte and this is as a result of direct band gap excitation of the TiO2 semiconductor. The UV stability of a typical electrolyte composition is explored further and the results show that the electrolyte is very stable to UV irradiation in the absence of TiO2 but experiences rapid triiodide loss in its presence. Furthermore, the effect of a periodic triiodide regeneration technique, applied to UV exposed DSCs, is investigated and whilst this treatment does not appear to be able to permanently reverse triiodide loss in UV exposed cells, devices that are periodically regenerated, maintain higher average photocurrents over the UV exposure period.
A nitric acid (2M) pre-treatment is shown to increase the efficiency of a standard dye sensitized solar cell mounted on a FTO glass substrate from 4.15% to 5.12%. The pre-treatment involves immersing an FTO glass electrode coated with commercial ethyl cellulose based TiO2 paste for 1-60 minutes prior to sintering at 450°C. The pre-treatment leads to agglomeration of the TiO2 creating a scattering layer which covers the acid treated surface on short term immersion (<30 mins) and penetrates the bulk layer upon long immersion. The scattering layer itself takes up less of the sensitizing (N719) dye but scatters photons in the rest of the film. The optimum immersion time under room temperature conditions was found to be ca 20 minutes since at much longer immersion times the bulk film particle agglomeration reduced efficiency. The choice of anion in the acid is critical with certain species, notably phosphate, resulting in blockage of dye absorption sites in the entire film resulting in reduced cell efficiency.
A near infrared heating method is presented which directly heats metal substrates to very high temperatures within seconds. The technique is used to heat 1mm thick titanium and stainless steel metal coupons onto which 1 cm2 commercial TiO2 pastes have been deposited within 12-25 seconds giving assembled dye sensitized solar cell efficiencies which are equivalent to cells prepared using a convection oven for 1800 seconds. The near infrared method is applicable to different paste thicknesses and paste types as well as different metal substrates. Near infrared sintering for the shortest times 12.5 seconds yielded cells with the highest efficiency compared to convection oven prepared samples. This ultrafast heating seems to drive off binder very effectively and lead to rapid sintering. Ultrafast sintering allows peak metal temperatures of 500-800 °C to be achieved without the massive losses in cell efficiency observed with the conventional heat treatment at temperatures over 600 ◦C.
To determine whether parentally reported habitual intake of specific foods differed between children with diagnosed Campylobacter jejuni infection and children of a comparison group without diagnosed infection.
Design, setting and subjects:
Information was collected from the parents or primary caregivers of South Australian children aged 1–5 years with diagnosed C. jejuni (cases, n=172) and an age- and gender-matched group of uninfected children (controls, n=173). Frequency of consumption of 106 food and drink items was determined for the preceding two months by food-frequency questionnaire. Four children in the control group had recorded diarrhoeal episodes during the assessment period and were excluded, so 169 responses were evaluated for this group. Information was gathered on possible confounders including socio-economic status. Response frequencies were classified into three levels of consumption (rarely, weekly or daily) and statistical comparison was made by frequency of consumption of foods versus the ‘rarely’ classification for cases and controls, respectively.
Frequency of consumption of most foods, including starchy foods and fruits and vegetables, did not differ between cases and controls. However, reported consumption of eight food items (block and processed cheese (slices and spread), salami/fritz (a form of processed sausage), chicken nuggets, pasteurised milk, fish (canned or fresh) and hot French fries) was significantly higher by controls.
The hypothesis that reported consumption of starchy foods was lower by cases than by controls was not supported by the data. However, consumption of some processed and unprocessed foods was higher by controls. Some of these foods have established bactericidal actions in vitro that may indicate a possible mechanism for this apparent protection.
To assess the relationship between education and the intake of a variety of individual foods, as well as groups of foods, for Australian men and women in different age groups.
Cross-sectional national survey of free-living men and women.
A sample of 2501 men and 2739 women aged 18 years and over who completed the National Nutrition Survey (NNS) 1995.
Information about the frequency of consumption of 88 food items was obtained using a food-frequency questionnaire in a nation-wide nutrition survey. Irregular and regular consumers of foods were identified according to whether they consumed individual foods less than or more than once per month. The relationship between single foods and an index of education (no post-school qualifications, vocational, university) was analysed via contingency table chi-square statistics for men and women. Food group variety scores were derived by assigning individual foods to conventional food group taxonomies, and then summing the dichotomised intake scores for individual foods within each food group. Two-way analyses of variance (education by age groups) were performed on food variety scores for men and women, separately.
While university-educated men and women consumed many individual foods more regularly than less-educated people, they were less likely to be regular consumers of several meat products. The relationship between education and food consumption was less apparent when individual food scores were aggregated into food group scores. University-educated men and women exhibited higher scores on total food group variety than the other educational groups.
Higher education is associated with the regular consumption of a wider variety of foods. Aggregation of individual food consumption indices into food variety scores may mask the apparent effects of educational background on food consumption.
Neuropsychological assessment, in the broader sense, is common clinical practice with older adults because of the widespread use of mental status examinations and dementia rating scales. In the more narrow sense, a neuropsychological assessment conducted by a clinical psychologist or clinical neuropsychologist is used less frequently and for more specific purposes. This paper outlines these uses and provides a brief overview of the different types of test that might be used, with a clinical example to illustrate the type of information gained. This review is designed not to be comprehensive, but to provide a pointer towards the latest trends in test development.
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