Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: April 2016

Chapter 22 - Assessment of fetal wellbeing

from Section 6 - Fetal growth and wellbeing
1.Bricker, L, Neilson, JP, Dowswell, T. Routine ultrasound in late pregnancy (after 24 weeks’ gestation). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; CD001451.
2.Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG). Reduced fetal movements. RCOG Green-Top Guidelines No.57. London: RCOG Press, February 2011.
3.Tveit, JV, Saastad, E, Stray-Pedersen, B, et al. Reduction of late stillbirth with the introduction of fetal movement information and guidelines – a clinical quality improvement. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2009; 9: 32.
4.Bhide, A, Acharya, G, Bilardo, CM, et al. ISUOG Practice Guidelines: use of Doppler ultrasonography in obstetrics. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2013; 41: 233–9.
5.Gómez, O, Figueras, F, Fernández, S, et al. Reference ranges for uterine artery mean pulsatility index at 11–41 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008; 32(2): 128–32.
6.Velauthar, L, Plana, MN, Kalidindi, M, et al. First-trimester uterine artery Doppler and adverse pregnancy outcome: a meta-analysis involving 55,974 women. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2014; 43(5): 500–7.
7.Gallo, DM, Poon, LC, Akolekar, R, et al. Prediction of preeclampsia by uterine artery Doppler at 20–24 weeks’ gestation. Fetal Diagn Ther 2013; 34(4): 241–7.
8.Alfirevic, Z, Stampalija, T, Gyte, GML. Fetal and umbilical Doppler ultrasound in high-risk pregnancies. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; (11): CD007529.
9.Acharya, G, Wilsgaard, T, Berntsen, GK, et al. Reference ranges for serial measurements of blood velocity and pulsatility index at the intra-abdominal portion, and fetal and placental ends of the umbilical artery. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005; 26(2): 162–9.
10.Mari, G, Deter, RL, Carpenter, RL, et al. Noninvasive diagnosis by Doppler ultrasonography of fetal anemia due to maternal red-cell alloimmunization. Collaborative Group for Doppler Assessment of the Blood Velocity in Anemic Fetuses. N Engl J Med 2000; 342(1): 914.
11.Stirnemann, JJ, Mougeot, M, Proulx, F, et al. Profiling fetal cardiac function in twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010; 35(1): 1927.
12.Nabhan, AF, Abdelmoula, YA. Amniotic fluid index versus single deepest vertical pocket as a screening test for preventing adverse pregnancy outcome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; 3: CD006593.
13.Grivell, RM, Alfirevic, Z, Gyte, GML, et al. Antenatal cardiotocography for fetal assessment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 2: CD007863.
14.Devane, D, Lalor, JG, Daly, S, et al. Cardiotocography versus intermittent auscultation of fetal heart on admission to labour ward for assessment of fetal wellbeing. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 2: CD005122.
15.Serra, V, Moulden, M, Bellver, J, et al. The value of the short-term fetal heart rate variation for timing the delivery of growth-retarded fetuses. BJOG 2008; 115(9): 1101–7.
16.Huntleigh Healthcare Ltd. Sonicaid Team Operator’s Manual. Cardiff: Huntleigh Healthcare Diagnostic Products Division, 2005.
17.Manning, FA. Fetal biophysical profile. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 1999; 26(4): 557–77.
18.Lalor, JG, Fawole, B, Alfirevic, Z, et al. Biophysical profile for fetal assessment in high risk pregnancies. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; 1: CD000038.
19.Turan, S, Turan, OM, Berg, C, et al. Computerized fetal heart rate analysis, Doppler ultrasound and biophysical profile score in the prediction of acid-base status of growth-restricted fetuses. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007; 30(5): 750–6.
20.Hill, JB, Chauhan, SP, Magann, EF, et al. Intrapartum fetal surveillance: review of three national guidelines. Am J Perinatol 2012; 29(7): 539–50.
21.National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Intrapartum care: care of healthy women and their babies during childbirth. CG190. London: NICE, December 2014.
22.Alfirevic, Z, Devane, D, Gyte, GML. Continuous cardiotocography (CTG) as a form of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) for fetal assessment during labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 5: CD006066.
23.Skupski, DW, Rosenberg, CR, Eglinton, GS. Intrapartum fetal stimulation tests: a meta‐analysis. Obstet Gynecol 2002; 99(1): 129–34.
24.East, CE, Smyth, RMD, Leader, LR, et al. Vibroacoustic stimulation for fetal assessment in labour in the presence of a nonreassuring fetal heart rate trace. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 1: CD004664.
25.East, CE, Chan, FY, Colditz, PB, et al. Fetal pulse oximetry for fetal assessment in labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 2: CD004075.
26.East, CE, Leader, LR, Sheehan, P, et al. Intrapartum fetal scalp lactate sampling for fetal assessment in the presence of a non-reassuring fetal heart rate trace. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; 3: CD006174.
27.MacLennan, A. A template for defining a causal relation between acute intrapartum events and cerebral palsy: international consensus statement. BMJ 1999; 319(7216): 1054–9.
28.Kruger, K, Hallberg, B, Blennow, M, et al. Predictive value of fetal scalp blood lactate concentration and pH as markers of neurologic disability. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999; 181(5): 1072–8.
29.Neilson, JP. Fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) for fetal monitoring during labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 5: CD000116.
30.Becker, JH, Bax, L, Amer-Wåhlin, I, et al. ST analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram in intrapartum fetal monitoring: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol 2012; 119(1): 145–54.