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Prefrontal cortex and sex difference are involved in verbal fluency network described in normal participants. Stroke patients often have prefrontal cortex atrophy.
To investigate whether atrophy in subdivisions of prefrontal cortex and sex difference contribute to verbal fluency in non-aphasic stroke patients.
To understand the relationship between the atrophy of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and verbal performance in elderly poststroke women.
30 elderly (age> = 60 years old) women with non-aphasic ischemic stroke and 30 age-controlled stroke men recruited. Automatic segmentation methods were used to assess the volume of both sides of the whole prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, orbital frontal cortex and dorsalateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as white matter lesions (WMLs) volume. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and semantic verbal fluency test (VFT, category: foods and animals) were administered at 3 and 15 months after the index stroke.
The mean (s.d) age was 73.3 ± 7.2 in women and 72.1 ± 6.9 in men. Men had higher education years, less diabetes and higher MMSE scores (p < 0.05). At 3 months after stroke, volume of the left DLPFC was significantly correlated with VFT score in women rather than men, even after controlled by age, education years, neurological deficit, diabetes, WMLs volume and infarct location (partial r = 0.477, p = 0.018). At 15 months, this correlation remained significant (partial r = 0.548, p = 0.006) in women.
Sex difference may be present in the neuropsychological mechanism of verbal fluency impairment in patients with cerebrovascular disease.
Limited research has examined the early neuropsychological and neurobiological changes associated with comorbid affective disorders and alcohol dependence.
Objectives & Aims
To investigate the cognitive and volumetric changes in individuals diagnosed with affective disorders with or without comorbid alcohol dependence.
Young adults (n = 21) who were undergoing medically-managed inpatient alcohol detoxification with comorbid affective disorders were neuropsychologically assessed 4-weeks following hospital discharge, and additionally underwent MRI brain scans during admission and 4-weeks following discharge. An affective disorders-only group (n = 21) with an equal distribution of anxiety and mood disorders was recruited through a youth mental health clinic.
Compared to affective disorders only (M = 31.8 ± 4.4 years old), individuals with affective disorders and alcohol dependence (M = 33.9 ± 6.3 years old; M = 21.1 ± 9.2 standard drinks/day) exhibited worse sustained attention and visual memory functioning. There was a highly significant association between drinking levels since detoxification and total brain volume change, such that resumption of heavy drinking attenuated brain volume gains associated with short-term abstinence (r = -0.87, p < 0.001).
In young adults with affective disorders, comorbid alcohol dependence is associated with more pronounced cognitive dysfunction, suggesting that these deficits are most relevant for cognitive remediation interventions. Crucially, abstinence or reduced drinking was associated with brain volume gains, whereas resumption of heavy drinking was associated with brain volume reductions, suggesting that medically-managed alcohol detoxification may, at least, partially reverse the neurobiological changes associated with prolonged alcohol dependence in young adults.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of a polysaccharide isolated from Astragalus membranaceus (APS) on performance and immune responses in weaned pigs. A total of 144 crossbred pigs weaned at 26 to 30 days of age with an average initial live weight (LW) of 7·64 (s.d. 0·290) kg were randomly allotted to six diets supplemented with APS at 0, 100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg. There were six replicates (three barrow pens and three gilt pens) per diet treatment with four pigs per pen. Pigs were given food ad libitum for 21 days and the LW and food intake were measured on days 14 and 21. Pigs were intramuscularly injected with 1 mg/kg LW ovalbumin (OVA) on day 14 to evaluate humoral immune response. Blood samples were collected on day 21 to measure leukocyte differential counts, percentage of blood CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte subsets, lymphocyte proliferation response to Concanavalin A, serum concentration of immunoglobulin G (Ig G), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and specific OVA antibody. The results showed that the average daily gain, the numbers of WBC and lymphocytes, the proportion of CD4+ lymphocyte subset, and the contents of IL-2 and IFN-γ increased ( P < 0·05) as pigs were fed increased supplemental level of APS during the 21 d period. However, the contents of specific OVA antibody, Ig G, IL-4, and IL-10 were not affected ( P > 0·05) by dietary levels of APS. The broken line analysis and quadratic regression analysis indicate that the optimal APS supplemental level would be between 381 mg/kg and 568 mg/kg for the maximal ADG and from 324 to 563 mg/kg for immune responses. Collectively, this study suggests that dietary APS can be used as a potential immuno-modulating agent by affecting cellular immunity of weaned pigs.
Adhesion of thin films of epitaxial oxides to nickel-based metallic substrates is important for the successful development of high-temperature superconductor coated conductors. Detachment of epitaxial oxide buffer layers at the oxide/metal interface during either oxide growth or subsequent processing renders the conductor useless. In this study, thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) has been used to identify and understand one of the causes of buffer layer detachment, oxidation of carbon at the oxide–metal interface to form carbon monoxide. Results of TDS indicate that on the surface of a bare nickel-based alloy substrate, the rate of carbon oxidation depends on both the supply of carbon from the substrate and the supply of oxygen from the vapor. Sulfur at the surface of the alloy substrate reduces the rate of carbon oxidation. The effectiveness of various treatments of the bare substrate to eliminate CO formation and epitaxial oxide detachment has been demonstrated. TDS provides both a means to evaluate the kinetics of the oxidation reaction and a tool to assess the need and effectiveness of a substrate oxidation treatment.
The effects of conversion parameters on transport properties of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films on rolling assisted biaxially textured substrates (RABiTS) in the BaF2 ex situ process were investigated for total pressures Ptotal between 0.1 and 1.3 atm, water vapor pressures PH2O between approximately 7 and 70 Torr and processing temperatures TS between 700 and 790 °C. For this study, a 0.3-μm-thick Y–BaF2–Cu–O precursor film was deposited on a 1-cm-wide Ni=3 at.% W RABiTS with a buffer layer architecture of CeO2/YSZ/Y2O3/Ni deposited in single passes in various reel-to-reel systems for each layer. Under the conditions of Ptotal = 0.1 atm, TS = 740 °C and PO2 approximately 150 mTorr, JC > 2 MA/cm2 was obtained at 77 K and self field for PH2O ≤ 20 Torr. At higher PH2O (=70 Torr), however, the maximum attainable JC decreased. In addition, the JC at these higher PH2O dropped rapidly with increased dwell time. The highest JC, 2.5 MA/cm2, was achieved at 730 °C with Ptotal = 0.1 atm and PH2O approximately 7 Torr. Finally, the variation of IC with wet conversion time was performed at each processing temperature.
TEM studies have been conducted on melt-textured YBa2Cu3Ox samples that were uniaxially and isostatically deformed at high temperatures and compared with those of undeformed samples. Dislocation pile-ups along  and  are found to be the common feature between undeformed samples with the best Jc and the uniaxially deformed samples, and are suggested to be responsible for enhanced pinning when the magnetic field (H) is applied parallel to the a-b plane. Dislocation loops, tangles, and arrays are also observed, and are considered to contribute to pinning in field orientations other than H ‖ a-b. In addition to these dislocations, 〈301〉 type partial dislocations are found to be present in isostatically deformed samples. The strain field around these dislocations is considered to be an additional source of pinning in the intermediate field orientations.
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