To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To explore the lived experience of delivering or receiving news about an unborn or newborn child having a condition associated with a learning disability in order to inform the development of a training intervention for healthcare professionals. We refer to this news as different news.
How healthcare professionals deliver different news to parents affects the way they adjust to the situation, the wellbeing of their child and their ongoing engagement with services. This is the first study that examined the lived experience of delivering and receiving different news, in order to inform the development of training for healthcare professionals using the Theoretical Domains Framework version 2.
We conducted qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of 9 different parents with the lived experience of receiving different news and 12 healthcare professionals who delivered different news. It was through these descriptions of the lived experience that barriers and facilitators to effectively delivering different news were identified to inform the training programme. Data analysis was guided by Theoretical Domains Framework version 2 to identify these barriers and facilitators as well as the content of a training intervention.
Receiving different news had a significant impact on parents’ emotional and mental wellbeing. They remembered how professionals described their child, the quality of care and emotional support they received. The process had a significant impact on the parent–child relationship and the relationship between the family and healthcare professionals.
Delivering different news was challenging for some healthcare professionals due to lack of training. Future training informed by parents’ experiences should equip professionals to demonstrate empathy, compassion, provide a balanced description of conditions and make referrals for further care and support. This can minimise the negative psychological impact of the news, maximise psychological wellbeing of families and reduce the burden on primary care services.
A growing body of evidence suggests that antibiotic allergy labels as documented in medical records are a risk factor for poor clinical outcomes. In this systematic review, we aimed to determine how antibiotic allergy labels influence 3 domains: antibiotic use and exposure, clinical outcomes, and healthcare-related costs.
We performed a systematic review to identify studies reporting outcomes in patients with antibiotic allergy labels compared to nonallergic counterparts. The search included PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, EBSCO, Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and Web of Science. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion and abstracted data. Studies were graded using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. Study outcomes included antibiotic use, clinical outcomes, and economic outcomes.
In total, 41 studies met our criteria for inclusion. These studies varied in medical specialty, patient population, healthcare delivery system, and design, but most were conducted among adults age >18 years (85%) in the inpatient setting (82.5%). Among 34 studies examining antibiotic exposure, 32 (94%) found that patients with antibiotic allergy labels received more broad-spectrum antibiotics. Moreover, 31 studies examined clinical outcomes such as length of hospitalization, ICU admission, hospital readmission, multidrug-resistant or opportunistic infection, or mortality, and 27 (87%) found that allergy-labeled patients had at least 1 negative outcome. Of 9 studies examining healthcare costs, 7 (78%) found that allergy-labeled patients incurred significantly higher drug or hospital-related costs.
Antibiotic allergy labels have negative effects on antibiotic use, clinical outcomes, and economic outcomes in a variety of clinical settings and populations.
Background: Accurate identification of Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs) from electronic data sources is important for surveillance. We evaluated how frequently laboratory findings were supported by diagnostic coding and treatment data in the electronic health record. Methods: We analyzed a retrospective cohort of patients in the Veterans’ Affairs Health System from 2006 through 2016. A CDI event was defined as a positive laboratory test for C. difficile toxin or toxin genes in the inpatient, outpatient, or long-term care setting with no prior positive test in the preceding 14 days. Events were classified as incident (no CDI in the prior 56 days), or recurrent (CDI in the prior 56 days) and were evaluated for evidence of clinical diagnosis based on International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) and ICD-10-CM codes and at least 1 dose of an anti-CDI agent (intravenous or oral metronidazole, fidaxomicin, or oral vancomycin). We further assessed the possibility of treatment without testing by quantifying positive laboratory tests and diagnostic codes among inpatients receiving an anti-CDI agent. A course of anti-CDI therapy was defined as continuous treatment with the same drug. Results: Among 119,063 incident and recurrent CDI events, 70,114 (58.9%) had a diagnosis code and 15,850 (13.3%) had no accompanying treatment. The proportion of patients with ICD codes was highest among patients treated with fidaxomicin (82.6% of 906) or oral vancomycin (74.3% of 30,777) and was lower among patients receiving metronidazole (63.3% of 103,231) and those without treatment (29.9% of 15,850). The proportion of events with ICD codes and treatment was similar between incident and recurrent episodes. During the study period, there were ~470,000 inpatient courses of metronidazole, fidaxomicin, and oral vancomycin. Table 1 shows the presence of ICD codes and positive laboratory tests by anti-CDI agents. Among 51,100 courses of oral vancomycin, 51% had an ICD code and 44% had a positive test for C. difficile within 7 days of treatment initiation. Among 1,013 courses of fidaxomicin, 79% had an ICD code and 56% had a positive laboratory test. Conclusions: In this large cohort, there was evidence of substantial CDI treatment without confirmatory C. difficile testing and, to a lesser extent, some positive tests without accompanying treatment or coding. A combination of data sources may be needed to more accurately identify CDI from electronic health records for surveillance purposes.
Antibiotic allergy labels are common and are frequently inaccurate. Previous studies among adults demonstrate that β-lactam allergy labels may lead to adverse outcomes, including prescription of broader-spectrum antibiotics, increased costs, and increased lengths of stay, among others. However, data among pediatric patients are lacking, especially in the United States. In this study, we sought to determine the impact of β-lactam allergy labels in hospitalized children with regards to clinical and economic outcomes.
This retrospective cohort study included pediatric patients 30 days to 17 years old, hospitalized at Intermountain Healthcare facilities from 2007 to 2017, who received ≥1 dose of an antibiotic during their admission. Patients with β-lactam allergies were matched to nonallergic patients based on age, sex, clinical service line, admission date, academic children’s hospital or other hospital admission, and the presence of chronic, comorbid conditions. Outcomes included receipt of broader-spectrum antibiotics, clinical outcomes including length of stay and readmission, and antibiotic and hospitalization costs.
In total, 38,906 patients were identified. The prevalence of antibiotic allergy increased from 0.9% among those < 1 year peaked at 10.6% by age 17. Patients with β-lactam allergy received broader-spectrum antibiotics and experienced higher antibiotic costs than nonallergic controls. However, there were no differences in the length of stay, readmission rates, or total number of days of antibiotics between allergic and nonallergic patients.
Hospitalized pediatric patients with β-lactam allergy labels receive broader-spectrum antibiotics and experience increased antibiotic costs. This represents an important opportunity for allergy delabeling and antibiotic stewardship.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: HIV-specific CD8+ T-cells play a critical role in partially controlling viral replication in infected-individuals, but ultimately fail to eliminate infection. Enhancing these T-cell responses through lymphocyte engineering approaches has the potential as a novel therapy capable of achieving durable control or eradication of infection. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: IL-15 Superagonist (IL-15SA) potently supports the in vivo persistence and antiviral activity of adoptively transferred CD8+ T-cells. The Deep-PrimingTM technology platform, developed by Torque, allows for loading of immunomodulators onto the surface of T-cells via electrostatic ‘nanogels’, which slowly release to deliver sustained autocrine immune stimulation without the harmful effects of systemic exposure. Here, we investigate the impact of IL-15SA Deep-Priming on HIV-specific CD8+ T-cells in a humanized mouse model of HIV infection. Humanized mice were generated by engrafting NOD-scid-IL2Rgnull mice with memory CD4+ T-cells isolated from an ARV-suppressed HIV+ donor. An autologous HIV-specific Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte (CTL) clone was isolated, and killing potential confirmed. Four weeks post humanization, mice were infected with HIV and received an infusion of unmodified HIV-Specific CTLs, or IL-15SA Deep-Primed HIV-specific CTLs (CTL-DP). T-cell numbers and plasma viral loads were quantified weekly by flow cytometry and qRT-PCR. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Mice receiving unmodified CTLs trended toward reduced viral loads compared to the No Treatment condition, while mice receiving CTL-DP saw significant, 2-Log10 reductions in VL (p < 0.01). At 41 days post-infection 100% (5/5) of the No Treatment, 66.7% (4/6) of the CTL treatment, and 16.7% (1/6) of CTL-DP treatment mice had detectable viremia. IL-15SA Deep-Priming increased CTL expansion and persistence in peripheral blood which correlated with improved CD4+T-cell preservation. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Here we demonstrate the first in vivo analysis of IL-15SA Deep-Priming of HIV-Specific CTLs. These data suggest that Deep-Priming of patient T-cells can enhance in vivo function and persistence, leading to improved viral suppression; a significant advancement in the field of HIV cure research. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: Austin Boesch, Thomas Andresen, and Douglas Jones are employees of Torque. Darrell Irvine is a co-founder of Torque and Chairman of Torque’s Scientific Advisory Board.
Emerging research suggests that maternal immune activation (MIA) may be associated with an increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental and mental health outcomes in offspring. Using data from the Raine Study, we investigated whether MIA during pregnancy was associated with increased behavioral and emotional problems in offspring longitudinally across development.
Mothers (Generation 1; N = 1905) were classified into the following categories: AAAE (Asthma/Allergy/Atopy/Eczema; N = 1267); infection (during pregnancy; N = 1082); no AAAE or infection (N = 301). The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was administered for offspring at ages 5, 8, 10, 14, and 17. Generalized estimating equations were used to investigate the effect of maternal immune status on CBCL scores.
AAAE conditions were associated with significant increases in CBCL Total (β 2.49; CI 1.98–3.00), Externalizing (β 1.54; CI 1.05–2.03), and Internalizing (β 2.28; CI 1.80–2.76) scores. Infection conditions were also associated with increased Total (β 1.27; CI 0.77–1.78), Externalizing (β 1.18; CI 0.70–1.66), and Internalizing (β 0.76; CI 0.28–1.24) scores. Exposure to more than one AAAE and/or infection condition was associated with a greater elevation in CBCL scores than single exposures in males and females. Females showed greater increases on the Internalizing scale from MIA, while males showed similar increases on both Internalizing and Externalizing scales.
MIA was associated with increased behavioral and emotional problems in offspring throughout childhood and adolescence. This highlights the need to understand the relationship between MIA, fetal development, and long-term outcomes, with the potential to advance early identification and intervention strategies.
To examine the effects of chlorpromazine for psychosis-induced aggression or agitation.
We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (2008) for randomised control trials or double blind trials implying randomisation, comparing chlorpromazine with another drug or placebo for people thought to be acutely aggressive due to psychotic illness. For selected studies we extracted data and calculated relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a fixed-effects model.
118 studies were identified, two met inclusion criteria. One compared oral chlorpromazine with oral thioridazine and one intramuscular chlorpromazine with intramuscular haloperidol.Those allocated chlorpromazine did not remain on medication (RR 2.00 CI 0.94 to 4.26), or stay in hospital (RR 1.87 CI 0.70 to 4.95) longer than those allocated thioridazine. No differences were found for adverse effects.Those allocated chlorpromazine were no more likely to have one (RR 3.00 CI 0.13 to 68.26), 2-4 (RR 0.90 CI 0.52 to 1.55) or 5+ (RR 0.75 CI 0.20 to 2.79) injections than those allocated haloperidol. Two patients allocated chlorpromazine had, serious hypotension (RR 5.00 CI 0.26 to 96.13), one developed status epilepticus (RR 3.00 CI 0.13 to 68.26), no one allocated haloperidol had these effects
Overall the quality of evidence is limited and dated. Chlorpromazine was just as effective as similar medicines, but it may be associated with more side effects. Where better, more evaluated drugs are available it may be best to avoid using chlorpromazine. Carefully designed clinical trials are urgently needed.
Marine plastic pollution is a global environmental concern. With reference to approaches in contemporary archaeology, object biographies and psychology, this article presents the application of a novel participatory (‘World Café’) methodology that aims both to understand how marine plastic pollution occurs and to demonstrate the value of the approach for encouraging behaviour change. As proof of concept, the authors present the preliminary results of fieldwork involving local people in the Galápagos archipelago to demonstrate the benefits of an archaeological approach in developing new frameworks to help mitigate this critical environmental threat.
We employ Pan-STARRS photometry, Gaia trigonometric parallaxes, modern stellar evolution and atmosphere models, and our Bayesian fitting approach to determine cooling and total ages for 159,238 white dwarfs. In many cases we are able to derive precise ages (better than 5%) for individual white dwarfs. These results are meant for broad use within the white dwarf and stellar astrophysics communities and we plan to make available on-line the posterior distributions for cooling age, total age, initial stellar mass, and other parameters.
An innovative and valuable resource for understanding women's roles in changing societies, this book brings together the history of Africa, the Atlantic and gender before the 20th century. It explores trade, slavery and migration in the context of the Euro-African encounter.
In recent decades the number of historical studies on African women has grown dramatically. Studies have revealed how colonialism has affected women's economic lives, household organisation, bodies and health. Attention has been paid to women's role in resistance to colonialism and liberation, education, and nation-building after independence. Scholars have also examined women's role in conflict and civil war. Yet despite the pioneering contribution of two early edited volumes, Women in Africa and Women and Slavery in Africa, much remains to be done regarding African women's history before the formal imposition of colonial rule in the late nineteenth century. Women's participation in agriculture and production, religious beliefs and practices, as well as in political and social institutions before the twentieth century has received little attention.
This book focuses upon the coastal regions of West and West Central Africa between the late seventeenth and late nineteenth centuries. In this period the region constituted what Mary Louis Pratt has termed a ‘contact zone’ – an intercultural space in which, as Wyatt MacGaffey has shown, communication between Africans and non-Africans was characterised by a ‘working misunderstanding’ and by ‘dialogues of the deaf ’. This applied to gender as much as to other dimensions of social life. Building upon earlier research, we here analyse how women in Africa used the opportunities offered by the Atlantic commerce and relationships with European men to negotiate their social and economic positions. Interactions between African women and European men led to the emergence of a ‘mixed’ population, that tended to be socially identified as different, and labelled as mulatto or métis, terms that acquired pejorative connotations over time and are explored in subsequent chapters.
Four developments of primarily external origin – the emergence of the transatlantic slave trade, its gradual abolition, the expansion of what contemporaries called legitimate commerce and finally the partition of African societies among European powers – each in its turn provoked major turmoil. This book explores how African women experienced these changes, how gender roles were thereby socially constructed and transformed, the constraints that were imposed on women and the strategies they employed to overcome them.
Most towns on Africa's Atlantic coast had a sizeable majority of women. In Cacheu on the Upper Guinea Coast, for example, there lived 514 women and 386 men in 1731. In nearby Ziguinchor there were 602 women and 475 men, while 775 women and 345 men lived in Geba.