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Motivated by the industrial manufacture of organic light-emitting-diode displays, we formulate and analyse a mathematical model for the evolution of a thin droplet in a shallow axisymmetric well of rather general shape both before and after touchdown that accounts for the spatially non-uniform evaporation of the fluid, perform physical experiments using three cylindrical wells with different small aspect ratios, and validate the mathematical model by comparing the present experimental results with the corresponding theoretical predictions for a cylindrical well.
Risk assessment and management are crucial elements of clinical practice in mental health. Healthcare Improvement Scotland identified risk management as a key area for change, with risk tools identified as one necessary component. In NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde (GG&C) the CRAFT tool replaced the Glasgow Risk Screen (GRS) in October 2019. The CRAFT tool is a 2 page document that comprises a broad risk screen, details of historical risk events and prompts for family and carer involvement. The aim of this study was to assess staff attitudes to the CRAFT, 12 months after it had been rolled out. Looking at whether the CRAFT tool is used to inform decision making about risk in clinical settings and if patients were involved in the risk management process.
An electronic staff survey was distributed to all clinical staff within NHS GG&C Mental Health Services. Clinical staff includes the following professional groups: Medical, Nursing, Psychology, Occupational Therapists and Allied Health Professionals. Contact details were accessed via the relevant managers and surveys were sent via secure global address lists. Questions were focused around the following areas: time taken to complete/update/frequency of use/contact and ease of use, role in decision making, patient and carer involvement/knowledge, view on the impact of the CRAFT.
There were 209 responses. This represents a response rate of approximately 10%. 89% of respondents had completed a CRAFT tool at some point but only 38% had received training. 15% reported that the CRAFT did not aid decision making about risk in clinical settings, whereas 37% said it did and 42% said it did sometimes. 46% report patients are consulted most of the time (34%) or always (12%). The qualitative impression was that the CRAFT was an improvement on its predecessor. However common themes from responders highlighted a lack of clinical relevance or impact decision making, lack of training in filling it out and cumbersome integration with the electronic case notes.
Staff perceptions of the CRAFT tool were generally negative with many feeling it was a box ticking exercise that had minimal real world impact on patient risk and its management. However many felt it was an improvement over the previous risk tool and the majority used it at some point to aid clinical decision making.
A preconception Virtual Patient Advocate (VPA) called “Gabby” supported African-American women to decrease their preconception health risks and may be a scalable resource to increase women’s access to preconception care. Aims were to assess the acceptability of a preconception VPA in women living in Australia and document the changes required to adapt Gabby to suit an Australian context. Taking a descriptive qualitative approach, nonpregnant female participants (n = 31), aged 18–45 years, living in metropolitan and regional Victoria, Australia interacted with Gabby. Focus groups (n = 7) that gathered participants’ perspectives of their experience with Gabby ran in July–August 2019 before being transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Six interrelated themes and 12 subthemes were identified. Participants found VPAs to be an acceptable provider of health information with potential to increase women’s access preconception health advice. Gabby was considered to be trustworthy and was able to develop rapport with participants in a relatively short time. Context-specific, relevant, tailored and trustworthy information and advice were considered more important that Gabby’s physical appearance. Participants had strong opinions about potential technological advancements (e.g., reminders and rewards) and addressing navigation issues to increase Gabby’s acceptability. Participants envisaged that they would use Gabby for readily available and evidence-based information before seeking advice from a health professional if required. Overall, the concept VPAs to provide preconception advice and Gabby were acceptable to participants. Future development of VPAs, Gabby, and other online technology-based resources should consider women’s high expectations of the online health information they choose to interact with.
Life-course experiences have been postulated to program hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity, suggesting that HPA axis activity is, at least partially, stable over time. Yet, there is paucity of data on the long-term stability of cortisol production and metabolism. We performed a prospective follow-up study in twins recruited from a nationwide register to estimate the stability of cortisol production and metabolism over time, and the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to this stability. In total, 218 healthy mono- and dizygotic twins were included. At the ages of 9, 12 and 17 years, morning urine samples were collected for assessment (by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) of cortisol metabolites, enabling the calculation of cortisol metabolite excretion rate and cortisol metabolism activity. Our results showed a low stability for both cortisol metabolite excretion rate (with correlations <.20) and cortisol metabolism activity indices (with correlations of .25 to .46 between 9 and 12 years, −.02 to .15 between 12 and 17 years and .09 to .28 between 9 and 17 years). Because of the low stability over time, genetic and environmental contributions to this stability were difficult to assess, although it seemed to be mostly determined by genetic factors. The low stability in both cortisol production and metabolism between ages 9 and 17 years reflects the dynamic nature of the HPA axis.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: 1) Determine the mutational landscape, including translocation, mutations and mutational signatures as well as copy number variations of pPCL and identify significant differences to non pPCL MM. 2) Determine whether genetic changes pertinent to pPCL could be explored as therapeutic targets to improve the dismal prognosis of this patient population. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Samples from overall 19 pPCL patients that presented to the Myeloma Center, UAMS between 2000-2018 were used for this study. We performed gene expression profiling (GEP; Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0) of matched circulating peripheral PCs and bone marrow (BM) PCs from 13 patients. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed on purified CD138+ PCs from BM aspirates from 19 pPCL patients with a median depth of 61x. CD34+ sorted cells, taken at the time of stem cell harvest from the same 19 patients, were used as controls. Translocations and mutations were called using Manta and Strelka and annotated as previously reported. Copy number was determined by Sequenza. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: 1) GEP from the BM and circulating peripheral PCs showed that the expression patterns of the two samples from each individual clustered together, indicating that circulating PCs and BM PCs in pPCL result from the same clone and are biologically clearly related. 2) The clinical characteristics from the patient cohort used for WES analysis were as follows: median age was 58 years (range 36–77), females accounted for 74% (14/19), an elevated creatinine level was found in 78% (14/18) and an elevated LDH level in 71% (10/14). All patients presented with an ISS stage of III. Median OS of the whole dataset was poor at 22 months, which is consistent with OS from previously reported pPCL cohorts. 3) Primary Immunoglobulin translocations were common and identified in 63% (12/19) of patients, including MAF translocations, which are known to carry high risk in 42% (8/19) of patients [t(14;16), 32% and t(14;20), 10%] followed by t(11;14) (16%) and t(4;14) (10%). Furthermore, 32% (6/19) of patients had at least one MYC translocation, which are known to play a crucial role in disease progression. 4) The mutational burden of pPCL consisted of a median of 98 non-silent mutations per sample, suggesting that the mutational landscape of pPCL is highly complex and harbors more coding mutations than non-pPCL MM. 5) Driver mutations, that previously have been described in non-pPCL MM showed a different prevalence and distribution in pPCL, including KRAS and TP53 with 47% (9/19) and 37% (7/19) affected patients respectively compared to 21% and 5% in non-PCL MM. PIK3CA (5%), PRDM1 (10%), EP300 (10%) and NF1 (10%) were also enriched in the pPCL group compared to previously reported cases in non-pPCL MM. 6) Biallelic inactivation of TP53 – a feature of Double Hit myeloma - was found in 6/19 (32%) samples, indicating a predominance of high risk genomic features compared to non-pPCL MM. Furthermore, analysis of mutational signatures in pPCL showed that aberrant APOBEC activity was highly prevalent only in patients with a MAF translocation, but not in other translocation groups. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In conclusion we present one of the first WES datasets on pPCL with the largest patient cohort reported to date and show that pPCL is a highly complex disease. The aggressive disease behavior can, at least in part, be explained by a high prevalence of MAF and MYC translocations, TP53 and KRAS mutations as well as bi-allelic inactivation of TP53. It is of interest that only KRAS but not NRAS mutations are highly enriched in pPCL. From all highly prevalent genomic alterations in pPCL, only KRAS mutations offer a potential for already available therapeutically targeting with MEK inhibitors, which should be further explored.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Negative symptoms of schizophrenia, including motivational deficits, social withdrawal, poverty of speech, decreased emotional reactivity, and psychomotor retardation, have been shown to be most predictive of functional impairment and poor outcome in patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, these symptoms tend not to be responsive to antipsychotic medications. Inflammation could be one mechanism underlying these difficult to treat symptoms. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Three cohorts of patients, reflecting different phases of disease, were studied. One cohort was comprised of a sample of patients with deficit schizophrenia (characterized by primary and enduring negative symptoms; n=17), nondeficit patients (n=39), and healthy controls (n=28). ANOVA and multivariate general linear models were used to compare groups, and linear regression models were used to examine relationships between inflammatory cytokines and negative symptoms. The second cohort was comprised of 80 individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis from the North American Prodromal Longitudinal Study. Linear regression models examined the relationship between baseline inflammatory markers and subsequent negative symptoms at follow-up visits up to 2 years. The third cohort consisted of patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) on clozapine (n=10). Correlations were performed to examine relationships between inflammatory markers and negative symptoms. In a subgroup of patients from this third sample, resting state functional connectivity analyses were performed on fMRI data to explore relationships between inflammatory markers and connectivity in brain reward circuitry. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In a sample of patients with the deficit syndrome of schizophrenia (n=17), a subtype of the disorder characterized by primary and enduring negative Symptoms, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was significantly increased relative to nondeficit patients (n=39) and healthy controls (n=28; F2,57=3.51, p=0.036), and predicted total negative symptoms (β=0.31, p=0.012), alogia (β=0.30, p=0.024), and blunted affect (β=0.31, p=0.018) items of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale in linear regression models while controlling for antipsychotics. In another sample of individuals at clinical-high risk for psychosis (n=80), baseline concentrations of TNF significantly predicted negative symptoms, including anhedonia, apathy, and loss of interest in linear regression models, at the 6-month (β=0.25, p=0.011) and 12-month follow-up (β=0.39, p=0.001). Interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist also predicted these symptoms at the 6-month follow-up (β=0.21, p=0.037). In a third sample (n=10) of patients with TRS treated with clozapine, IL-1β was correlated with passive/apathetic social withdrawal (r=0.657, p=0.039) and disturbance of volition (r=0.686, p=0.029) items of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and the global avolition-apathy scores of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (r=0.751, p=0.012). Finally, in a small subsample (n=5) of patients from this TRS cohort for whom we collected fMRI data, we found resting-state functional connectivity from a right nucleus accumbens seed to a cluster in medial prefrontal cortex. We found relationships between higher inflammation and decreased connectivity for TNF (r=−0.64) and CRP (r=−0.89). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Taken together, these preliminary data show the predicted relationship between inflammatory markers and negative symptoms and demonstrate the reproducibility of TNF and other monocytic-derived cytokines as reliably elevated in schizophrenia and associated with negative symptoms across samples of patients with schizophrenia and individuals at high risk for psychosis. Cytokines may exert their effects via their impact on brain reward circuitry, and could represent novel treatment targets for motivational deficits and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
We describe the design and performance of the Engineering Development Array, which is a low-frequency radio telescope comprising 256 dual-polarisation dipole antennas working as a phased array. The Engineering Development Array was conceived of, developed, and deployed in just 18 months via re-use of Square Kilometre Array precursor technology and expertise, specifically from the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. Using drift scans and a model for the sky brightness temperature at low frequencies, we have derived the Engineering Development Array’s receiver temperature as a function of frequency. The Engineering Development Array is shown to be sky-noise limited over most of the frequency range measured between 60 and 240 MHz. By using the Engineering Development Array in interferometric mode with the Murchison Widefield Array, we used calibrated visibilities to measure the absolute sensitivity of the array. The measured array sensitivity matches very well with a model based on the array layout and measured receiver temperature. The results demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of using Murchison Widefield Array-style precursor technology for Square Kilometre Array-scale stations. The modular architecture of the Engineering Development Array allows upgrades to the array to be rolled out in a staged approach. Future improvements to the Engineering Development Array include replacing the second stage beamformer with a fully digital system, and to transition to using RF-over-fibre for the signal output from first stage beamformers.
Human rabies encephalitis is rare in Canada, with only five cases reported in the past 30 years. The first and only patient who contracted rabies encephalitis in British Columbia died in 2003. Here we provide the first detailed clinical and pathological description of that case, which had several unusual features, including preexisting immunosuppression, paralytic presentation, prolonged survival, focal lesions on neuroimaging and severe neuropathology with focal necrosis, intense inflammation, and abundant viral inclusion bodies.
We present the results of an approximately 6 100 deg2 104–196 MHz radio sky survey performed with the Murchison Widefield Array during instrument commissioning between 2012 September and 2012 December: the MWACS. The data were taken as meridian drift scans with two different 32-antenna sub-arrays that were available during the commissioning period. The survey covers approximately 20.5 h < RA < 8.5 h, − 58° < Dec < −14°over three frequency bands centred on 119, 150 and 180 MHz, with image resolutions of 6–3 arcmin. The catalogue has 3 arcmin angular resolution and a typical noise level of 40 mJy beam− 1, with reduced sensitivity near the field boundaries and bright sources. We describe the data reduction strategy, based upon mosaicked snapshots, flux density calibration, and source-finding method. We present a catalogue of flux density and spectral index measurements for 14 110 sources, extracted from the mosaic, 1 247 of which are sub-components of complexes of sources.
Neutron imaging is a nondestructive application capable of producing two- and three-dimensional maps of archaeological objects’ external and internal structure, properties, and composition. This report presents the recent development of neutron imaging data collection and processing methods at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which have been advanced, in part, by information gathered from the experimental imaging of 25 archaeological objects over the past three years. The dual objectives of these imaging experiments included (1) establishing the first methodological procedures for the neutron imaging of archaeomaterials involving the CG-1D beamline and (2) further illustrating the potential of neutron imaging for archaeologists to use in the reverse engineering of ancient and historical objects. Examples of objects imaged in two and three dimensions are provided to highlight the application’s strengths and limitations for archaeological investigations, especially those that address ancient and historic technologies, materials science, and conservation issues.
The name of Sir William Gregory features in most modern accounts of Ireland in the nineteenth century. It is fair to say, however, that usually he is regarded as a ‘villain’. Gregory is very widely known as the author of a piece of legislation introduced as part of relief measures during the Famine which sought to limit aid to those with a quarter acre or under of land and which became known as the Gregory clause or the quarter acre clause. An article in the New York Times on 16 July 2002 about the dedication of an Irish famine memorial in New York described the 5 million-dollar monument as follows: ‘The quarter-acre size of the monument adheres to the infamous Gregory clause passed by the British parliament in 1847, which decreed that cottiers whose plots exceeded that size would not be eligible for relief. The cottage is roofless because many farmers tore the thatches off their homes to prove destitution and qualify for relief.’ Most modern academic accounts of the Famine have been very critical of Gregory. It is widely accepted that the purpose of the Gregory clause was to assist landlords to clear their estates of pauperised smallholders who were paying little or no rent. This measure has been seen by some as leading to mass evictions and causing the clearance of many small farmers and labourers throughout Ireland.
The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) will give us an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the transient sky at radio wavelengths. In this paper we present VAST, an ASKAP survey for Variables and Slow Transients. VAST will exploit the wide-field survey capabilities of ASKAP to enable the discovery and investigation of variable and transient phenomena from the local to the cosmological, including flare stars, intermittent pulsars, X-ray binaries, magnetars, extreme scattering events, interstellar scintillation, radio supernovae, and orphan afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. In addition, it will allow us to probe unexplored regions of parameter space where new classes of transient sources may be detected. In this paper we review the known radio transient and variable populations and the current results from blind radio surveys. We outline a comprehensive program based on a multi-tiered survey strategy to characterise the radio transient sky through detection and monitoring of transient and variable sources on the ASKAP imaging timescales of 5 s and greater. We also present an analysis of the expected source populations that we will be able to detect with VAST.