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During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many countries opted for strict public health measures, including closing schools. After some time, they have started relaxing some of those restrictions. To avoid overwhelming health systems, predictions for the number of new COVID-19 cases need to be considered when choosing a school reopening strategy. Using a computer simulation based on a stochastic compartmental model that includes a heterogeneous and dynamic network, we analyse different strategies to reopen schools in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area, including one similar to the official reopening plan. Our model allows us to describe different types of relations between people, each type with a different infectiousness. Based on our simulations and model assumptions, our results indicate that reopening schools with all students at once has a big impact on the number of new COVID-19 cases, which could cause a collapse of the health system. On the other hand, our results also show that a controlled school reopening could possibly avoid the collapse of the health system, depending on how people follow sanitary measures. We estimate that postponing the schools' return date for after a vaccine becomes available may save tens of thousands of lives just in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area compared to a controlled reopening considering a worst-case scenario. We also discuss our model constraints and the uncertainty of its parameters.
The objective of this study was to develop new standardized alcohol-associated cues and assess their effects on brain activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Pictures of alcoholic and neutral beverages and affectively neutral pictures were presented to 44 abstinent alcoholics and 37 age-matched healthy control subjects. We assessed the skin conductance response, and the elicited arousal and valence. Alcoholics and control subjects did not differ in arousal, valence or skin conductance response evoked by alcohol-associated and affectively neutral stimuli, while nonalcoholic beverages were rated as more unpleasant and arousing by alcoholics compared with control subjects. In the fMRI pilot study, alcohol and abstract pictures were presented to six abstinent alcoholics and induced a significant activation of brain areas associated with visual emotional processes such as the fusiform gyrus, parts of the brain reward system (basal ganglia and orbitofrontal gyrus) and further brain regions in the frontal and parietal cortices associated with the attention network. These observations suggest that standardized pictures of alcoholic beverages can be used to assess brain circuits involved in the processing and evaluation of alcohol cues.
Gaia DR2 was released in April 2018 and contains a photometric catalogue of more than 1 billion sources. This release contains colour information in the form of integrated BP and RP photometry in addition to the latest G-band photometry. The level of uncertainty can be as good as 2 mmag with some residual systematics at the 10 mmag level. The addition of colour information greatly enhances the value of the photometric data for the scientific community. A high level overview of the photometric processing, with a focus on the improvements with respect to Gaia DR1, was given. The definition of the Gaia photometric system, a crucial part of the calibration of the photometry, was also explained. Finally, some of the photometric improvements expected for the next data release were described.
Dysfunctional behavioural and neural processing of reward has been found in currently depressed individuals. However, little is known about altered reward processing in remitted depressed individuals.
A total of 23 medication-free individuals with remitted major depressive disorder (rMDD) and 23 matched healthy controls (HCs) performed a reward task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We also investigated reward dependence, novelty seeking and harm avoidance using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire and their association with neural responses of reward processing.
Compared to HCs, individuals with rMDD exhibited enhanced responses to reward-predicting cues in the hippocampus, amygdala and superior frontal gyrus. When reward was delivered, rMDD subjects did not significantly differ from HCs. In both groups neural activity during reward anticipation was negatively correlated with harm avoidance.
Our results show that rMDD is characterized by hyperactivation in fronto-limbic regions during reward anticipation. Alterations in neural activation during reward processing might reflect an increased effort in remitted depressed individuals to allocate neural activity for executive and evaluative processes during anticipatory reward processing.
The development of post-socialist cities has emerged as a major field of study among critical theorists from across the social sciences. Originally constructed under the dictates of central planners and designed to serve the demands of command economies, post-socialist urban centers currently develop at the nexus of varied and often competing economic, cultural, and political forces. Among these, nationalist aspirations, previously simmering beneath the official rhetoric of communist fraternity and veneer of architectural conformity, have emerged as dominant factors shaping the urban landscape. This article examines patterns, processes, and practices concerning the cultural politics of architecture, urban planning, and identity in the post-socialist city. In addition to assessing the main contours of this burgeoning field of research, this article highlights how this special issue of Nationalities Papers contributes to a broader understanding of contemporary cultural and political change in post-socialist urban settings.
Capital cities play an integral role in the construction of national identity. This is particularly true when the capital is the country's only major urban center. Over the course of its history, Mongolia's capital of Ulaanbaatar has been periodically reshaped to reflect competing trajectories of national culture. This article examines the evolving symbolism of architecture, urban design, and public space in Ulaanbaatar as a means of exploring Mongolia's complex negotiation between its traditional culture (mobile pastoralism and Shamanism/Buddhism), its socialist legacy, and globalization. Amidst the rampant social change of the last two decades, rather ambiguous national narratives have emerged in Mongolia. Like the capital's cityscape, these narratives reflect aspects of both recent and distant pasts, as well as contemporary economic, political, and social realities. This article reveals how increasingly palpable global economic and cultural practices are fomenting material change in the current phase of Ulaanbaatar's evolution. A combination of secondary source research and observations drawn from several months of fieldwork provide the basis for a discussion of the city's role as a forum for cultural contestation and national reform.
We study the quasifinear relaxation of an aperiodic instability, namely the instability caused by the temperature anisotropy of a collisionless electron plasma in the absence of an external magnetic field. We give a detailed description of the relaxation process and we examine the validity of the quasilinear theory (existence of separate time scales, quasilinearity of the particles' orbits).
The experience of uncontrollability and helplessness in the face of stressful life events is regarded as an important determinant in the development and maintenance of depression. The inability to successfully deal with stressors might be linked to dysfunctional prefrontal functioning. We assessed cognitive, behavioural and physiological effects of stressor uncontrollability in depressed and healthy individuals. In addition, relationships between altered cortical processing and cognitive vulnerability traits of depression were analysed.
A total of 26 unmedicated depressed patients and 24 matched healthy controls were tested in an expanded forewarned reaction (S1–S2) paradigm. In a factorial design, stressor controllability varied across three consecutive conditions: (a) control, (b) loss of control and (c) restitution of control. Throughout the experiment, error rates, ratings of controllability, arousal, emotional valence and helplessness were assessed together with the post-imperative negative variation (PINV) of the electroencephalogram.
Depressed participants showed an enhanced frontal PINV as an electrophysiological index of altered information processing during both loss of control and restitution of control. They also felt more helpless than controls. Furthermore, frontal PINV magnitudes were associated with habitual rumination in the depressed subsample.
These findings indicate that depressed patients are more susceptible to stressor uncontrollability than healthy subjects. Moreover, the experience of uncontrollability seems to bias subsequent information processing in a situation where control is objectively re-established. Alterations in prefrontal functioning appear to contribute to this vulnerability and are also linked to trait markers of depression.
Comparative and functional fungal genomics
R. A. Dean, Center for Integrated Fungal Research Department of Plant Pathology 1200 Partners Building II Box 7251 North Carolina State University Raleigh NC 27695 USA,
T. Mitchell, North Carolina State University Department of Plant Pathology Campus Box 7251 Raleigh NC 27695–7251 USA,
R. Kulkarni, RTI 3040 Cornwallis Road Research Triangle Park NC 27709 USA,
N. Donofrio, North Carolina State University Department of Plant Pathology Campus Box 7251 Raleigh NC 27695–7251 USA,
A. Powell, North Carolina State University Department of Plant Pathology Campus Box 7251 Raleigh NC 27695–7251 USA,
Y. Y. Oh, North Carolina State University Department of Plant Pathology Campus Box 7251 Raleigh NC 27695–7251 USA,
S. Diener, North Carolina State University Department of Plant Pathology Campus Box 7253 Raleigh NC 27695–7253 USA,
H. Pan, RTI 3040 Cornwallis Road Research Triangle Park NC 27709 USA,
D. Brown, North Carolina State University Department of Plant Pathology Campus Box 7251 Raleigh NC 27695–7251 USA,
J. Deng, North Carolina State University Department of Plant Pathology Campus Box 7251 Raleigh NC 27695–7251 USA,
I. Carbone, North Carolina State University Department of Plant Pathology Campus Box 7244 Raleigh NC 27695–7244 USA,
D. J. Ebbole, Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology Peterson Building Rm 120 MS# 2132 Texas A&M University College Station TX 77843–2132 USA,
M. Thon, Department of Computer Science 320C Peterson Building MS# 2132 Texas A&M University College Station TX 77843–2132 USA,
M. L. Farman, Department of Plant Pathology University of Kentucky 1405 Veterans Drive Lexington KY 40546–0312 USA,
M. J. Orbach, Department of Plant Pathology University of Arizona Forbes Room 105 PO Box 210036 Tucson AZ 85721–0036 USA,
C. Soderlund, Director of Bioinformatics Department of Plant Science 303 Forbes Building Tucson AZ 85721 USA,
J-R. Xu, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology 915 West State Street Purdue University West Lafayette IN 47906 USA,
Y-H. Lee, Seoul National University School of Agricultural Biotechnology Suwon 441–744 Korea,
N. J. Talbot, Department of Biological Sciences University of Exeter Hatherly Laboratories Prince of Wales Road Exeter EX4 4PS UK,
S. Coughlan, Agilent Technologies Inc. Little Falls Site 2850 Centerville Road Wilmington DE 19808 USA,
J. E. Galagan, The Broad Institute Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge MA 02139–4307 USA,
B. W. Birren, The Broad Institute Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge MA 02139–4307 USA
Rice blast disease, caused by the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe grisea, is a serious and recurrent problem in all rice-growing regions of the world (Talbot, 2003; Valent & Chumley, 1991). It is estimated that each year enough rice is destroyed by rice blast disease to feed 60 million people. Control of this disease is difficult; new host-specific forms develop quickly to overcome host resistance and chemical control is typically not cost effective (Ou, 1987). Infections occur when fungal spores land and attach themselves to leaves using a special adhesive released from the tip of each spore (Hamer et al., 1988). The germinating spore develops an appressorium, a specialized infection cell, which generates enormous turgor pressure – up to 8 MPa – that ruptures the leaf cuticle allowing invasion of the underlying leaf tissue (de Jong et al., 1997; Dean, 1997). Subsequent colonization of the leaf produces disease lesions from which the fungus sporulates and spreads to new plants. When rice blast infects young rice seedlings, whole plants often die, while spread of the disease to the stems, nodes or panicle of older plants results in nearly total loss of the rice grain. Recent reports have further shown that the fungus has the capacity to infect plant roots (Sesma & Osbourn, 2004). Different host-limited forms of Magnaporthe also infect a broad range of grass species including wheat, barley and millet.
El objetivo de este estudio era desarrollar nuevas claves estandarizadas asociadas al alcohol y evaluar sus efectos sobre la activación cerebral con resonancia magnética nuclear funcional (RMNf). Se presentaron imágenes de bebidas alcohólicas y neutrales e imágenes neutrales afectivamente a 44 alcohólicos abstinentes y 37 sujetos de control sanos emparejados por la edad. Evaluamos la respuesta de conductancia de la piel, y la activación y la valencia provocadas. Los alcohólicos y los sujetos de control no difirieron en la activación, la valencia o la respuesta de conductancia de la piel evocadas por los estímulos asociados con el alcohol y los neutrales afectivamente, mientras que los alcohólicos evaluaron las bebidas no alcohólicas como más desagradables y activadoras, comparado con los sujetos de control. En el estudio piloto de RMNf, se presentaron imágenes relacionadas con el alcohol y abstractas a seis alcohólicos abstinentes, e indujeron una activación significativa de las áreas cerebrales asociadas con los procesos emocionales visuales, como el giro fusiforme, partes del sistema de recompensa del cerebro (ganglios basales y giro orbitofrontal) y otras regiones cerebrales en las cortezas frontal y parietal asociadas con la red de atención. Estas observaciones indican que se pueden utilizar imágenes estandarizadas de bebidas alcohólicas para evaluar los circuitos cerebrales implicados en el procesamiento y la evaluación de las claves de alcohol.
PET studies using classical conditioning paradigms are reported. It is emphasized that PET studies show “cerebellar involvement” and not “specific function” in learning paradigms. The importance of dissociating motor performance and learning deficits in human lesions studies is demonstrated in two exemplary studies. The different role of the cerebellum in adaptation of postural reflexes and learning of complex voluntary arm movements is discussed, [THACH]
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