To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Nothwithstanding the successes of the trait approach to personality in the last century-plus – one of psychology’s major achievements – problems persist. Although we are closer to solving these problems, issues remain about how psychologists know whether traits – and any given model of traits – are the right way to construe human personality, and their nature is still largely mysterious. These questions concern whether we have summary or causal views of traits (Allport, 1937), and whether we have identified surface or source traits (Cattell, 1945).
Contrary to public perception, child sex offending (CSO) and paedophilia are not the same. Only half of all cases of CSO are motivated by paedophilic preference, and a paedophilic preference does not necessarily lead to CSO. However, studies that investigated clinical factors accompanying and contributing to paedophilia so far mainly relied on paedophiles with a history of CSO. The aim of this study was to distinguish between factors associated with sexual preference (paedophile versus non-paedophile) and offender status (with versus without CSO). Accordingly, a 2 (sexual preference) × 2 (offender status) factorial design was used for a comprehensive clinical assessment of paedophiles with and without a history of CSO (n = 83, n = 79 respectively), child sex offenders without paedophilia (n = 32) and healthy controls (n = 148). Results indicated that psychiatric comorbidities, sexual dysfunctions and adverse childhood experiences were more common among paedophiles and child sex offenders than controls. Offenders and non-offenders differed in age, intelligence, educational level and experience of childhood sexual abuse, whereas paedophiles and non-paedophiles mainly differed in sexual characteristics (e.g., additional paraphilias, onset and current level of sexual activity). Regression analyses were more powerful in segregating offender status than sexual preference (mean classification accuracy: 76% versus 68%). In differentiating between offence- and preference-related factors this study improves clinical understanding of both phenomena and may be used to develop scientifically grounded CSO prevention and treatment programmes. It also highlights that some deviations are not traceable to just one of these two factors, thus raising the issue of the mechanism underlying both phenomena.
This contribution presents a comprehensive analysis of the low temperature deformation behavior of CoCrFeMnNi on the basis of quasistatic tensile tests at temperatures ranging from room temperature down to 4.2 K. Different deformation phenomena occur in the high-entropy alloy in this temperature range. These include (i) serrated plastic flow at certain cryogenic temperatures (4.2 K/8 K), (ii) deformation twinning (4.2 K/8 and 77 K), and (iii) dislocation slip (active from 4.2 K up to room temperature). The importance of deformation twinning for a stable work-hardening rate over an extended stress range as well as strain range has been addressed through the use of comprehensive orientation imaging microscopy studies. The proposed appearance of ε-martensite as well as a previously uninvestigated route of analysis, essentially a quantitative time-dependent, strain-dependent, and stress-dependent evaluation of the serrated plastic flow in CoCrFeMnNi is provided.
Objectives: Pedophilia (P) is a psychiatric disease associated with sexual attraction toward children and often accompanied by child sexual offending (CSO). Consequently, it is important to address the understanding of executive dysfunctions that may increase the probability of CSO. Moreover, this research field has been lacking to disentangle executive deficits associated with pedophilia (as a deviant sexual preference) from those associated with CSO (as a deviant sexual behavior). Methods: The German multi-sided research network NeMUP offers the opportunity to overcome these limitations. By applying the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery in four carefully matched groups of men: (1) pedophiles with (N=45) and (2) without (N=45) a history of sexual offending against children; (3) child molesters without pedophilia (N=19), and (4) non-offending controls (N=49), we were able to analyze executive functioning in pedophilia and CSO independently. Results: Both CSO groups as compared to both non-CSO groups exhibited worsened response inhibition ability. However, only non-pedophilic offenders showed additionally disabled strategy use ability. Regarding set-shifting abilities, the P+CSO group showed the best performance. We also found that performances were affected by age: only in pedophiles, response inhibition worsened with age, while age-related deficits in set-shifting abilities were restricted to non-pedophilic participants. The latter also differentiated between both sexual preference groups. Conclusions: Our results are the first to demonstrate that executive dysfunctions are related to offense status rather than pedophilic preference. Furthermore, there was evidence for differentiating age and performance correlations between pedophiles and non-pedophiles, which warrants further investigation. (JINS, 2017, 23, 460–470)
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
The Portuguese Republic has failed to fulfil its obligations under Article 49 EC (Article 56 TFEU) by making no provision for reimbursement of non-hospital medical care provided in another Member State which does not involve the use of major and costly equipment exhaustively listed in the national legislation, other than in the circumstances specified in Regulation (EEC) No 1408/71 […] or, to the extent that Decree-Law No 177/92 allows reimbursement in respect of such care, by making such reimbursement subject to prior authorization (official headnote).
In a recent article, Goodrich has revived the thesis of Theissen, that Erastos, the οἰκονόμος τῆς πόλεως (Rom 16.23), held the office of quaestor when Paul met him in Corinth. This article, however, argues that the municipal office of quaestor did not exist in Corinth.
Chemically Peculiar (CP) stars have been the subject of systematic research for more than 50 years. With the discovery of pulsation of some of the cool CP stars, and the availability of advanced spectropolarimetric instrumentation and high signal-to-noise, high resolution spectroscopy, a new era of CP star research emerged about 20 years ago. Together with the success in ground-based observations, new space projects are developed that will greatly benefit future investigations of these unique objects. In this contribution we will give an overview of some interesting results obtained recently from ground-based observations and discuss the future outstanding Gaia space mission and its impact on CP star research.
Within the basidiomycetes, the vast majority of known mycorrhizal species are homobasidiomycetes. It was therefore surprising when molecular and ultrastructural studies revealed a broad diversity of mycorrhizal associations involving members of the heterobasidiomycetous Sebacinaceae, fungi which, due to their inconspicuous basidiomes, have been often overlooked. To investigate the phylogenetic position of the Sebacinaceae within the basidiomycetes and to infer phylogenetic relationships within the Sebacinaceae, we made molecular phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear rDNA. We present a well-resolved phylogeny of the main lineages of basidiomycetes which suggests that the Sebacinaceae is the most basal group with known mycorrhizal members. Since more basal taxa of basidiomycetes consist of predominantly mycoparasitic and phytoparasitic fungi, it seems possible that a mycorrhizal life strategy, which was transformed into a saprotrophic strategy several times convergently, is an apomorphic character for the Hymenomycetidae. Mycorrhizal taxa of Sebacinaceae, including mycobionts of ectomycorrhizas, orchid mycorrhizas, ericoid mycorrhizas, and jungermannioid mycorrhizas, are distributed over two subgroups. One group contains species with macroscopically visible basidiomes, whereas members of the other group probably lack basidiomes. Sebacina appears to be polyphyletic; current species concepts in Sebacinaceae are questionable. Sebacina vermifera sensu Warcup & Talbot consists of a broad complex of species possibly including mycobionts of jungermannioid and ericoid mycorrhizas.
This wide spectrum of mycorrhizal types in one fungal family is unique. Extrapolating from the known rDNA sequences in Sebacinaceae, it is evident that there is a cosm of mycorrhizal biodiversity yet to be discovered in this group. Taxonomically, we recognise the Sebacinaceae as constituting a new order, the Sebacinales.
In order to evaluate substrate dependence of the symbiotic fungal associations in leafy liverworts (Jungermanniopsida), 28 species out of 12 families were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and molecular methods. Samples were obtained from the diverse substrates: from naked soil, from the forest floor on needle litter, from between peat moss, from rotten bark of standing trees, and from stumps and rotten wood. Associations with ascomycetes were found in most of the specimens independent from the substrate. Seven species sampled from soil were found to contain basidiomycete hyphae. Ultrastructure consistently showed dolipores with imperforate parenthesomes. Molecular phylogenetic studies revealed that three specimens belonging to the Jungermanniales were associated with members of Sebacinaceae, while Aneura pinguis (Metzgeriales) was associated with a Tulasnella species. These taxa are so far the only basidiomycetes known to be symbiotically associated with leafy liverworts. The probability that the associations with Sebacinaceae are evolutionary old, but the Tulasnella associations more derived is discussed. The sebacinoid mycobionts form a similar interaction type with the jungermannialian leafy liverworts as do the associated ascomycetes. The term ‘jungermannioid mycorrhiza’ is proposed for this distinctive symbiotic interaction type.
Nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences characteristic of Sebacinaceae were detected by direct amplification of DNA from field collected ectomycorrhizal samples. A study was undertaken to confirm the formation of ectomycorrhizas by Sebacinaceae and to characterise representative samples genetically, morphologically and ultrastructurally. The investigated sebacinoid mycorrhizas were sufficiently characteristic to be identified morphologically. They are distinguished by a characteristic, clampless, hydrophilic extramatrical mycelium, which is very variable in diameter and in wall thickness, and by the presence of distinctive, y-shaped, inflated multibranchings. Differences in the mantle structure clearly discriminate the two investigated sebacinoid mycorrhizal types. Comparison of the D1/D2 domains of the nuclear large subunit pseudogene and the ITS1 and ITS2 regions identifies the fungal partner of one of the mycorrhizal samples as Sebacina incrustans. Ultrastructural investigations of the ectomycorrhizas show a doliporus/parenthesome architecture consistent with that of the Sebacinaceae. Recently published sequence data obtained from sebacinoid mycorrhizas are compared to our sequences and the complex trophic relationships in the Sebacinaceae are discussed. Observations on ectomycorrhizas and basidiomes suggest that species of Sebacinaceae are fairly common mycobionts in various ectomycorrhizal plant communities.
Single drop impact onto liquid films is simulated numerically. Surface tension and
gravity are taken into account, whereas viscosity and compressibility are neglected.
This permits recourse to a boundary-integral method, based on an integral equation
for a scalar velocity potential. Calculations are performed for normal impacts resulting
in axisymmetric flows.
For times that are small compared to the characteristic time of impact
2R/w0 (R being the drop radius,
w0 its initial velocity towards the liquid film), it is found that a
disk-like jet forms at the neck between the drop and the pre-existing liquid film, if the
impact Weber number is high enough. This jet can pinch off a torus-shaped liquid
volume at its tip or reconnect with the pre-existing liquid film, thus entraining a torus-
shaped bubble. In reality, both the torus-shaped bubble and liquid torus will decay
according to Rayleigh's capillary instability, thus breaking the cylindrical symmetry.
This mechanism of bubble entrainment differs from those described in literature.
For times that are comparable to or larger than the characteristic time of impact,
capillary waves on the film, or the well-known crowns, are obtained again according
to whether the impact Weber number is low or high enough.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.