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Rough sleeping is a chronic experience faced by some of the most disadvantaged people in modern society. This paper describes work carried out in partnership with Homeless Link (HL), a UK-based charity, in developing a data-driven approach to better connect people sleeping rough on the streets with outreach service providers. HL's platform has grown exponentially in recent years, leading to thousands of alerts per day during extreme weather events; this overwhelms the volunteer-based system they currently rely upon for the processing of alerts. In order to solve this problem, we propose a human-centered machine learning system to augment the volunteers' efforts by prioritizing alerts based on the likelihood of making a successful connection with a rough sleeper. This addresses capacity and resource limitations whilst allowing HL to quickly, effectively, and equitably process all of the alerts that they receive. Initial evaluation using historical data shows that our approach increases the rate at which rough sleepers are found following a referral by at least 15% based on labeled data, implying a greater overall increase when the alerts with unknown outcomes are considered, and suggesting the benefit in a trial taking place over a longer period to assess the models in practice. The discussion and modeling process is done with careful considerations of ethics, transparency, and explainability due to the sensitive nature of the data involved and the vulnerability of the people that are affected.
The role of sociodemographic and economic characteristics in mental distress has been rarely investigated in Indonesia.
To investigate the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) and identify any associations between mental distress and sociodemographic and economic characteristics among communities living in urban and rural (peri-urban) areas.
A community-based household survey was conducted in the province of Aceh, Indonesia, in 2018. The 20-item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) screening tool was used to measure symptoms of CMD. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, family functioning, labour market outcomes and healthcare costs was collected. Multivariate regressions were conducted to analyse the relationships between the measures of mental distress and sociodemographic and economic characteristics.
We found that 14% of the respondents had CMD symptoms. SRQ-20 scores were higher for female, older and lower-educated individuals. CMD prevalence was higher among non-married participants and clustered within families. Participants with CMD perceive their families as performing significantly better in the dimensions of affective involvement and behaviour control compared with their counterparts. Their work was more often affected by negative feelings; they were also twice as likely to report a recent physical or mental health complaint and faced twice the treatment costs compared with their non-affected counterparts.
The prevalence of mental disorders is especially high in disadvantaged population groups. Moreover, mental distress is associated with a lower perceived productivity and a higher physical health burden.
Since the discovery of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene (TPH2) several studies reported association of TPH2 genetic variation with bipolar I disorder (BPI). Our objectives were to replicate in the Romanian population the recently described association of a rare functional SNP (rs17110563) and of a haplotype covering the 5′ region of TPH2 with BPI (Cichon et al., 2008) and to investigate the influence of the phenotypic traits age-of-onset, family history and parent-of-origin”, defined according to clinical criteria, on the degree of association between TPH2 and BPI.
Sixteen TPH2 SNPs were genotyped in a Romanian sample of 198 BPI patients and 180 controls screened for psychiatric disorders. Statistical analysis of the data was performed with Haploview3.32 and FAMHAP.
The functional SNP rs17110563 (encoding a Pro206Ser substitution) was present in Romanian BPI patients and absent in controls. SNPs located in the 5′-region (rs11178997, rs11178998, rs7954758), significantly associated with BPI in German patients were not associated with BPI in Romanian patients at single-marker level, but gave evidence for association at haplotypic level in a subgroup of patients with paternal transmission of BPI. Evidence for association was identified between haplotypes located in the 3′-region of TPH2 and BPI in the overall sample as well as in the subgroups of familial cases, the subgroup with paternal transmission, and the subgroup with AO≤25 years.
Our data provide support for the involvement of TPH2 in the etiology of BPI.
Weeds can cause significant yield loss in watermelon production systems. Commercially acceptable weed control is difficult to achieve, even with heavy reliance on herbicides. A study was conducted to evaluate a spring-seeded cereal rye cover crop with different herbicide application timings for weed management between row middles in watermelon production systems. Common lambsquarters and pigweed species (namely, Palmer amaranth and smooth pigweed) densities and biomasses were often lower with cereal rye compared with no cereal rye, regardless of herbicide treatment. The presence of cereal rye did not negatively influence the number of marketable watermelon fruit, but average marketable fruit weight in cereal rye versus no cereal rye treatments varied by location. These results demonstrate that a spring-seeded cereal rye cover crop can help reduce weed density and weed biomass, and potentially enhance overall weed control. Cereal rye alone did not provide full-season weed control, so additional research is needed to determine the best methods to integrate spring cover cropping with other weed management tactics in watermelon for effective, full-season control.
Commercial mushroom producers grow several varieties of mushrooms on compost. Upon completion of the growing cycle, the spent mushroom compost is often sold as a soil amendment for both agricultural and homeowner use. Mushroom compost ingredients often come from fields infested with weeds, and in turn compost may spread unwanted weed seed. We conducted studies to assess the viability of weed seed following specific stages of the commercial mushroom production process. Weed seed was more likely to survive if the entire production process was not completed. However, no viable hairy vetch, Italian ryegrass, ivyleaf morningglory, Palmer amaranth, or velvetleaf remained at the end of the study. Although the seeds of most species were eliminated earlier in the composting process, ivyleaf morningglory required the complete process to eliminate 100% of the seed. These results indicate that spent mushroom compost is free of many weed species upon removal from mushroom houses and is unlikely to spread weed seed.
Grape hyacinth is a perennial bulbous species in the Liliaceae. It is commonly grown as an ornamental plant, but it can spread into agricultural fields and become weedy, potentially interfering with harvest and fall-planted crops. There has been limited research on controlling grape hyacinth in cropping systems. Fall and spring applied field-research studies were conducted to determine grape hyacinth control with herbicides labeled for use in wheat or winter fallow before planting soybean. Among fall-applied herbicides, paraquat resulted in the greatest initial grape hyacinth control (90% to 100%). Grape hyacinth control, 16 months after application (MAA), was variable, but the top-performing treatments were glyphosate and metsulfuron plus paraquat, resulting in 65% and 50% control, respectively. After spring applications, grape hyacinth control in November (7 MAA) was variable, but top-performing treatments were glyphosate and metsulfuron, which resulted in at least 26% control. Spring-applied paraquat, carfentrazone, metsulfuron, and sulfosulfuron resulted in 73%, 68%, 69%, and 60% reductions in grape hyacinth bulb counts, compared with the nontreated control 7 MAA, and were the top-performing treatments. Despite product-label prohibitions on rotation to soybeans, no soybean yield reductions were observed from any treatment in either study. Single applications of certain herbicides in the fall or spring can result in good control (>80%) of grape hyacinth initially, but long-term control is poor, and additional research is required.
Timely herbicide applications for no-till soybean can be challenging given the diverse communities of both winter and summer annual weeds that are often present. Research was conducted to compare various approaches for nonselective and preplant weed control for no-till soybean. Nonselective herbicide application timings of fall (with and without a residual herbicide) followed by early-spring (4 wk before planting), late-spring (1 to 2 wk before planting), or sequential-spring applications (4 wk before planting and at planting) were compared. Spring applications also included a residual herbicide. For consistent control of winter annual weeds, two herbicide applications were needed, either a fall application followed by a spring application or sequential-spring applications. When a fall herbicide application did not include a residual herbicide, greater winter annual weed control resulted from early- or sequential-spring treatments. However, application timings that effectively controlled winter annual weeds did not effectively control summer annual weeds that have a prolonged emergence period. Palmer amaranth and large crabgrass control at 4 wk after planting was better when the spring residual treatment (chlorimuron plus metribuzin) was applied 1 to 2 wk before planting or at planting, compared with 4 wk before planting. Results indicate that in order to optimize control, herbicide application programs in soybean should coincide with seasonal growth cycles of winter and summer annual weeds.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer typically have poor outcomes, with a median survival of ~16 months. Novel methods to improve local control are needed. Nab-paclitaxel (abraxane) has shown efficacy in pancreatic cancer and is FDA approved for metastatic disease in combination with gemcitabine. Nab-paclitaxel is also a promising radiosensitizer based on laboratory studies, but it has never been clinically tested with definitive radiotherapy for locally advanced disease. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We performed a phase 1 study using a 3+3 dose-escalation strategy to determine the safety and tolerability of dose escalated nab-paclitaxel with fractionated radiotherapy for patients with unresectable or borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. Following induction chemotherapy with 2 cycles of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine, patients were treated with weekly nab-paclitaxel and daily radiotherapy to a dose of 52.5 Gy in 25 fractions. Final dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) determination was performed at day 65 after the start of radiotherapy. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Nine patients received nab-paclitaxel at a dose level of either 100 mg/m2 (n=3) or 125 mg/m2 (n=6). One DLT (grade 3 neuropathy) was observed in a patient who received 125 mg/m2 of nab-paclitaxel. Other grade 3 toxicities included fatigue (11%), anemia (11%), and neutropenia (11%). No grade 4 toxicities were observed. With a median follow-up of 8 months (range 5–28 months), median survival was 19 months and median progression-free survival was 10 months. Following chemoradiation, 3 patients underwent surgical resection, all with negative margins and limited tumor viability. Of the 3 patients, 2 initially had borderline resectable tumors and 1 had an unresectable tumor. Tumor (SMAD-4, Caveolin-1) and peripheral (circulating tumor cells and microvesicles) biomarkers were collected and are being analyzed. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The combination of fractionated radiation and weekly nab-paclitaxel was safe and well tolerated. This regimen represents a potentially promising therapy for patients with unresectable and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer and warrants further investigation.
Crop safety is an important consideration in determining PRE herbicide application, especially when multiple herbicide sites-of-action are used. This research examined relative corn injury as the result of PRE applications containing ALS- and/or HPPD-inhibiting herbicides to a sandy loam soil. Herbicide premixes containing clopyralid, flumetsulam, isoxaflutole, mesotrione, rimsulfuron, tembotrione, thifensulfuron, and thiencarbazone were applied at twice the labeled rate. In general, isoxaflutole alone was the safest herbicide evaluated, while PRE applications of rimsulfuron-containing herbicides caused the most corn stunting, had a lower recovery rate, and lower yields. However, POST applications of mesotrione plus rimsulfuron stunted corn less than 2%. Although there was little correlation between corn injury and yield, growers should be aware of the other factors, such as soil texture and environment that may impact crop production.
From the galaxy power spectrum in redshift space, we derive semi-analytical results on the generic degeneracy of galaxy clustering measurements. Defining the observables A = Gbσ8 and R = Gfσ8, (being G the growth function, b the bias, f the growth rate, and σ8 the amplitude of the power spectrum), we perform a Fisher matrix formalism to forecast the expected precision of these quantities for a Euclid-like survey. Among the results we found that galaxy surveys have generically a slightly negative correlation between A and R, and they can always measure R about 3.7 to 4.7 times better than A.
Men sleep shorter and go to bed and get up later than women, thus they are later
chronotypes. This difference between the sexes is most pronounced between
puberty and menopause indicating the possibility that morningness is subject to
sexual dimorphism related to reproductive aspects. The objective of the study
was to compare the sleep-wake behavior of women with their actual partners and
with their preferred partners. As a hypothesis, we expect some assortment in
mating concerning chronotype (with the actual partner), but we also expect a
higher synchronization with a preferred ideal partner. 167 women were analyzed
in this study (mean age: 23.0 ± 2.57 (SD) years).
Mated women were earlier chronotypes than their partners (t
= –2.051, p = .042,
d = .34) but the difference was small (11:02 min
± 1:04 min). The results of the present study showed women preferring
a partner synchronized to their own sleep-wake-rhythm more than their actual
partners were. The above result was true either for single facets of the
sleep-wake rhythm (e.g. bed time, sleep onset) or for midpoint of sleep on free
days – an indicator of actual chronotype: women’s and
their partners’ correlation of midpoint of sleep was lower
(r = .513) than women’s and their ideal
partners’ correlation (r = .855). Amongst
various sleep-wake measures, women particularly preferred a partner going to bed
at the same time. Assortative mating according to sleep-wake rhythm exists, but
women for long-term pair-bonds would like their partners far more
We study the arrest of three-dimensional flow of wet granular matter subject to a sinusoidal external force and a gravitational field confining the flow in the vertical direction. The minimal strength of the external force that is required to keep the system in motion, i.e. the critical force, is determined by considering the balance of injected and dissipated power. This provides a prediction whose quality is demonstrated by a data collapse for an extensive set of event-driven molecular-dynamics simulations where we varied the system size, particle number, the energy dissipated upon rupturing capillary bridges, and the bridge length at which rupture occurs. The same approach also works for systems that are kept at a fixed density by confining walls. In both cases, this universal method provides the critical force irrespective of the flow profile, and without specifying the hydrodynamic equations.