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Ban the Box (BTB) laws are an anti-discrimination policy intended to promote employment for persons with criminal records. However, research on law and organizations shows that firms often fail to comply with legal directives or engage in symbolic compliance that fails to alter day-to-day business practices. We consider whether BTB contributed to attitudinal or behavioral shifts among hiring managers and changes in job applications. We analyze a unique set of in-depth interviews (N = 30) and entry-level job applications (N = 305) collected from the same workplaces in 2008 and 2016, assessing the impact of state BTB legislation. We find: (1) that one in five organizations were noncompliant, with noncompliance twice as likely among employers who discriminated against applicants with criminal records pre-BTB and that widespread lack of knowledge and lack of enforcement of BTB appears to affect noncompliance; (2) organizations maintained considerable continuity in hiring practices and attitudes between 2008 and 2016, regardless of personnel changes and statewide implementation of BTB; and (3) post-BTB, strong warnings about criminal background checks at later stages of the hiring process emerged as an alternative source of gatekeeping. These findings contribute to the law and organizations literature by highlighting the importance of enforcement and limits of law for combating discrimination.
The Saks Institute for Mental Health Law, Policy, and Ethics at USC Gould School of Law is engaged in an innovation planning project in California to pilot programs and test the feasibility of using psychiatric advance directives (PADs) within the supported decision-making (SDM) paradigm. The project is supported by California’s Mental Health Services Oversight and Accountability Commission. This chapter provides an overview of the preliminary developments and pilot studies in the California PADs/SDM project. The project is a first-of-its-kind effort to explore the efficacy of the PADs/SDM paradigm across behavioral health county systems in the State of California. This chapter presents an overview of the pilot project and describes its research questions and implications, and ways in which the project and SDM paradigm embodies the principles of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
Site-specific specimen preparation for atom probe tomography (APT) is a challenging task. Small features need to be located using a suitable imaging technique and captured within a volume of less than 0.01 μm3. Correlative microscopy has shown to be helpful for target preparation as well as to gain complementary information about the material. Current strategies developed in that direction can be highly time-consuming and not always ensure the correct site extraction in complex microstructures. In this work, we present a methodology to study grain boundaries and interfaces in martensitic steels by combining electron backscattered diffraction, transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD), and APT. Furthermore, we include the design of a sample holder that allows to perform TKD and scanning transmission electron microscopy on the specimen during preparation without breaking the vacuum of the scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam workstation. We show a case study where a prior austenite grain boundary is traced from the bulk material to the apex of the APT specimen. The presence of contamination due to the specimen exposure to the electron beam and the use of plasma cleaning to minimize it are discussed.
Bedrock overdeepenings exposed by continued glacial retreat can store precipitation and meltwater, potentially leading to the formation of new proglacial lakes. These lakes may pose threats of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) in high mountain areas, particularly if new lakes form in geomorphological setups prone to triggering events such as landslides or moraine collapses. We present the first complete inventory for future glacial lakes in High Mountain Asia by computing the subglacial bedrock for ~100 000 glaciers and estimating overdeepening area, volume and impact hazard for the larger potential lakes. We detect 25 285 overdeepenings larger than 104 m2 with a volume of 99.1 ± 28.6 km3 covering an area of 2683 ± 773.8 km2. For the 2700 overdeepenings larger than 105 m2, we assess the lake predisposition for mass-movement impacts that could trigger a GLOF by estimating the hazard of material detaching from surrounding slopes. Our findings indicate a shift in lake area, volume and GLOF hazard from the southwestern Himalayan region toward the Karakoram. The results of this study can be used for anticipating emerging threats and potentials connected to glacial lakes and as a basis for further studies at suspected GLOF hazard hotspots.
Dietary patterns influence gut microbiota composition. To date, there has not been an assessment of diet and gut microbiota in Veterans, who have a history of unique environmental exposures, including military deployment, that may influence associations between diet and gut microbiota. Our aim was to characterise Veteran habitual dietary intake and quality, and to evaluate correlations between diet and gut microbiota. We administered Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) and collected stool samples from 330 Veterans. FFQ data were used to generate Healthy Eating Indices (HEI) of dietary quality. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify two dietary patterns we defined as “Western” and “Prudent.” Stool samples underwent 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the resulting data were used to evaluate associations with dietary variables/indices. Analyses included linear regression of α-diversity, constrained analysis of principal coordinates of β-diversity, and multivariate association with linear models and Analysis of Composition of Microbiomes analyses of dietary factors and phylum- and genus-level taxa. There were no significant associations between dietary patterns or factors and α- or β-diversity. At the phylum level, increasing HEI scores were inversely associated with relative abundance of Actinobacteria, and added sugar was inversely associated with abundance of Verrucomicrobia. Veterans largely consumed a Western-style diet, characterised by poor adherence to nutritional guidelines.
This article emerged as the human species collectively have been experiencing the worst global pandemic in a century. With a long view of the ecological, economic, social, and political factors that promote the emergence and spread of infectious disease, archaeologists are well positioned to examine the antecedents of the present crisis. In this article, we bring together a variety of perspectives on the issues surrounding the emergence, spread, and effects of disease in both the Americas and Afro-Eurasian contexts. Recognizing that human populations most severely impacted by COVID-19 are typically descendants of marginalized groups, we investigate pre- and postcontact disease vectors among Indigenous and Black communities in North America, outlining the systemic impacts of diseases and the conditions that exacerbate their spread. We look at how material culture both reflects and changes as a result of social transformations brought about by disease, the insights that paleopathology provides about the ancient human condition, and the impacts of ancient globalization on the spread of disease worldwide. By understanding the differential effects of past epidemics on diverse communities and contributing to more equitable sociopolitical agendas, archaeology can play a key role in helping to pursue a more just future.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is linked to circadian rhythm disruptions resulting in aberrant motor activity patterns. We aimed to explore whether motor activity alone, as assessed by longitudinal actigraphy, can be used to classify accurately BD patients and healthy controls (HCs) into their respective groups.
Ninety-day actigraphy records from 25 interepisode BD patients (ie, Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) < 15) and 25 sex- and age-matched HCs were used in order to identify latent actigraphic biomarkers capable of discriminating between BD patients and HCs. Mean values and time variations of a set of standard actigraphy features were analyzed and further validated using the random forest classifier.
Using all actigraphy features, this method correctly assigned 88% (sensitivity = 85%, specificity = 91%) of BD patients and HCs to their respective group. The classification success may be confounded by differences in employment between BD patients and HCs. When motor activity features resistant to the employment status were used (the strongest feature being time variation of intradaily variability, Cohen’s d = 1.33), 79% of the subjects (sensitivity = 76%, specificity = 81%) were correctly classified.
A machine-learning actigraphy-based model was capable of distinguishing between interepisode BD patients and HCs solely on the basis of motor activity. The classification remained valid even when features influenced by employment status were omitted. The findings suggest that temporal variability of actigraphic parameters may provide discriminative power for differentiating between BD patients and HCs while being less affected by employment status.
Although passive occupational exoskeletons alleviate worker physical stresses in demanding postures (e.g., overhead work), they are unsuitable in many other applications because of their lack of flexibility. Active exoskeletons that are able to dynamically adjust the delivered support are required. However, the automatic control of support provided by the exoskeleton is still a largely unsolved challenge in many applications, especially for upper limb occupational exoskeletons, where no practical and reliable approach exists. For this type of exoskeletons, a novel support control approach for lifting and carrying activities is presented here. As an initial step towards a full-fledged automatic support control (ASC), the present article focusses on the functionality of estimating the onset of user’s demand for support. In this way, intuitive behavior should be made possible. The combination of movement and muscle activation signals of the upper limbs is expected to enable high reliability, cost efficiency, and compatibility for use in industrial applications. The functionality consists of two parts: a preprocessing—the motion interpretation—and the support detection itself. Both parts were trained with different subjects, who had to move objects. The functionality was validated both in the cases of (A) an unknown subject performing known tasks and (B) a known subject performing unknown tasks. The functionality showed sound results as it achieved a high accuracy ($$ 95\% $$) in training. In addition, the first validation results showed that this functionality is useful for integration in an appropriately adapted ASC and can then enable comfortable working.
When people interact, aspects of their speech and language patterns often converge in interactions involving one or more languages. Most studies of speech convergence in conversations have examined monolingual interactions, whereas most studies of bilingual speech convergence have examined spoken responses to prompts. However, it is not uncommon in multilingual communities to converse in two languages, where each speaker primarily produces only one of the two languages. The present study examined complexity matching and lexical matching as two measures of speech convergence in conversations spoken in English, Spanish, or both languages. Complexity matching measured convergence in the hierarchical timing of speech, and lexical matching measured convergence in the frequency distributions of lemmas produced. Both types of matching were found equally in all three language conditions. Taken together, the results indicate that convergence is robust to monolingual and bilingual interactions because it stems from basic mechanisms of coordination and communication.
Southern Iceland is one of the main outlets of the Icelandic ice sheet and is subject to seismicity of both tectonic and volcanic origins along the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ). A sedimentary complex spanning Marine Isotopic Stage 6 (MIS 6) to the present includes evidence of both activities. It includes a continuous sedimentary record since the Eemian interglacial period, controlled by a rapid deglaciation, followed by two marine glacioisostasy-forced transgressions, separated by a regression phase connected to an intra-MIS 5e glacial advance. This record has been constrained by tephrostratigraphy and dating. Analysis of this record has provided better insights into the interconnectedness of hydrology and volcanic and tectonic activity during deglaciations and glaciations. Low-intensity earthquakes recurrently affected the water-laid sedimentation during the early stages of unloading, accompanying rifting events, dyke injection, and fault reactivations. During full interglacial periods, earthquakes were significantly less frequent but of higher magnitude along the SISZ, due to stress accumulation, favored by low groundwater levels and more limited magma production. Occurrence of volcanism and seismicity in Iceland is commonly related to rifting events. Subglacial volcanic events seem moreover to have been related to stress unlocking related to limited or full unloading/deglaciation events. Major eruptions were mostly located at the melting margin of the ice sheet.
Physical activity (PA) may be therapeutic for people with severe mental illness (SMI) who generally have low PA and experience numerous life style-related medical complications. We conducted a meta-review of PA interventions and their impact on health outcomes for people with SMI, including schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder. We searched major electronic databases until January 2018 for systematic reviews with/without meta-analysis that investigated PA for any SMI. We rated the quality of studies with the AMSTAR tool, grading the quality of evidence, and identifying gaps, future research needs and clinical practice recommendations. For MDD, consistent evidence indicated that PA can improve depressive symptoms versus control conditions, with effects comparable to those of antidepressants and psychotherapy. PA can also improve cardiorespiratory fitness and quality of life in people with MDD, although the impact on physical health outcomes was limited. There were no differences in adverse events versus control conditions. For MDD, larger effect sizes were seen when PA was delivered at moderate-vigorous intensity and supervised by an exercise specialist. For schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, evidence indicates that aerobic PA can reduce psychiatric symptoms, improves cognition and various subdomains, cardiorespiratory fitness, whilst evidence for the impact on anthropometric measures was inconsistent. There was a paucity of studies investigating PA in bipolar disorder, precluding any definitive recommendations. No cost effectiveness analyses in any SMI condition were identified. We make multiple recommendations to fill existing research gaps and increase the use of PA in routine clinical care aimed at improving psychiatric and medical outcomes.
The pre-last glacial maximum paleolake sediments at Baumkirchen, western Austria, are well known in Alpine Quaternary stratigraphy as being the type locality of the Middle to Upper Würmian transition. Their location provides a rare opportunity to investigate the vegetation history of the interior of the Alps during the last glacial cycle. A recent renewed research effort involving new drilling revealed a 250-m-thick lacustrine sequence with an older, ca. Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 4 phase and a younger, mid- to late MIS 3 phase. Pollen analysis reveals generally poor preservation and very low pollen concentration due to very high sedimentation rates. On the basis of pollen percentages and influx rates, six pollen zones (PZ) were assigned. PZ1 and 2 correspond to the entire ca. MIS 4 section and are characterized by only scattered vegetation representing an extremely cold and dry climate. Two stadials and two interstadials were identified in the MIS 3 section. The interstadials are characterized by well-developed open vegetation with some stands of trees, with the upper PZ6 being better developed but still forest-free. On the basis of previous radiocarbon dating, this zone (PZ6) is correlated to Greenland Interstadial (GI) 7 and the lower interstadial (PZ4) tentatively to GI 8.
Supraglacial deposits are known for their influence on glacier ablation. The magnitude of this influence depends on the thickness and the type of the deposited material. The effects of thin layers of atmospheric black carbon and of thick moraine debris have been intensively studied. Studies related to regional-scale deposits of volcanic tephra with thicknesses varying between millimetres and metres and thus over several orders of magnitude are scarce. We present results of a field experiment in which we investigated the influence of supraglacial deposits of tephra from Grímsvötn volcano on bare-ice ablation at Svínafelsjökull, Iceland. We observed that the effective thickness at which ablation is maximized ranges from 1.0 to 2.0 mm. At ~10 mm a critical thickness is reached where sub-tephra ablation equals bare-ice ablation. We calibrated two empirical ablation models and a semi-physics-based ablation model that all account for varying tephra-layer thicknesses. A comparison of the three models indicates that for tephra deposits in the lower-millimetre scale the temperature/radiation-index model performs best, but that a semi-physics-based approach could be expected to yield superior results for tephra deposits of the order of decimetres.
Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Level 1 radiance Swath Data (MOD02QKM) with a spatial resolution of 250 m, we derive snowlines during July–September 2001–12 for several mountain ranges distributed across the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Radiance bands 1 and 2 are projected to the study area and processed automatically. The discrimination between snow and ice is done using a k-mean cluster analysis and the snowlines are delineated based on a fixed percentile of the snow-cover altitude. The highest transient snowline altitude is then taken as a proxy for the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA). In the absence of measured glaciological, meteorological or hydrological data, our ELA time series enable better understanding of atmosphere-cryosphere couplings on the TP. Interannual ELA variability is linked to local and remote climate indices using a correlation analysis. Southerly flow and higher temperatures are linked with a higher ELA in most regions. Eastern and Trans-Himalayan sites show positive correlations between winter temperatures and ELA. As winter temperatures are substantially below zero, this suggests an enhancement of winter sublimation as opposed to a reduction in accumulation. It appears that large-scale atmospheric forcing has varying and sometimes opposite influences on the annual ELA in different regions on the TP.
We use numerical modelling of glacier mass balance combined with recent and past glacier extents to obtain information on Little Ice Age (LIA) climate in southeastern Tibet. We choose two glaciers that have been analysed in a previous study of equilibrium-line altitudes (ELA) and LIA glacier advances with remote-sensing approaches. We apply a physically based surface energy- and mass-balance model that is forced by dynamically downscaled global analysis data. The model is applied to two glacier stages mapped from satellite imagery, modern (1999) and LIA. Precipitation scaling factors (PSF) and air temperature offsets (ATO) are applied to reproduce recent ELA and glacier mass balance (MB) during the LIA. A sensitivity analysis is performed by applying seasonally varying gradients of precipitation and air temperature. The calculated glacier-wide MB estimate for the period 2000–12 is negative for both glaciers (–992±366 kgm–2 a–1 and –1053±258 kgm–2 a–1). Relating recent and LIA PSF/ATO sets suggests a LIA climate with ~8–25% increased precipitation and ~1–2.5°C lower mean air temperature than in the period 2000–12. The results only provide an order of magnitude because deviations in other input parameters are not considered.
Placebo responses raise significant challenges for the design of clinical trials. We report changes in agitation outcomes in the placebo arm of a recent trial of citalopram for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (CitAD).
In the CitAD study, all participants and caregivers received a psychosocial intervention and 92 were assigned to placebo for nine weeks. Outcomes included Neurobehavioral Rating Scale agitation subscale (NBRS-A), modified AD Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC), Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) Agitation/Aggression domain (NPI A/A) and Total (NPI-Total) and ADLs. Continuous outcomes were analyzed with mixed-effects modeling and dichotomous outcomes with logistic regression.
Agitation outcomes improved over nine weeks: NBRS-A mean (SD) decreased from 7.8 (3.0) at baseline to 5.4 (3.2), CMAI from 28.7 (6.7) to 26.7 (7.4), NPI A/A from 8.0 (2.4) to 4.9 (3.8), and NPI-Total from 37.3 (17.7) to 28.4 (22.1). The proportion of CGI-C agitation responders ranged from 21 to 29% and was significantly different from zero. MMSE improved from 14.4 (6.9) to 15.7 (7.2) and ADLs similarly improved. Most of the improvement was observed by three weeks and was sustained through nine weeks. The major predictor of improvement in each agitation measure was a higher baseline score in that measure.
We observed significant placebo response which may be due to regression to the mean, response to a psychosocial intervention, natural course of symptoms, or nonspecific benefits of participation in a trial.
Most glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau are difficult to assess as they are located in remote regions at high altitude. This study focuses on the surface energy-balance (SEB) and mass-balance (MB) characteristics of Purogangri ice cap (PIC). A ‘COupled Snowpack and Ice surface energy and MAss balance model’ (COSIMA) is applied without observational data from the ground. The model is forced by a meteorological dataset from the High Asia Refined analysis. Model results for annual surface-elevation changes and MB agree well with the results of a previous remote-sensing estimate. Low surface velocities of 0.026 ± 0.012 m d−1 were measured by repeat-pass InSAR. This finding supports the validation of the steady-state COSIMA against satellite-derived surface changes. Overall MB of PIC for the period 2001–11 is nearly balanced (−44 kg m−2 a−1). Analysis of the model-derived SEB/MB components reveals that a significant amount of snowfall in spring is responsible for high surface albedo throughout the year. Thus, the average surface energy loss through net longwave radiation is larger than the energy gain through net shortwave radiation. The dry continental climate favours mass loss through sublimation, which accounts for 66% of the total mass loss.
A layered composite coating material with favorable properties for application as a transparent conductor is presented. It is composed of layers of three nanoscopic materials, namely zinc oxide nanoparticles, single wall nanotubes, and graphene oxide nanosheets. The electrically conducting layer consists of single wall nanotubes (SWNTs). The layer of zinc oxide nanoparticles acts as a primer. It increases the adhesion and the stability of the films against mechanical stresses. The top layer of graphene oxide enhances the conductivity of such coatings. Such three-layer composite coatings show better conductivity (without compromising transparency) and improved mechanical stability compared to pure SWNT films. The processes used in the preparation of such coatings are easily scalable.