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The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a lifestyle intervention programme, combined with a daily low-glycaemic index meal replacement, on body-weight and glycaemic control in subjects with impaired glucose regulation (IGR). Subjects with IGR were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n 46) and a control group (n 42). Both groups received health counselling at baseline. The intervention group also received a daily meal replacement and intensive lifestyle intervention to promote healthy eating habits during the first 3 months of the study, and follow-up visits performed monthly until the end of the 1-year study. Outcome measurements included changes in plasma glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), plasma lipids, body weight, blood pressure and body composition (such as body fat mass and visceral fat area). The results showed that body-weight loss after 1 year was significant in the intervention group compared with the control group ( − 1·8 (sem 0·35) v.− 0·6 (sem 0·40) 2·5 kg, P< 0·05). The 2 h plasma glucose concentration decreased 1·24 mmol/l in the intervention group and increased 0·85 mmol/l in the control group (P< 0·05) compared with their baseline, respectively. A 5 kg body-weight loss at 1 year was associated with a decrease of 1·49 mmol/l in 2 h plasma glucose (P< 0·01). The incidence of normal glucose regulation (NGR) in the two groups was significantly different (P= 0·001). In conclusion, the combination of regular contact, lifestyle advice and meal replacement is beneficial in promoting IGR to NGR.
The majority of ectopic pregnancies occur within the Fallopian tube, with most implanted in the ampullary region. A number of risk factors have been identified for ectopic pregnancy. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) has now become the diagnostic technique of choice for ectopic pregnancy. Historically, laparotomy with salpingectomy was the standard treatment for ectopic pregnancy. Laparoscopic surgery has been shown to be superior to laparotomy, making it the surgical approach of choice. A number of drugs have been used for the treatment of ectopic pregnancy including potassium chloride, prostaglandins, hyperosmolar glucose, mifepristone and actinomycin D. However, the most commonly used drug in clinical practice for the treatment of ectopic pregnancy is methotrexate. The reported success rates for expectant management range between 48-100%. Subsequent hysterosalpingography has shown patency for the affected tube in up to 93% of cases of ectopic pregnancy managed expectantly.