To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This article reports findings from a study that sought to identify barriers to music and music education in the UK. Emerging from empirical research involving n = 723 participants and clarified by an evidence base of over 10,000 research participants, the key findings presented in this paper relate to pupil and participant voice and involvement, location as a sub-theme of diversity and inclusion, collaboration and transition points. The research is contextualised by twenty years of policy initiatives seeking to address barriers to music learning. The article provides an overview of the research study before presenting the rich data that emerged within each theme reported. Research participant voice is used as much as possible to enable the reader to consider, reflect and interpret the data in a way that is meaningful for their own context. The paper concludes by asking why after 20 years of policy initiatives, research and evaluation the same barriers still exist and, as we emerge from the pandemic, suggests that this research provides a compelling case that now is the time for change.
Young people with social disability and severe and complex mental health problems have poor outcomes, frequently struggling with treatment access and engagement. Outcomes may be improved by enhancing care and providing targeted psychological or psychosocial intervention.
We aimed to test the hypothesis that adding social recovery therapy (SRT) to enhanced standard care (ESC) would improve social recovery compared with ESC alone.
A pragmatic, assessor-masked, randomised controlled trial (PRODIGY: ISRCTN47998710) was conducted in three UK centres. Participants (n = 270) were aged 16–25 years, with persistent social disability, defined as under 30 hours of structured activity per week, social impairment for at least 6 months and severe and complex mental health problems. Participants were randomised to ESC alone or SRT plus ESC. SRT was an individual psychosocial therapy delivered over 9 months. The primary outcome was time spent in structured activity 15 months post-randomisation.
We randomised 132 participants to SRT plus ESC and 138 to ESC alone. Mean weekly hours in structured activity at 15 months increased by 11.1 h for SRT plus ESC (mean 22.4, s.d. = 21.4) and 16.6 h for ESC alone (mean 27.7, s.d. = 26.5). There was no significant difference between arms; treatment effect was −4.44 (95% CI −10.19 to 1.31, P = 0.13). Missingness was consistently greater in the ESC alone arm.
We found no evidence for the superiority of SRT as an adjunct to ESC. Participants in both arms made large, clinically significant improvements on all outcomes. When providing comprehensive evidence-based standard care, there are no additional gains by providing specialised SRT. Optimising standard care to ensure targeted delivery of existing interventions may further improve outcomes.
Technological opportunities are explored to enhance detection schemes in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that build on the detection of single-electron scattering events across the typical spectrum of interdisciplinary applications. They range from imaging with high spatiotemporal resolution to diffraction experiments at the window to quantum mechanics, where the wave-particle dualism of single electrons is evident. At the ultimate detection limit, where isolated electrons are delivered to interact with solids, we find that the beam current dominates damage processes instead of the deposited electron charge, which can be exploited to modify electron beam-induced sample alterations. The results are explained by assuming that all electron scattering are inelastic and include phonon excitation that can hardly be distinguished from elastic electron scattering. Consequently, a coherence length and a related coherence time exist that reflect the interaction of the electron with the sample and change linearly with energy loss. Phonon excitations are of small energy (<100 meV), but they occur frequently and scale with beam current in the irradiated area, which is why we can detect their contribution to beam-induced sample alterations and damage.
A central area of current philosophical debate in the foundations of mathematics concerns whether or not there is a single, maximal, universe of set theory. Universists maintain that there is such a universe, while Multiversists argue that there are many universes, no one of which is ontologically privileged. Often model-theoretic constructions that add sets to models are cited as evidence in favor of the latter. This paper informs this debate by developing a way for a Universist to interpret talk that seems to necessitate the addition of sets to V. We argue that, despite the prima facie incoherence of such talk for the Universist, she nonetheless has reason to try and provide interpretation of this discourse. We present a method of interpreting extension-talk (V-logic), and show how it captures satisfaction in ‘ideal’ outer models and relates to impredicative class theories. We provide some reasons to regard the technique as philosophically virtuous, and argue that it opens new doors to philosophical and mathematical discussions for the Universist.
Burkart et al. conflate the domain-specificity of cognitive processes with the statistical pattern of variance in behavioural measures that partly reflect those processes. General intelligence is a statistical abstraction, not a cognitive trait, and we argue that the former does not warrant inferences about the nature or evolution of the latter.
The effect of barley seeding rate and row spacing, and triallate, diclofop, and difenzoquat herbicide rate on barley grain yield and quality, and wild oat control were evaluated in field experiments near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, in 1989 and 1990. The purpose of the study was to develop integrated control strategies for wild oat in spring barley. Barley row spacing (9 and 18 cm) did not affect barley grain yield. Barley grain yield was greatest when barley was seeded at 134 or 201 kg ha–1 compared to 67 kg ha–1. Wild oat control increased as wild oat herbicide rate increased and barley grain yield was greatest when wild oat herbicides were applied. However, barley grain yield was similar when wild oat biomass was reduced by either 65 or 85% by applications of half and full herbicide rates, respectively. Net return was greatest when the half rate of herbicide was applied to 100 wild oat plants per m2 and was greatest when half or full herbicide rates were applied to 290 wild oat plants per m2. Net return increased when the seeding rate was increased to 134 or 201 kg ha–1 when no herbicide was applied and when 290 wild oat plants per m2 were present.
This paper examines the efficiency of a sample of Great Plains grain marketing and farm supply cooperatives during 1988 to 1992. In general, larger cooperatives were more X-efficient and scale efficient. Labor tended to be under-utilized and capital over-utilized. Petroleum product sales and fertilizer sales were negatively related to overall efficiency. Sales of goods other than grain, fertilizer, agricultural chemicals, petroleum products, and feed was positively related to overall efficiency. Overall efficiency was significantly correlated with the rate of return to assets.
We describe a versatile infrared camera/spectrograph, IRIS, designed and constructed at the Anglo-Australian Observatory for use on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. A variety of optical configurations can be selected under remote control to provide several direct image scales and a few low-resolution spectroscopic formats. Two cross-dispersed transmission echelles are of novel design, as is the use of a modified Bowen-Burch system to provide a fast f/ratio in the widest-field option. The drive electronics includes a choice of readout schemes for versatility, and continuous display when the array is not taking data, to facilitate field acquisition and focusing.
The linearity of the detector has been studied in detail. Although outwardly good, slight nonlinearities prevent removal of fixed-pattern noise from the data without application of a cubic linearising function.
Specific control and data-reduction software has been written. We describe also a scanning mode developed for spectroscopic imaging.
Farm supply cooperatives are an important component of the retail agribusiness industry in the United States. The objective of this research is to identify financial variables that are determinants of return on equity in these cooperatives. Firm effects are important and their effect is the result of managerial decision making and director policy. The estimated coefficient on asset size was not statistically significant, suggesting that return on equity is invariant to size over this time period.
The aim of this research was to compare associations of self-perceived successful aging (SPSA) among Young-Old (Y-O; age 50–74 years) versus Old-Old (O-O; 75–99 years) community-dwelling adults. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare respondents’ self-perceptions of successful aging among O-O relative to Y-O adults.
Participants included 365 Y-O and 641 O-O adults. The two age groups were compared in terms of the association of SPSA with other preselected measures including sociodemographic information, physical and mental functioning, objective and subjective cognitive functioning, emotional health, and positive psychological constructs.
The O-O group reported higher levels of SPSA than the Y-O group. In multiple regression modeling examining predictors of SPSA in each group, there was a tendency toward lower associations in the O-O group overall. Most notably, the associations between physical and mental functioning with SPSA were significantly lower in the O-O versus Y-O group. There were no associations with SPSA that were significantly higher in the O-O versus Y-O group.
The lower predictive power of physical and mental functioning on SPSA among O-O relative to Y-O adults is particularly noteworthy. It is apparent that SPSA is a multidimensional construct that cannot be defined by physical functioning alone. Continuing to clarify the underlying factors impacting SPSA between groups may inform tailored interventions to promote successful aging in Y-O and O-O adults.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
Ametropus neavei McDunnough populations apparently inhabit only large rivers. In the Athabasca River of northeastern Alberta, Canada, the species has an univoltine life cycle, with some overlap of generations. There appears to be an extended emergence period (June and July), the nymphs are found in flowing water at depths greater than 0.5 m, and the population is almost entirely small-particle detritivores.
Ethnographic Observations: Trained members of the research team visited each club to conduct ethnographic observations, typically two times a week, beginning in September and continuing through the end of the school year in June. Observers recorded detailed field notes after each visit (see Field Note Template later in this appendix). Each field note included the team member’s observations and reflections as well as an account of any conversations with youth or staff. The principal investigator (Hirsch) reviewed the field notes on an ongoing basis. Developments or issues that might benefit from additional investigation were highlighted for follow-up during subsequent visits to the club.
Social Climate Ratings: Following each visit to a club, the research team member involved completed ratings of the social climate of the club on several different dimensions, such as cooperation and conflict among staff and youth enjoyment and participation in decision making (see Field Note Template later in this appendix).
All Youth Attending Each Center
Youth Background Questionnaire: This questionnaire was completed at the start of the year by all youth at each of the clubs who were ten years of age or older. The survey included questions that asked youth for basic demographic information, their levels and history of participation in the club, how safe they felt in their neighborhoods, and whether they experienced the club setting as a “second home.” Each youth also was asked on the survey to identify the staff person at the center with whom he or she had the closest relationship.