Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55b6f6c457-b6fb2 Total loading time: 0.189 Render date: 2021-09-26T04:47:36.635Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

The relationship between education and food consumption in the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 January 2007

Anthony Worsley*
Affiliation:
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Victoria 3125, Australia
Roswitha Blaschea
Affiliation:
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Victoria 3125, Australia
Kylie Ball
Affiliation:
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Victoria 3125, Australia
David Crawford
Affiliation:
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Victoria 3125, Australia
*
*Corresponding author: Email tonyw@deakin.edu.au
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]

Abstract

HTML view is not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.
Objective:

To assess the relationship between education and the intake of a variety of individual foods, as well as groups of foods, for Australian men and women in different age groups.

Design:

Cross-sectional national survey of free-living men and women.

Subjects:

A sample of 2501 men and 2739 women aged 18 years and over who completed the National Nutrition Survey (NNS) 1995.

Methods:

Information about the frequency of consumption of 88 food items was obtained using a food-frequency questionnaire in a nation-wide nutrition survey. Irregular and regular consumers of foods were identified according to whether they consumed individual foods less than or more than once per month. The relationship between single foods and an index of education (no post-school qualifications, vocational, university) was analysed via contingency table chi-square statistics for men and women. Food group variety scores were derived by assigning individual foods to conventional food group taxonomies, and then summing the dichotomised intake scores for individual foods within each food group. Two-way analyses of variance (education by age groups) were performed on food variety scores for men and women, separately.

Results:

While university-educated men and women consumed many individual foods more regularly than less-educated people, they were less likely to be regular consumers of several meat products. The relationship between education and food consumption was less apparent when individual food scores were aggregated into food group scores. University-educated men and women exhibited higher scores on total food group variety than the other educational groups.

Conclusions:

Higher education is associated with the regular consumption of a wider variety of foods. Aggregation of individual food consumption indices into food variety scores may mask the apparent effects of educational background on food consumption.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Authors 2004

References

1Benjamin-Garner, R, Oakes, M, Meischke, H, Meshack, A, Stone, EJ, Zapka, J, et al. Sociodemographic differences in exposure to health information. Ethnicity & Disease 2002; 12: 124–34.Google ScholarPubMed
2Finnegan, JR Jr, Viswanath, K, Rooney, B, McGovern, P, Baxter, J, Elmer, P. Predictors of knowledge about healthy eating in a rural midwestern US city. Health Education Research 1990; 5: 421–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
3Schafer, RB, Schafer, E, Dunbar, M, Keith, PM. Marital food interaction and dietary behavior. Social Science & Medicine 1999; 48: 787–96.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4Kline, RL, Terry, RD. Differences in beliefs about heart disease risk factors between men and women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1986; 86: 786–8.Google ScholarPubMed
5Schafer, RB. Factors affecting food behavior and the quality of husbands' and wives' diets. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1978; 72: 138–43.Google ScholarPubMed
6Fagerli, RA, Wandel, M. Gender differences in opinions and practices with regard to a ‘healthy diet’. Appetite 1999; 32: 171–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7Smith, SC, Taylor, JG, Stephen, AM. Use of food labels and beliefs about diet–disease relationships among university students. Public Health Nutrition 2000; 3: 175–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8Shannon, C, Story, M, Fulkerson, JA, French, SA. Factors in the school cafeteria influencing food choices by high school students. Journal of School Health 2002; 72: 229–35.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9Milligan, RAK, Burke, V, Beilin, LJ, Dunbar, DL, Spencer, MJ, Balde, E, et al. Influence of gender and socio-economic status on dietary patterns and nutrient intakes in 18-year-old Australians. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 1998; 22: 485–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10Bermudez, OI, Dwyer, J. Identifying elders at risk of malnutrition: a universal challenge. SCN News 1999; 19: 15–7.Google Scholar
11Horwath, CC, Worsley, A. Dietary supplement use in a randomly selected group of elderly Australians. Results from a large nutrition and health survey. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1989; 37: 689–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
12Worsley, A, Blasche, R, Ball, K, Crawford, D. Income differences in food consumption in the 1995 Australian Nutrition Survey. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003; 57: 1198–211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
13Wardle, J, Parmenter, K, Waller, J. Nutrition knowledge and food intake. Appetite 2000; 34: 269–75.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
14Galobardes, B, Morabia, A, Bernstein, MS. Diet and socio-economic position: does the use of different indicators matter?. International Journal of Epidemiology 2001; 30: 334–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
15Hupkens, CLH, Knibbe, RA, Drop, MJ. Social class differences in food consumption. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000; 10: 108–13.Google Scholar
16Rogers, EM. Diffusion of Innovations, 4th ed. New York: Free Press, 1995.Google ScholarPubMed
17Marmot, M, Wilkinson, R eds. Social Determinants of Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.Google Scholar
18Davies, M. The role of commonsense understandings in social inequalities in health: an investigation in the context of dental health. PhD dissertation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Australia: 2000.Google Scholar
19Ippolito, RA. Education versus Savings as Explanation for Better Health: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Survey. Working Paper in Law and Economics No. 03–04. Arlington, VA: School of Law, George Mason University, 2003.Google Scholar
20McKernan Boulanger, P, Perez-Escamilla, R, Himmelgreen, D, Segura-Millan, S, Haldeman, L. Determinants of nutrition knowledge among low-income Latino caretakers in Hartford, Conn. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2002; 7: 978–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
21Johansson, L, Thelle, DS, Solvoll, K, Bjørneboe, G-E, Drevon, CA. Healthy dietary habits in relation to social determinants and lifestyle factors. British Journal of Nutrition 1999; 81: 211–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
22Kearney, M, Kearney, J, Dunne, A, Gibney, M. Sociodemographic determinants of perceived influences on food choice in a nationally representative sample of Irish adults. Public Health Nutrition 2000; 3: 219–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
23Roos, G, Johansson, L, Kasmel, A, Klumbiene, J, Prättälä, R. Disparities in vegetable and fruit consumption: European cases from the north to the south. Public Health Nutrition 2001; 4: 3543.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
24Erkkilla, AT, Sarkkinen, ES, Lehto, S, Pyorala, K, Uusitupa, ML. Diet in relation to socioeconomic status in patients with coronary heart disease. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999; 53: 662–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
25Baghurst, K, Record, S, Baghurst, P, Syrette, J, Crawford, D, Worsley, A. Socioeconomic determinants in Australia of the intake of food and nutrients implicated in cancer aetiology. Medical Journal of Australia 1990; 153: 444–52.Google ScholarPubMed
26Smith, A, Owen, N. Associations of social status and health-related beliefs with dietary fat and fiber densities. Preventive Medicine 1992; 21: 735–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
27Turrell, G, Hewitt, B, Patterson, C, Oldenburg, B, Gould, T. Socioeconomic differences in food purchasing behaviour and suggested implications for diet-related health promotion. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 2002; 5: 355–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
28Hodgson, JM, Hsu-Hage, B, Wahlqvist, ML. Food variety as a quantitative descriptor of food intake. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 1994; 32: 137–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
29US Department of Agriculture. The Food Guide Pyramid. Home and Garden Bulletin No. 252. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1992.Google Scholar
30Dixon, LB, Cronin, FJ, Krebs-Smith, SM. Let the pyramid guide your food choices: capturing the total diet concept. Journal of Nutrition 2001; 131: 461S–72S.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
31Australian Bureau of Statistics. National Health Survey: Users' Guide. Catalogue No. 4363.0. Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service, 1995.Google Scholar
32Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1995 National Nutrition Survey (NNS) Confidentialized Unit Record File (CURF). Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, 1999.Google Scholar
33Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian National Nutrition Survey (1995). Catalogue No. 4801.0. Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service, 1997.Google Scholar
34SPSS, Inc. SPSS for Windows, Version 11. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.Google Scholar
35Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). Census of Population and Housing. Canberra: ABS, 1996.Google Scholar
36Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). Australian Social Trends 1997. Catalogue No. 4102.0. Canberra: ABS, 1997.Google Scholar
37Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). Australian Social Trends 2002. Catalogue No. 4102.0. Canberra: ABS, 2002.Google Scholar
38Bourdieu, P. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984.Google Scholar
39National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). Dietary Guidelines for Australians – A Guide to Healthy Eating. Catalogue No. 0326099. Canberra: NHMRC, 2003.Google Scholar
40Worsley, A, Crawford, D. Australian consumer acceptance of novel foods. Food Research Quarterly 1987; 47: 5660.Google Scholar
41Benton, D. Carbohydrate ingestion, blood glucose and mood. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 2002; 26: 293308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
42Thompson, FE, Subar, AF. Dietary assessment methodology. In: Coulston, AM, Rock, CL, Monsen, ER, San, Diego, eds. Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2001.Google Scholar
You have Access
32
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The relationship between education and food consumption in the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

The relationship between education and food consumption in the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

The relationship between education and food consumption in the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *