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The Stop the Bleed campaign provided civilians with tourniquet application training and increased the demand for tourniquets among the general population, which led to the development of new commercially available devices. However, most widely available tourniquets have not undergone testing by regulatory bodies and their efficacy remains unknown.
This study aimed to compare the efficacy and performance of Combat Application Tourniquets (CAT) versus uncertified tourniquets.
This study compared 25 CAT with 50 commercially available “look-alike” tourniquets (LA-TQ) resembling the CAT. The CAT and the LA-TQ were compared for cost, size, and tested during one-hour and six-hour applications on a manikin’s leg. The outcomes were force applied, force variation during the application, and tourniquet rupture rate.
The LA-TQ were cheaper (US$6.07 versus US$27.19), shorter, and had higher inter-device variability than the CAT (90.1 [SE = 0.5] cm versus 94.5 [SE = 0.1] cm; P <.001). The CAT applied a significantly greater force during the initial application when compared to the LA-TQ (65 [SE = 3] N versus 14 [SE = 1] N; P <.001). While the initial application force was maintained for up to six hours in both groups, the CAT group applied an increased force during one-hour applications (group effect: F [1,73] = 105.65; P <.001) and during six-hour applications (group effect: F [1,12] = 9.79; P = .009). The rupture rate differed between the CAT and the LA-TQ (0% versus 4%).
The LA-TQ applied a significantly lower force and had a higher rupture rate compared to the CAT, potentially affecting tourniquet performance in the context of public bleeding control. These findings warrant increased layperson education within the framework of the Stop the Bleed campaign and further investigations on the effectiveness of uncertified devices in real-world applications.
This national pre-pandemic survey compared demand and capacity of adult community eating disorder services (ACEDS) with NHS England (NHSE) commissioning guidance.
Thirteen services in England and Scotland responded (covering 10.7 million population). Between 2016–2017 and 2019–2020 mean referral rates increased by 18.8%, from 378 to 449/million population. Only 3.7% of referrals were from child and adolescent eating disorder services (CEDS-CYP), but 46% of patients were aged 18–25 and 54% were aged >25. Most ACEDS had waiting lists and rationed access. Many could not provide full medical monitoring, adapt treatment for comorbidities, offer assertive outreach or provide seamless transitions. For patient volume, the ACEDS workforce budget was 15%, compared with the NHSE workforce calculator recommendations for CEDS-CYP. Parity required £7 million investment/million population for the ACEDS.
This study highlights the severe pressure in ACEDS, which has increased since the COVID-19 pandemic. Substantial investment is required to ensure NHS ACEDS meet national guidance, offer evidence-based treatment, reduce risk and preventable deaths, and achieve parity with CEDS-CYP.
Although the impacts of intensive agriculture on biodiversity and strategies for mitigating these effects have been widely described, small-scale, diversified farms and the opportunities they present for bird conservation have been less thoroughly examined. This omission is potentially significant, because this form of agriculture represents a growing sector of the industry in the populous northeastern USA, and the diverse habitats on these farms contrast with larger, structurally homogeneous intensive agriculture. To evaluate bird-habitat associations and conservation opportunities for supporting species of conservation concern on these small, diversified farms, we conducted avian point count and vegetation surveys across 23 farms in western Massachusetts during the summers of 2017 and 2018. We used Poisson-binomial mixture models and canonical correspondence analysis to assess the effects of a suite of microhabitat-, field- and landscape-scale (1 km buffer around the field) variables on the abundance of bird species. Our results confirmed that shrubland birds, a group of species of elevated conservation concern, accounted for 52% of the total observations, including song sparrow (Melospiza melodia), gray catbird (Dumatella carolinensis), common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) and American goldfinch (Spinus tristis). Species–habitat relationships were diverse; however, smaller field sizes, and increased cover of tall, dense, woody or non-productive vegetation types were associated with higher abundance of shrubland species as well as lower abundance of crop pests such as European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) and house sparrow (Passer domesticus). These findings support the hypothesis that small, diversified farms are supporting birds of high conservation concern, and we provide species-specific guidelines for farmers interested in conserving birds on their land.
Knowledge of frontal ablation from marine-terminating glaciers (i.e., mass lost at the calving face) is critical for constraining glacier mass balance, improving projections of mass change, and identifying the processes that govern frontal mass loss. Here, we discuss the challenges involved in computing frontal ablation and the unique issues pertaining to both glaciers and ice sheets. Frontal ablation estimates require numerous datasets, including glacier terminus area change, thickness, surface velocity, density, and climatic mass balance. Observations and models of these variables have improved over the past decade, but significant gaps and regional discrepancies remain, and better quantification of temporal variability in frontal ablation is needed. Despite major advances in satellite-derived large-scale datasets, large uncertainties remain with respect to ice thickness, depth-averaged velocities, and the bulk density of glacier ice close to calving termini or grounding lines. We suggest ways in which we can move toward globally complete frontal ablation estimates, highlighting areas where we need improved datasets and increased collaboration.
Studies show associations between prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) and child autism, with little attention paid to PNMS and autism in young adulthood. The broad autism phenotype (BAP), encompassing sub-clinical levels of autism, includes aloof personality, pragmatic language impairment and rigid personality. It remains unclear whether different aspects of PNMS explain variance in different BAP domains in young adult offspring. We recruited women who were pregnant during, or within 3 months of, the 1998 Quebec ice storm crisis, and assessed three aspects of their stress (i.e., objective hardship, subjective distress and cognitive appraisal). At age 19, the young adult offspring (n = 33, 22F / 11M) completed a BAP self-report. Linear and logistic regressions were implemented to examine associations between PNMS and BAP traits. Up to 21.4% of the variance in BAP total score and in BAP three domains tended to be explained by at least one aspect of maternal stress, For example, 16.8% of the variance in aloof personality tended to be explained by maternal objective hardship; 15.1% of the variance in pragmatic language impairment tended to be explained by maternal subjective distress; 20.0% of the variance in rigid personality tended to be explained by maternal objective hardship and 14.3% by maternal cognitive appraisal. Given the small sample size, the results should be interpreted with caution. In conclusion, this small prospective study suggests that different aspects of maternal stress could have differential effects on different components of BAP traits in young adults.
Prenatal maternal stress and mental health problems are known to increase risk for developmental psychopathology in offspring, yet pathways leading to risk or resiliency are poorly understood. In a quasi-experimental design, we prospectively examined associations between disaster-related prenatal stress, maternal mental health symptoms, and infant temperament outcomes. Mothers who were pregnant during Hurricane Harvey (N = 527) reported on objective hardships (e.g., loss of belongings or income, evacuation, home flooding) related to the storm and subsequent mental health symptoms (anxiety/depression, posttraumatic stress) across time. At a postpartum assessment, mothers reported on their infant’s temperament (negative affect, positive affect, orienting/regulatory capacity). Greater objective hardship indirectly predicted higher levels of infant orienting/regulatory capacity through its association with increased maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms. Greater objective hardship also indirectly predicted higher levels of infant negative affect through its association with increased maternal anxiety/depression symptoms across time. Our findings suggest a psychological mechanism linking prenatal stress with specific temperamental characteristics via maternal mental health symptoms. Findings point to the importance of high-quality assessment and mental health services for vulnerable women and young children.
This study aims to address a gap in the data on cognitive sex differences in persons living with Parkinson disease (PD). There is some evidence that cognitive dysfunction is more severe in male PD, however data on episodic memory and processing speed is incomplete.
One hundred and sixty-seven individuals with a diagnosis of PD were included in this study. Fifty-six of those individuals identified as female. The California Verbal Learning Test 1st edition and the Wechsler Memory Scale 3rd edition were used to evaluate verbal and visuospatial episodic memory and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd edition was used to evaluate processing speed. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to identify sex-specific differences across groups.
Our results show that males with PD performed significantly worse than females in verbal and visuospatial recall as well as a trend for the processing speed task of coding.
Our finding of superior performance among females with PD in verbal episodic memory is consistent with reports in both healthy and PD individuals; however, females outperforming males in measures of visuospatial episodic memory is unique to PD. Cognitive deficits preferentially affecting males appear to be associated with frontal lobe-related function. Therefore, males may represent a disease subgroup more susceptible to disease mechanisms affecting frontal lobe deterioration and cognitive disturbances in PD.
Numerous studies have shown associations between maternal stress and poor birth outcomes, but evidence is unclear for causal inference. Natural disasters provide an opportunity to study effects of quasi-randomized hardship with an accurate measure of onset and duration. In a population-based quasi-experimental study, we examined the effect of maternal exposure to the January 1998 Québec ice storm on birth outcomes by comparing pregnant mothers who lived in an area hard hit by the ice storm with those in two unaffected regions. In a total of 147,349 singleton births between 1995 and 2001, we used a difference-in-differences method to estimate the effects of the ice storm on gestational age at delivery (GA), preterm birth (PTB), weight-for-gestational-age z-scores (BWZ), large for gestational age (LGA), and small for gestational age (SGA). After adjusting for maternal and sociodemographic characteristics, there were no differences between the exposed and the unexposed mothers for birth outcomes. The estimated differences (exposed vs. unexposed) were 0.01 SDs (95% CI: −0.02, 0.05) for BWZ; 0.10% point (95% CI: −0.95%, 1.16%) for SGA; 0.25% point (95% CI: −0.78%, 1.28%) for LGA; −0.01 week (95% CI: −0.07, 0.05) for GA; and 0.16% point (95% CI: −0.66%, 0.97%) for PTB. Neither trimester-specific nor dose–response associations were observed. Overall, exposure to the 1998 Québec ice storm as a proxy for acute maternal stress in pregnancy was not associated with poor birth outcomes. Our results suggest that acute maternal hardship may not have a substantial effect on adverse birth outcomes.
Mental health problems early in life can negatively impact educational attainment, which in turn have negative long-term effects on health, social and economic opportunities. Our aims were to: (i) estimate the impacts of different types of psychiatric conditions on educational outcomes and (ii) to estimate the proportion of adverse educational outcomes which can be attributed to psychiatric conditions.
Participants (N = 2511) were from a school-based community cohort of Brazilian children and adolescents aged 6–14 years enriched for high family risk of psychiatric conditions. We examined the impact of fear- (panic, separation and social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia and anxiety conditions not otherwise specified), distress- (generalised anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder and depressive disorder not otherwise specified, bipolar, obsessive-compulsive, tic, eating and post-traumatic stress disorder) and externalising-related conditions (attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, conduct and oppositional-defiant conditions) on grade repetition, dropout, age-grade distortion, literacy performance and bullying perpetration, 3 years later. Psychiatric conditions were ascertained by psychiatrists, using the Development and Well-Being Behaviour Assessment. Propensity score and inverse probability weighting were used to adjust for potential confounders, including comorbidity, and sample attrition. We calculated the population attributable risk percentages to estimate the proportion of adverse educational outcomes in the population which could be attributed to psychiatric conditions. Analyses were conducted separately for males and females.
Fear and distress conditions in males were associated with school dropout (odds ratio (OR) = 2.76; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06, 7.22; p < 0.05) and grade repetition (OR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.32, 5.78; p < 0.01), respectively. Externalising conditions were associated with grade repetition in males (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.05, 2.64; p < 0.05) and females (OR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.15, 3.58; p < 0.05), as well as age-grade distortion in males (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.05, 2.62; p < 0.05) and females (OR = 2.88; 95% CI = 1.61, 5.14; p < 0.001). Externalising conditions were also associated with lower literacy levels (β = −0.23; 95% CI = −0.34, −0.12; p < 0.001) and bullying perpetration (OR = 3.12; 95% CI = 1.50, 6.51; p < 0.001) in females. If all externalising conditions were prevented or treated, we estimate that 5.0 and 4.8% of grade repetition would not have occurred in females and males, respectively, as well as 10.2 (females) and 5.3% (males) of age-grade distortion cases and 11.4% of female bullying perpetration.
The study provides evidence of the negative impact of psychiatric conditions on educational outcomes in a large Brazilian cohort. Externalising conditions had the broadest and most robust negative impacts on education and these were particularly harmful to females which are likely to limit future socio-economic opportunities.
Recovering the agency, skill and innovation of archaeological field assistants from historical encounters is essential to interrogating processes of knowledge production, but is often hampered by access to appropriate archival sources and methods. We detail a field project from early twentieth-century Basutoland (modern-day Lesotho) that is unique both for its aim to salvage details of rock-art production as a dying craft and for its archive chronicling the project's intellectual journey from experiment to draft manuscripts to published work over more than three decades. We argue that critical historiographic attention to this archive offers a guide for examining the intimate dynamics of fieldwork and the effects of these micropolitics on the archaeological canon. We demonstrate how sustained attention to long processes of knowledge production can pinpoint multiple instances in which the usability of field assistants’ scientific knowledge is qualified, validated, or rejected, and in this case how an African assistant is transformed into an ethnographic interlocutor. For rock-art studies especially, this represents a need for interrogating the epistemic cultures—not just the content—of foundational historical data.
To study patients' subjective experiences of having access to a therapy dog and to assess the staff perception of the impact of pet therapy. Hypothesis: pet therapy services are acceptable for rehabilitation patients.
Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is the supervised use of an animal in a therapeutic setting to help in the treatment of physical or psychological disorders in humans. The use of dogs in the context of AAT - ‘dog therapy’ (DT) - has been piloted in the context of stroke rehabilitation; schizophrenia in elderly patients; depression, loneliness and anxiety in elderly patients; Alzheimer's disease; symptom reduction in PTSD; cognitive impairment; and dementia. The impact of pet therapy in long term psychosis care has not been adequately assessed.
This feasibility pilot study used questionnaires to assess patient (n = 12) and staff (n = 10) perceptions of dog therapy in an in-patient psychiatric rehabilitation setting. 24 patients on a rehabilitation ward with complex psychosis were offered the opportunity to interact with ‘Nugget,’ a corgi trained in the United States as a ‘therapy dog.’ A ‘patient questionnaire’ (PQ) and a ‘staff questionnaire’ (SQ) assessed the acceptability and self-rated benefits of the intervention.
All patients (100%) rated highly on the enjoyment, anxiety, calmness, and comfort domains during the dog therapy, and expressed willingness to receive further sessions in the future. The SQ measured staff perceptions of patients’ engagement, enjoyment, comfort and emotional response to the therapy. 100% of staff rated highly on all questions and thought the interventions had recovery value. Engagement was one key factor noted in the feedback. There were no reported adverse reactions to the intervention.
Our preliminary results showed high acceptability and perceived value for Animal assisted therapy in a psychiatric rehabilitation setting. Given the impact of social isolation and need for connectedness, we recommend access to pet therapy where possible to be integrated into individual recovery programmes.
In March 2020, at the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States, the Southern California Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) Consortium was formed. The consortium included physicians and coordinators from the 4 ECMO centers in San Diego County. Guidelines were created to ensure that ECMO was delivered equitably and in a resource effective manner across the county during the pandemic. A biomedical ethicist reviewed the guidelines to ensure ECMO use would provide maximal community benefit of this limited resource. The San Diego County Health and Human Services Agency further incorporated the guidelines into its plans for the allocation of scarce resources. The consortium held weekly video conferences to review countywide ECMO capacity (including census and staffing), share data, and discuss clinical practices and difficult cases. Equipment exchanges between ECMO centers maximized regional capacity. From March 1 to November 30, 2020, consortium participants placed 97 patients on ECMO. No eligible patients were denied ECMO due to lack of resources or capacity. The Southern California ECMO Consortium may serve as a model for other communities seeking to optimize ECMO resources during the current COVID-19 or future pandemics.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Regional health issues can be best addressed at the population-level and input from the communities is vital for prioritization of health issues. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The Great Plains IDeA-CTR (GP IDeA-CTR) was developed to increase clinical and translational research (CTR) that can address regional health priorities. Here we describe a collaborative process used to identify regional health priorities using existing surveillance data and community input. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used a participatory approach that included a partnership between the GP IDeA CTR Community-Engagement and Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Research Design Cores to ensure priorities were data driven and also aligned with community-based perceptions of need. First, aggregated surveillance data across Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota was presented to the GP IDeA CTR Community Advisory Board (CAB). Second, CAB members formed small groups and considered the information and generated priority health area lists. Third, small group lists were considered and discussed by the full CAB to finalize priority areas. Finally, the CAB reviewed the priorities annually thereafter. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We identified priority areas for CTR that included (1) behavioral health, (2) injury prevention, (3) obesity, (4) technology to improve health care access, (5) connecting clinical/community services, and (5) addressing health disparities. These priorities align with population-based surveillance data that show lack of mental health care access, high prevalence of obesity, higher incidence of accidents, and existing racial, ethnic, and geographic health disparities. The CAB highlighted that research was also needed to improve how people can access the health innovations developed through CTR to address the other priority health issues with a goal to have an impact on population health. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: By integrating data- and community-driven approaches we identified regional health priority areas that if addressed, can have significant impact in the GP IDeA CTR region. The priorities are listed on all GP IDeA-CTR funding announcements to encourage CTR in these areas.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Leverage community engagement to continue moving translational science and research forward. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Engaging community in translational research improves innovation and speeds the movement of evidence into practice. Yet, it is unclear how community is engaged across the translational research spectrum or the degree of community-engagement used. We conducted a scoping review to fill this gap. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used the PRISMA model search strategy with a range of databases (e.g., PubMed/Medline, Scopus) to identify articles published between January 2008 and November 2018 (n=167) and eliminated studies that did not use any level of community-engagement (n=102). Studies were coded for translational stage-corresponding to T0 (basic science), T1 (basic science to clinical research in humans; n=6), T2 (clinical efficacy and effectiveness research, n=45), T3 (dissemination and implementation research, n=95), and T4 (population health, n=21) as well as the degree of community engagement from least to most intensive (i.e., outreach, consultation, involvement, collaboration, shared leadership). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The final number of eligible articles was 65. There was a relatively balanced distribution across levels of community engagement across articles (i.e., outreach, n=14; consultation, n=13; involvement, n=7; collaboration, n=15; shared leadership, n=16). Within these articles, the depth of community engagement varied with higher engagement typically occurring at later stages of translational research (T3 and T4), but more specifically in the dissemination and implementation science stage (T3). However, shared leadership, the most intensive form of engagement, was found in T2, T3, and T4 studies suggesting the value of community-engagement across the translational research spectrum. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: A strong understanding of how various levels of community engagement are used in translational research, and the outcomes they produce, may to expedite the translation of knowledge into practice and enable practice-based needs to inform policy.
Expressive writing requires journaling stressor-related thoughts and feelings over four daily sessions of 15 min. Thirty years of research have popularized expressive writing as a brief intervention for fostering trauma-related resilience; however, its ability to surpass placebo remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of expressive writing for improving post-traumatic stress symptoms in perinatal women who were living in the Houston area during major flooding caused by Hurricane Harvey.
A total of 1090 women were randomly allocated (1:1:1) to expressive writing, neutral writing or no writing. Interventions were internet-based. Online questionnaires were completed before randomization and at 2 months post-intervention. The primary outcome was post-traumatic stress symptoms, measured with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised; secondary outcomes were affective symptoms, measured with the 40-item Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Scales. Feelings throughout the intervention were reported daily using tailored questionnaires.
In intention-to-treat analyses, no post-treatment between-group differences were found on the primary and secondary outcomes. Per-protocol analyses yielded similar results. A number of putative moderators were tested, but none interacted with expressive writing. Expressive writing produced greater feelings of anxiety and sadness during the intervention compared to neutral writing; further, overall experiences from the intervention mediated associations between expressive writing and greater post-traumatic stress at 2 months post-intervention.
Among disaster-stricken perinatal women, expressive writing was ineffective in reducing levels of post-traumatic stress, and may have exacerbated these symptoms in some.
Natural and anthropogenic stressors, including parasites and pesticides, may induce oxidative stress in animals. Measuring oxidative stress responses in sentinel species that are particularly responsive to environmental perturbations not only provides insight into host physiology but is also a useful readout of ecosystem health. Newly metamorphosed northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens), a sentinel species, were collected from agricultural and non-agricultural wetlands exposed to varying concentrations of the herbicide atrazine. Significant effects of certain parasites' abundance and their interaction with atrazine exposure on frog oxidative stress were identified. Specifically, increased protein levels were detected in frogs infected with echinostome metacercariae. In addition, the nematode Oswaldocruzia sp. was significantly associated with increased thiol concentration and catalase activity. Significant parasite × atrazine interactions were observed for atrazine exposure and the abundance of Oswaldocruzia sp. on thiol, as thiol concentrations increased with parasite abundance at low atrazine localities and decreased in high atrazine wetlands. In addition, a significant interaction between the abundances of Oswaldocruzia sp. and gorgoderid trematodes on thiol concentrations was observed. These findings demonstrate that studies of oxidative stress on animals in natural ecosystems should account for the confounding effects of parasitism, particularly for amphibians in agricultural landscapes.
Clinical assessments are a primary method for ascertaining suicide risk, yet the language used across measures is inconsistent. The implications of these discrepancies for adolescent responding are unknown, which is troubling as multiple research areas (i.e. on culture, mental health language, and suicide communication) indicate individuals from varying sociodemographic backgrounds may communicate differently regarding mental health concerns. The aims of the current study are to investigate whether a geographically diverse sample of adolescents respond differently to directly and indirectly phrased suicide attempt questions (i.e. directly phrased includes the term ‘suicide’ and indirectly asks about suicidal behavior without using ‘suicide’), and to examine whether sociodemographic factors and history of mental health service usage relate to endorsement differences.
Participants were N = 5909 adolescents drawn from the Emergency Department Screening for Teens at Risk for Suicide multi-site study. The lifetime suicide attempt was assessed with two items from an adapted version of the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS; Posner et al., 2008): (1) a directly phrased question asking about ‘suicide attempts’ and (2) an indirectly phrased question providing the definition of an attempt.
An adolescent majority (83.7%) consistently reported no lifetime suicide attempt across items, 10.1% consistently reported one or more lifetime attempts across items, and 6.2% of adolescents responded discordantly to the items.
Multivariable models indicated multiple demographic and mental health service variables significantly predicted discordant responding, with a notable finding being that father/stepfather education level at or below high school education predicted endorsing only the direct question.
The perinatal period is a vulnerable time for the development of psychopathology, particularly mood and anxiety disorders. In the study of maternal anxiety, important questions remain regarding the association between maternal anxiety symptoms and subsequent child outcomes. This study examined the association between depressive and anxiety symptoms, namely social anxiety, panic, and agoraphobia disorder symptoms during the perinatal period and maternal perception of child behavior, specifically different facets of development and temperament. Participants (N = 104) were recruited during pregnancy from a community sample. Participants completed clinician-administered and self-report measures of depressive and anxiety symptoms during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 16 months postpartum; child behavior and temperament outcomes were assessed at 16 months postpartum. Child development areas included gross and fine motor skills, language and problem-solving abilities, and personal/social skills. Child temperament domains included surgency, negative affectivity, and effortful control. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that elevated prenatal social anxiety symptoms significantly predicted more negative maternal report of child behavior across most measured domains. Elevated prenatal social anxiety and panic symptoms predicted more negative maternal report of child effortful control. Depressive and agoraphobia symptoms were not significant predictors of child outcomes. Elevated anxiety symptoms appear to have a distinct association with maternal report of child development and temperament. Considering the relative influence of anxiety symptoms, particularly social anxiety, on maternal report of child behavior and temperament can help to identify potential difficulties early on in mother–child interactions as well as inform interventions for women and their families.
Cyclonic storms (often called hurricanes, typhoons, or cyclones) often cause population declines in vulnerable bird species, and the intensity of these storms appears to be increasing due to climate change. Prior studies have reported short-term impacts of hurricanes on avifauna, but few have examined long-term impacts. Over two decades (1993–2018), we periodically surveyed a subspecies of West Indian Woodpecker Melanerpes superciliaris nyeanus on San Salvador, a small island in The Bahamas, to determine its distribution on the island, habitat use, and effects of hurricanes on abundance and population size. We conducted passive and playback surveys, supplemented with mist-netting. Woodpeckers were found only in the northern part of San Salvador, despite extensive surveys throughout other accessible areas of the island. Birds occupied areas with taller coppice adjacent to sabal palm Sabal palmetto groves, which were used for nesting. After hurricanes with >160 kph winds passed over San Salvador, woodpecker densities declined to 35–40% of pre-hurricane densities, but generally recovered back to pre-hurricane densities within 2–3 years. Based on an estimated density of woodpeckers within a ~1,400 ha occupied area, we calculated a population size of approximately 240 individuals (CI = 68-408). However, the population declined to far lower numbers immediately following hurricanes. Under IUCN Red List criteria, M. s. nyeanus classifies as ‘Critically Endangered’, and could be especially sensitive to future hurricanes if they occur at a high enough frequency or intensity to prevent the population from rebounding. Given the small size, isolation, and vulnerability of this population, we recommend preservation of the core habitat, continued monitoring, and further research. Our study shows that small, threatened bird populations can be resilient to the effects of hurricanes, but increased intensity of hurricanes, in combination with other threats, may limit this resilience in the future.