To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
One pathway by which environments of socioeconomic risk are thought to affect cognitive development is through stress physiology. The biological systems underpinning stress and attention undergo a sensitive period of development during infancy. Psychobiological theory emphasizes a dynamic pattern of context-dependent development, however, research has yet to examine how basal cortisol and attention dynamically covary across infancy in ecologically valid contexts. Thus, to address these gaps, we leveraged longitudinal, multilevel analytic methods to disentangle between- from within-person associations of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity and executive attention behaviors across infancy. We use data from a large longitudinal sample (N = 1,292) of infants in predominantly low-income, nonurban communities at 7-, 15-, and 24-months of age. Using multilevel models, we investigated longitudinal associations of infant attention and basal cortisol levels and examined caregiving behaviors as moderators of this relationship. Results indicated a negative between- and within-person association between attention and cortisol across infancy and a within-person moderation by caregiver responsiveness. In other words, on the within-person level, higher levels of cortisol were concomitantly associated with lower infant attention across the first 2 years of life. However, variation in the caregiver's level of responsiveness either buffered or sensitized the executive attention system to the negative effects of physiological stress.
To evaluate the prevalence of food and beverage marketing on Twitch.tv (Twitch), a social media platform where individuals broadcast live audiovisual material to millions of daily users.
Observational analysis of the prevalence of 238 food and beverage brands in five distinct categories (processed snacks; food delivery services and restaurants; candies, energy drinks/coffees/teas; and sodas and other sugar-sweetened beverages) over the course of 18 months.
Twitch streamer profiles and stream titles between January 2018 and July 2019. Twitch chat room messages during July 2019.
There was a significant increase in brand exposure on Twitch both in stream titles (sodas and candies, P < 0·05) and on streamer profiles (sodas, restaurants/food delivery services, candies, and energy drinks/coffees/teas, P < 0·05) over the 18-month study period. Energy drinks, coffees and teas had the most exposure with 1·08 billion exposure hours from profiles and 83 million exposure hours from titles. Restaurants/food delivery services and sugar-sweetened beverages were the most frequently mentioned products in chat rooms with 1·24 million messages and 1·10 million messages, respectively.
This study is the first to demonstrate the extent by which food and beverage brands garner millions of hours of exposure on Twitch. Future studies should evaluate the impact that this level of exposure to nutrient-poor, energy-dense products may have on behavioural and health outcomes.
Current treatment approaches for depression center on various forms of psychosocial therapy and the use of antidepressant drugs. The response rates for both of these approaches are similar, with mostly reduction, but not complete remission, of symptoms. Poor adherence to recommended treatment is an issue complicating the management of depression and prevention of recurrent episodes. This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel form of receptive music therapy which can be easily adminstered to out patients.
Enrolled subjects (n=203, average age 49.6 ± 13.1 years, 28.1% male) were randomized into four arms: Music Therapy 1 (MT1), Music Therapy 2 (MT2), Placebo (nature sounds) and waiting-list Control. Subjects listened for 30 minutes, twice daily. Multivariate linear regression models assessed depressive symptom changes over five weeks, based on a composite scale (COMP) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) alone.
On average, a significant, positive change in COMP was observed for MT1 (β=1.44, p=0.030), but not for MT2 (β=1.14, p=0.059) or Placebo (β=0.57, p=0.397). After 15 weeks, study participation was associated with a mean HAM-D score reduction of 60% for 89,1% of the compliant probands.
Newly composed receptive music therapy, as explored in this study, is associated with reduced depressive symptoms and high treatment compliance, and may therefore potentially represent an effective depression treatment alternative or adjunctive therapy to pharmacological and psychosocial approaches.
Depression is a prevalent, often chronic and disabling disease. Current psychosocial and antidepressant treatments result in similar response rates with mostly symptom reduction, but not complete remission. Poor treatment adherence complicates depression management and prevention of recurrent episodes. Therefore, new therapies must be developed urgently, that alone or combined with present treatments, can significantly improve therapy outcomes.
Depression is potentially associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV). Based on our previous studies' results which demonstrated HRV increase following auditory stimulation, we developed two interventions based on specifically for depression treatment composed and arranged music and tested the efficacy in a waiting list and placebo controlled double-blind study with depressed outpatients.
Depression status was assessed at the beginning of T1 and T2 using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) and by a composite (COMP) scale based on HAM-D, BDI and HADS-D z-scores. Changes in depressive symptoms between T1 and T2 (5 week period) were assessed based on COMP and on HAM-D, BDI and HADS-D scores alone. Compared to the control arm, a significant, positive effect in COMP was observed for MT1 at T2. Both MT1 and MT2 were associated with significant positive effects (HAM-D and HADS-D scores). MT2 resulted in positive effects on BDI scores. No significant change in any depression score was detected in the placebo arm. Treatment continuation was associated with an effect increase (mean HAM-D score reduction of 60%) after 10 to 15 weeks of treatment.
Frowning expresses negative emotions like anger, fear, and sadness. According to the facial feedback hypothesis, suppression of frowning will also diminish the corresponding negative emotions. Hence, mood improvement has been observed in patients who underwent treatment of glabellar frown lines with botulinum neurotoxin. This observation suggests the possibility that the intervention may be employed for the management of psychiatric disorders associated with negative emotions. Preliminary data from an open case series indicate that the intervention might improve the symptoms of depression.
Aims & objectives
To test whether an onabotulinumtoxinA injection into the glabellar region is benefical as an adjunctive treatment of major depression within a clinical trial.
We used a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study design (n = 30; ClinicalTrials.gov, number, NCT00934687).
We show that a single onabotulinumtoxinA treatment shortly leads to a strong and sustained improvement in partly chronic major depression that did not respond sufficiently to previous treatment. As for the primary end-point, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) six weeks after treatment compared to baseline, scores of onabotulinumtoxinA recipients showed 37.9% (8.34 points) more improvement than those of placebo-treated participants (F = 12.30, p = 0.002, η2 = 0.31, d = 1.28).
Our findings support the concept that the facial musculature not only expresses, but also regulates, mood states. As it stands, treatment of glabellar frown lines with botulinum neurotoxin can be considered for depressed patients with the objective of inducing mood-lifting effects.
Les conduites suicidaires (CS) constituent un problème de santé publique majeur à travers le monde. Elles présentent une vulnérabilité propre, et sont maintenant considérées comme une entité diagnostique indépendante dans le DSM5. La thérapie d’acceptation et d’engagement (ACT) est une thérapie intégrative ayant démontré son utilité dans une grande variété de troubles psychiatriques, à travers une diminution de l’évitement expérientiel et une amélioration de la flexibilité psychologique (socles communs à l’ensemble des troubles psychiatriques) .
Nous avons conduit une étude pilote suggérant la faisabilité de la thérapie ACT, sous forme de groupes, chez les patients suicidants (CHRU de Montpellier, Pr Courtet) . À travers la présentation des processus thérapeutiques utilisés dans la thérapie ACT, nous aborderons les hypothèses d’action de la thérapie ACT dans les conduites suicidaires. Puis nous présenterons l’étude IMPACT, en cours de réalisation dans le service urgences et post-urgences psychiatriques (CHRU de Montpellier, Pr Courtet). Il s’agit de la première étude contrôlée randomisée recherchant des biomarqueurs neuroanatomiques et fonctionnels de réponse à la thérapie ACT chez des patients ayant un trouble des conduites suicidaires. Nous aborderons enfin, de façon pratique, comment présenter la thérapie ACT à un patient, à travers une matrice . Il s’agit d’une analyse fonctionnelle permettant de faire percevoir au patient le fonctionnement actuel dans lequel il se sent enlisé, de mettre en lumière ce qui est important dans sa vie, et donc d’avoir un outil motivationnel simple et efficace pour l’accompagner vers le changement.
La thérapie ACT semble être une thérapie prometteuse dans la prise en charge des conduites suicidaires. L’étude IMPACT servira à accroître les connaissances sur les conduites suicidaires par l’identification de biomarqueurs de réponse thérapeutique et la mise en évidence des régions cérébrales associées aux processus thérapeutiques.
The concept of the Dark Triad (DT) consists of the dimensions of Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, and has gained increased interest within the last 15 years for its predictive power to explain success in the fields of economy, politics, and professional sport. However, recent research suggests that the associations between DT and behavior are not as uniform as expected.
Investigating the associations between DT traits and vulnerable narcissism, mental toughness, sleep quality, and stress perception.
A total of 720 participants between 18 and 28 years took part in the study. The sample consisted of military cadres in the US (n = 238), Switzerland (n = 220), and of students from the university of Basel (n = 262). Participants completed self-rating questionnaires covering DT traits, mental toughness, vulnerable narcissism, sleep quality, and perceived stress.
Irrespective of the sample, participants scoring high on vulnerable narcissism also reported higher DT traits, lower mental toughness, poor sleep quality, and higher scores on perceived stress.
The present pattern of results suggests a more fine-grained association between DT traits and further behavior, calling into question to what extent DT traits might be a predictor for greater success in the fields of economy, politics or elite sports. Specifically, vulnerable narcissism seems to be key for more unfavourable behavior.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) report increased mental health issues, poorer sleep quality and less engagement in physical activity (PA). Standard treatment consists of immune modulating pharmaceuticals, though evidence is growing that aerobic exercise training (AET) might serve as adjuvant option to reduce disease symptoms and improve mental health. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible AET effects on psychological functioning, depressive symptoms, sleep and PA behavior in paediatric patients with IBD.
Twenty-one paediatric patients with IBD and 23 gender and age-matched healthy controls (HC) were assessed. The IBD group was split into a “remission-group” (IBD-RE; n = 14) and an “active disease group” (IBD-AD; n = 7). All participants completed an 8-week AET exergame intervention reaching 60–80% of maximal heart rate for 5 days per week. At baseline and after 8 weeks, psychological functioning, depressive symptoms, objective sleep EEG, subjective sleep and objective and subjective PA were assessed.
AET significantly improved the exercise capacity of all participants. Self-reported fitness and daily PA behavior significantly increased in IBD-AD, but not in IBD-RE and HC. No improvements were observed for psychological functioning, depressive symptoms and subjective or objective sleep dimensions. Descriptively, the IBD-AD group reported lower psychological functioning and poorer subjective sleep quality.
Results suggest that children and adolescents in an active disease state were at increased risk to descriptively report lower scores of psychological functioning and sleep. Further, an exergaming intervention has the potential to improve exercise capacity, self-reported fitness and daily PA.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
On-farm hatching systems for broiler chicks are increasingly used in practice. We studied whether or not performance, health and welfare aspects differed between commercial flocks hatched on-farm or in a hatchery (control). In two successive production cycles on seven farms, a total of 16 on-farm hatched flocks were paired to 16 control flocks, housed at the same farm. Paired flocks originated from the same batch of eggs and were subjected to similar on-farm management. On-farm hatched and control flocks only differed with respect to hatching conditions, with on-farm hatched flocks not being exposed to, for example, chick handling, post-hatch feed and water deprivation and transport, in contrast to control flocks that were subjected to standard hatchery procedures, subsequently transported and placed in the poultry house. Day-old chick quality (navel and hock scores), 1st week mortality, total mortality, BW at day (d) 0, d7 and at depopulation, and (total) feed conversion ratio were determined. Prevalence of footpad dermatitis, hock burn, breast discoloration/blisters and cleanliness, litter quality and gait score were determined at d21 of age and around depopulation (d39 on average). Gross pathology and gut morphology were examined at depopulation age in a sample of birds of five flocks per treatment. On-farm hatching resulted in a higher BW at d0 (Δ=5.4 g) and d7 (Δ=11.5 g) (P<0.001), but day-old chick quality as measured by navel (P=0.003) and hock (P=0.01) quality was worse for on-farm hatched compared to control birds. Body weight, 1st week and total mortality, and feed conversion ratio at slaughter age were similar for both on-farm hatched and control flocks. On-farm hatched flocks had less footpad dermatitis (P=0.05), which indicated a better welfare. This was likely related to a tendency for better litter quality in on-farm hatched flocks at 21 days of age in comparison to control flocks (P=0.08). No major differences in gross pathology or in intestinal morphology at depopulation age were found between treatments. In conclusion, on-farm hatching resulted in better 1st week broiler performance and better welfare compared to conventional hatching in a hatchery.
The mental health outcomes of military personnel deployed on peacekeeping
missions have been relatively neglected in the military mental health
To assess the mental health impacts of peacekeeping deployments.
In total, 1025 Australian peacekeepers were assessed for current and
lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, service history and exposure to
potentially traumatic events (PTEs). A matched Australian community
sample was used as a comparator. Univariate and regression analyses were
conducted to explore predictors of psychiatric diagnosis.
Peacekeepers had significantly higher 12-month prevalence of
post-traumatic stress disorder (16.8%), major depressive episode (7%),
generalised anxiety disorder (4.7%), alcohol misuse (12%), alcohol
dependence (11.3%) and suicidal ideation (10.7%) when compared with the
civilian comparator. The presence of these psychiatric disorders was most
strongly and consistently associated with exposure to PTEs.
Veteran peacekeepers had significant levels of psychiatric morbidity.
Their needs, alongside those of combat veterans, should be recognised
within military mental health initiatives.
In this work we explore the radiocarbon (14C) signal as an independent tool to assess the year of formation of individual tree rings of tropical species in northern Brazil. Three different species were analyzed in this work: Dipteryx magnifica, Enterolobium maximum, and Hymenolobium petraeum. The studied samples are from the stem of only one individual of each species, all cut down in 2008 in Porto Trombetas, Pará, Brazil. Individual tree rings were identified based on wood anatomy and they were counted from bark to pith. Several rings were selected for 14C analysis in order to cover the overall shape of the 14C atmospheric bomb peak (after 1955). The 14C content was measured at Laboratory of Radiocarbon, Universidade Federal Fluminense (LAC-UFF). Results are compared with the Southern Hemisphere 14C atmospheric calibration curves. For E. maximum and H. petraeum the 14C signal exhibits an overall good match with the SH zone 3 and suggests annual seasonality in the growth-ring formation. These species offer suitable characteristics for dendrochronology. The D. magnifica shows mismatches in the 14C measurements that are likely a result of difficulties in identifying ring boundaries with certainty. Additional techniques may be helpful to disentangle the origin of this discrepancy.
Children with cancer are potentially at a high risk of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) inadequacy, and despite UK vitamin D supplementation guidelines their implementation remains inconsistent. Thus, we aimed to investigate 25(OH)D concentration and factors contributing to 25(OH)D inadequacy in paediatric cancer patients. A prospective cohort study of Scottish children aged <18 years diagnosed with, and treated for, cancer (patients) between August 2010 and January 2014 was performed, with control data from Scottish healthy children (controls). Clinical and nutritional data were collected at defined periods up to 24 months. 25(OH)D status was defined by the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health as inadequacy (<50 nmol/l: deficiency (<25 nmol/l), insufficiency (25–50 nmol/l)), sufficiency (51–75 nmol/l) and optimal (>75 nmol/l). In all, eighty-two patients (median age 3·9, interquartile ranges (IQR) 1·9–8·8; 56 % males) and thirty-five controls (median age 6·2, IQR 4·8–9·1; 49 % males) were recruited. 25(OH)D inadequacy was highly prevalent in the controls (63 %; 22/35) and in the patients (64 %; 42/65) at both baseline and during treatment (33–50 %). Non-supplemented children had the highest prevalence of 25(OH)D inadequacy at every stage with 25(OH)D median ranging from 32·0 (IQR 21·0–46·5) to 45·0 (28·0–64·5) nmol/l. Older age at baseline (R −0·46; P<0·001), overnutrition (BMI≥85th centile) at 3 months (P=0·005; relative risk=3·1) and not being supplemented at 6 months (P=0·04; relative risk=4·3) may have contributed to lower plasma 25(OH)D. Paediatric cancer patients are not at a higher risk of 25(OH)D inadequacy than healthy children at diagnosis; however, prevalence of 25(OH)D inadequacy is still high and non-supplemented children have a higher risk. Appropriate monitoring and therapeutic supplementation should be implemented.
This study aimed to examine the dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of Australian children and adolescents, as well as the major food groups contributing to GL, in the recent 2011–2012 Australian Health Survey. Plausible food intake data from 1876 children and adolescents (51 % boys), collected using a multiple-pass 24-h recall, were analysed. The GI of foods was assigned based on a step-wise published method using values from common GI databases. Descriptive statistics were calculated for dietary GI, GL and contribution to GL by food groups, stratified by age group and sex. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups for BMI, dietary GI and GL, and intakes of energy, nutrients and food groups. Pearson’s χ2 test was used to test for differences between age groups for categorical subject characteristic variables. Mean dietary GI and GL of participants were 55·5 (sd 5·3) and 137·4 (sd 50·8), respectively. The main contributors to dietary GL were starchy foods: breads, cereal-based dishes, breakfast cereals, flours, grains and potatoes accounted for 41 % of total GL. Sweetened beverages, fruit and vegetable juices/drinks, cake-type desserts and sweet biscuits contributed 15 %. No significant difference (at P<0·001) was observed between sexes. In conclusion, Australian children and adolescents appear to consume diets with a lower GI than European children. Exchanging high-GI foods for low-GI alternatives within core and non-core foods may improve diet quality of Australian children and adolescents.
The objective of this study was to investigate relationships between ovulation rate (OR) and embryonic and placental development in sows. Topigs Norsvin® sows (n=91, parity 2 to 17) from three different genetic backgrounds were slaughtered at 35 days of pregnancy and the reproductive tract was collected. The corpora lutea (CL) were counted and the number of vital and non-vital embryos, embryonic spacing (distance between two embryos), implantation length, placental length, placental weight and embryonic weight were assessed. The difference between number of CL and total number of embryos was considered as early embryonic mortality. The number of non-vital embryos was considered as late mortality. Relationships between OR and all other variables were investigated using two models: the first considered parity as class effect (n=91) and the second used a subset of sows with parities 4 to 10 (n=47) to analyse the genetic background as class effect. OR was significantly affected by parity (P<0.0001), but was not affected by the genetic background of the sows. Parity and genetic background did not affect embryonic and placental characteristics at 35 days of pregnancy. OR (varying from 17 to 38 CL) was positively related with early embryonic mortality (β=0.49±0.1 n/ovulations, P<0.0001), with late embryonic mortality or number of non-vital embryos (β=0.24±0.1 n/ovulations, P=0.001) and with the number of vital embryos (β=0.26±0.1 n/ovulations, P=0.01). However, dividing OR in four classes, showed that the number of vital embryos was lowest in OR class 1 (17 to 21 CL), but not different for the other OR classes, suggesting a plateau for number of vital embryos for OR above 22. There was a negative linear relationship between OR and vital embryonic spacing (β=−0.45±0.1 cm/ovulation, P=0.001), implantation length (β=−0.35±0.1 cm/ovulation, P=0.003), placental length (β=−0.38±0.2 cm/ovulation, P=0.05) and empty space around embryonic-placental unit (β=−0.4±0.2 cm/ovulation, P=0.02), indicating uterine crowding. Further analyses showed that effects of OR on embryonic and uterine parameters were related with the increase in late mortality and not early embryonic mortality. Therefore, we conclude that a high OR results in an moderate increase in the number of vital embryos at day 35 of pregnancy, but compromises development in the surviving embryonic/placental units, suggesting that the future growth and survival of the embryos might be further compromised.
Diets high in glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) have been associated with a higher diabetes risk. Beer explained a large proportion of variation in GI in a Finnish and an American study. However, few beers have been tested according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) methodology. We tested the GI of beer and estimated its contribution to dietary GI and GL in the Netherlands. GI testing of pilsner beer (Pilsner Urquell) was conducted at The University of Sydney according to ISO international standards with glucose as the reference food. Subsequently, GI and GL values were assigned to 2556 food items in the 2011 Dutch food composition table using a six-step methodology and consulting four databases. This table was linked to dietary data from 2106 adults in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010. Stepwise linear regression identified contribution to inter-individual variation in dietary GI and GL. The GI of pilsner beer was 89 (sd 5). Beer consumption contributed to 9·6 and 5·3 % inter-individual variation in GI and GL, respectively. Other foods that contributed to the inter-individual variation in GI and GL included potatoes, bread, soft drinks, sugar, candy, wine, coffee and tea. The results were more pronounced in men than in women. In conclusion, beer is a high-GI food. Despite its relatively low carbohydrate content (approximately 4–5 g/100 ml), it still made a contribution to dietary GL, especially in men. Next to potatoes, bread, sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, beer captured a considerable proportion of between-person variability in GI and GL in the Dutch diet.