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One of the paradoxes of history is that it took Africa's contact with the Arab world to make the Black people of Africa realize that they were black in description, but not necessarily in status … On the other hand, it took European conceptualization and cartography to turn Africa into a continent.
Ali A. Mazrui, “The Re-invention of Africa: Edward Said, V. Y. Mudimbe, and Beyond,” Research in African Literatures 36/3 (2005), 68–82, at 70
Historians of Africa can no longer overlook race. To scholars of African-diaspora studies (who often work under the rubric of Africana studies, black studies, and African American studies), the recognition of this fact is long overdue. With the rise of the area-studies paradigm in the 1950s, North American scholars of Africa became preoccupied with the rise of nationalism and the writing or critique of national histories. The future was defined by national development, while the study of the past was centered on the search for a pristine precolonial identity. Consequently, a world of nations took precedence in scholarly writing over concerns about the management of empires, colonies and, strikingly, races. Even as Africanist scholars came to reevaluate the successes and failures of the postcolonial experience across Africa in the 1970s, they frequently lamented the persistence of ethnic conflict, but not of ongoing forms of racial hierarchy. Race, insofar as it was treated at all, tended to be confined to the “colonial episode” and to settler states, like South Africa.
Radiation-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV) is a common side effect of single fraction palliative radiotherapy. Patients experiencing RINV have significantly reduced quality of life and a prescription of prophylactic antiemetics, principally 5-HT3 antagonists, is recommended. There is a growing body of evidence relating to indications for this, but as yet there are no national guidelines.
A retrospective audit aimed to determine the extent to which patients at high and moderate emetogenic risk receiving single fraction radiotherapy were prescribed prophylactic emetic medication in line with the current evidence base.
A total of 60 patients were included in the audit; of these patients, 50 were consented for the risk of nausea and/or vomiting. Prophylactic antiemetics were only prescribed to 28 (46·7%) of all audited patients. Out of the 50 patients who provided informed consent, only 24 (48%) were prescribed an antiemetic prior to their treatment.
Antiemetic prescribing for single fraction patients at moderate to high emetogenic risk at a large regional centre is underutilised in relation to published evidence. Amended guidance and further audits are recommended to ensure that this patient group is best supported.
The Tempest reflects early modern European trends in racial perceptions, especially in the play’s foregrounding of Caliban, who embodies many of the era’s cultural prejudices. Although Caliban was born on a remote island and is its sole human inhabitant when Prospero and Miranda arrive, his sexual assault on Miranda and their contempt for Caliban as savage, pagan, monstrous, and perhaps cannibalistic provokes Prospero to enslave him. This chapter contextualizes those demeaning categories in light of Caliban’s African and perhaps American roots. Among the developments that profoundly shaped England’s (and presumably Shakespeare’s) attitudes toward “Blackamoores” were the increasingly numerous Africans arriving as offshoots of the international slave trade. Concurrently, Spain’s and Portugal’s settlements in Central and South America and their exploitation, often enslavement, of the natives strongly influenced English policies toward racial “others” at home and in England’s colonies, as did Iberian America’s extensive importation of African slaves.
Academic debate about social isolation and loneliness, and their adverse health and well-being implications, has resulted in many policy and programme interventions directed towards reducing both, especially among older people. However, definitions of the two concepts, their measurement, and the relationship between the two are not clearly articulated. This article redresses this and draws on theoretical constructs adapted from symbolic interactionism, together with the Good Relations Measurement Framework, developed for the Equality and Human Rights Commission in the UK, to challenge the way in which social isolation and loneliness are currently understood. It argues for a need to understand experiences of social relationships, particularly those which facilitate meaningful interaction, suggesting that opportunities and barriers to meaningful interaction are determined by wider societal issues. This is set out in a new conceptual framework which can be applied across the life course and facilitates a new discourse for understanding these challenging concepts.
Background: Healthcare-associated group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections can cause severe morbidity and death. Invasive GAS is a reportable condition in the 5-county metropolitan area of Denver, Colorado. Prior to August 2018, methodology to identify long-term care facility (LTCF) residency among reported GAS cases was accomplished by reviewing addresses reported electronically, and identification of postsurgical cases and outbreaks relied on reporting by healthcare facilities. We evaluated whether the use of a health information exchange (HIE) to identify healthcare exposures improved our ability to detect and rapidly respond to these events. Methods: In August 2018, we implemented a review of health records available in the HIE accessible by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment for all incoming reports of GAS for selected healthcare exposures: LTCF residency, surgery, delivery, wound care, and other relevant exposures. We defined an LTCF-related case as GAS in a current or recent resident (ie, in the 14 days prior to the positive culture) of an LTCF. Postpartum and postsurgical cases were defined as GAS isolated from a sterile site or wound during the inpatient stay or within 7 days of discharge following a delivery or surgical procedure. Outbreaks in each of these settings were defined as 2 or more cases within a 3-month period. We compared the number of cases and outbreaks identified in each category during a 1-year period before and after implementation of the use of the HIE in the case ascertainment process. Results: During August 2017 through July 2018, prior to implementation of the HIE process, we detected 45 LTCF cases and conducted outbreak investigations in 9 facilities. Moreover, 1 postsurgical case and 1 postpartum outbreak were reported by healthcare facilities; none were detected via surveillance. During August 2018 through July 2019, after the implementation of HIE process, we identified 70 LTCF cases and conducted outbreak investigations in 13 LTCFs. We detected 5 postsurgical cases and 3 postpartum cases, which resulted in 2 outbreak investigations. Conclusions: Enhanced GAS surveillance through use of a HIE resulted in detection of more healthcare-associated GAS infections and outbreaks. Timely identification of healthcare-associated GAS infections can allow for prompt response to outbreaks and promotion of proper infection control practices to prevent further cases. Jurisdictions in which GAS is a reportable condition should consider the use of HIEs as part of routine surveillance to identify GAS outbreaks in high-risk settings. HIEs should be made available to public health agencies for case ascertainment and outbreak identification.
Rey’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is a widely used word list memory test. We update normative data to include adjustment for verbal memory performance differences between men and women and illustrate the effect of this sex adjustment and the importance of excluding participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normative samples.
This study advances the Mayo’s Older Americans Normative Studies (MOANS) by using a new population-based sample through the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, which randomly samples residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, from age- and sex-stratified groups. Regression-based normative T-score formulas were derived from 4428 cognitively unimpaired adults aged 30–91 years. Fully adjusted T-scores correct for age, sex, and education. We also derived T-scores that correct for (1) age or (2) age and sex. Test-retest reliability data are provided.
From raw score analyses, sex explained a significant amount of variance in performance above and beyond age (8–10%). Applying original age-adjusted MOANS norms to the current sample resulted in significantly fewer-than-expected participants with low delayed recall performance, particularly in women. After application of new T-scores adjusted only for age, even in normative data derived from this sample, these age-adjusted T-scores showed scores <40 T occurred more frequently among men and less frequently among women relative to T-scores that also adjusted for sex.
Our findings highlight the importance of using normative data that adjust for sex with measures of verbal memory and provide new normative data that allow for this adjustment for the AVLT.
Firefighting service is known to involve high rates of exposure to potentially traumatic situations, and research on mental health in firefighting populations is of critical importance in understanding the impact of occupational exposure. To date, the literature concerning prevalence of trauma-related mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has not distinguished between symptomology associated routine duty-related exposure and exposure to large-scale disaster. The present systematic review synthesizes a heterogeneous cross-national literature on large-scale disaster exposure in firefighters and provides support for the hypothesis that the prevalence of PTSD, major depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders are elevated in firefighters compared with rates observed in the general population. In addition, we conducted narrative synthesis concerning several commonly assessed predictive factors for disorder and found that sociodemographic factors appear to bear a weak relationship to mental disorder, while incident-related factors, such as severity and duration of disaster exposure, bear a stronger and more consistent relationship to the development of PTSD and depression in cross-national samples. Future work should expand on these preliminary findings to better understand the impact of disaster exposure in firefighting personnel.
A forgotten aspect of Henry viii’s architectural patronage and of the panoply of early modern European warfare is that of the timber lodging. Through two key case studies, this paper explores King Henry viii’s timber lodgings and demonstrates that not only did they form an important class of ephemeral architecture that successfully employed innovative technologies to make such structures portable for military campaigns, they were also used in conjunction with the royal tents to provide comfortable and secure battlefield accommodation for the king. The paper recreates their construction, functions, symbolism and elaborate appearance, revealing that the earlier timber lodging comprised a two-chambered wooden building which was painted externally to resemble brickwork and which was used at the sieges of Thérouanne and Tournai in 1513, while the later timber lodging was used at the siege of Boulogne in 1544. Through a close analysis of the surviving accounts for the making of the 1544 structure, the article demonstrates that it was an extravagant and architecturally pretentious building that combined the martial imagery of late medieval Gothic with refined touches of classicism. The paper also shows that the lodging used in 1544 is both recorded in the posthumous 1547 inventory of Henry viii’s possessions and appears in the engravings of the Cowdray House murals, held by the Society of Antiquaries of London.
The seeds of most Australian acacias have pronounced physical dormancy (PY). While fire and hot water (HW) treatments cause the lens to ‘pop’ almost instantaneously, for many Acacia species the increase in germination percentage can be gradual. If PY is broken instantly by HW treatment, why is germination often an extended process? Control and HW treatments were performed on seeds of 48 species of Acacia. Seeds were placed on a moist substrate and imbibition was assessed by frequently weighing individual seeds. In the two soft-seeded species all control seeds were fully imbibed within 6–24 h, while in hard-seeded species very few control seeds imbibed over several weeks. In 10 species over 50% of the HW-treated seeds imbibed within 30 h, but mostly the percentage of imbibed seeds gradually increased over several weeks. Some seeds in a replicate would imbibe early, while others would remain unimbibed for many days or weeks then, remarkably, become fully imbibed in less than 24 h. While HW treatment broke PY almost instantaneously, it appeared that in many Acacia species some other part of the testa slowed water from reaching the embryo. This process of having staggered imbibition may be a way of ensuring not all seeds in a population germinate after small rain events. Thus it appears the lens acts as a ‘fire gauge’ while some other part of the seed coat acts as a ‘rain gauge’.
Loneliness has become an issue of significant academic, public and policy focus. There has been much research on experiences of loneliness in later life and many accompanying interventions targeting lonely older people. However, there has been a dearth of research on the impact that loneliness can have on older men and the resulting implications for policy and practice. This paper aims to redress this by developing a theoretical framework to improve understanding of older men's constructions and experiences of loneliness. It draws on two qualitative empirical studies: the first explores older men's perceptions of masculinity and loneliness; and the second looks at the effectiveness of a service for older men which was designed to alleviate loneliness among older people more generally. The paper outlines the way in which older men often construct masculinity as an oppressive (hegemonic) requirement, but which can be reformed into ‘positive’ traits of ‘strength of mind’, ‘responsibility’, ‘caring’, ‘helping out’, ‘doing a favour’ and ‘giving something back’, with a consistent yet implicit assumption that enactment of these denotes a ‘proud’ masculine identity. Loneliness, on the other hand, is represented as a subordinate social role, both non-masculine and related to marginalising stereotypes of age. This results in the identification of two important implications for the way in which services can assist in the alleviation of loneliness in older men: that men are more likely to engage with a service that can facilitate the construction of a ‘proud’ masculine identity; and that services which deconstruct hegemonic masculinities, particularly by providing a space where men feel comfortable being emotionally tactile, are likely to be most effective at both alleviating loneliness and promoting overall wellbeing.
The Longitudinal Aging Study in India (LASI) was initiated to capture data to be comparable to the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) and hence used study instruments from the HRS. However, a rigorous psychometric evaluation before adaptation of cognitive tests may have indicated bias due to diversities across Indian states such as education, ethnicity, and urbanicity. In the present analysis, we evaluated if items show differential item functioning (DIF) by literacy, urbanicity, and education status.
We calculated proportions for each item and weighted descriptive statistics of demographic characteristics in LASI. Next, we evaluated item-level measurement differences by testing for DIF using the alignment approach implemented using Mplus software.
We found that cognitive items in the LASI interview demonstrate bias by education and literacy, but not urbanicity. Items relating to animal (word) fluency show DIF. The model rates correct identification of the prime minister as the most difficult binary response item whereas the day of the week and numeracy items are rated comparatively easier.
Our study would facilitate comparison across education, literacy and urbancity to support analyses of differences in cognitive status. This would help future instrument development efforts by recognizing potentially problematic items in certain subgroups.